Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Brown County, Texas
Brown County is a county in west-central Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,106, its county seat is Brownwood. The county was founded in 1856 and organized in 1858, it is named for Henry Stevenson Brown, a commander at the Battle of Velasco, an early conflict between Texians and Mexicans. The Brownwood, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Brown County. Indigenous peoples lived here for thousands of years; the historic inhabitants were the Penteka who occupied this area at the time of European colonization. In 1721 the Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo expedition is said to have passed through the county. In 1838 land surveys are made of the area. In 1856 Welcome W. Chandler from Mississippi became the first settler, arriving with his family, John H. Fowler, seven slaves, they built a log cabin on Pecan Bayou. The county was formed from Travis counties, it is named after an American pioneer from Kentucky. In 1858 the county was formally organized. Brownwood was designated as the county seat.
1874 John Wesley Hardin and gang celebrated his 21st birthday in Comanche counties. Deputy Charles Webb draws his gun. A lynch mob is formed; the mob hangs his brother Joe and two cousins. Hardin flees. 1875 The Fort Worth-Brownwood stage is robbed five times in two months. 1879 Oil is discovered on the H. M. Barnes farm near Grosvenor. 1886 Texas Rangers kill two fence cutters in the ongoing battle between farmers and ranchers over fencing open range. 1890 Cotton becomes the county's important crop. Katherine Ann Porter is born at Indian Creek, she became an author and won the Pulitzer Prize. 1889 Howard Payne College and Daniel Baker College are established in Brownwood. 1892 The Fort Worth and Rio Grande Railway is built to the county. 1895 The Gulf and Santa Fe Railway built into Brownwood. 1903 The Gulf and Santa Fe line extends the line to Menard. The county votes itself a dry county. Alcohol would not become legal again until the 1950s. 1909 The boll weevil moves into the county. 1917 First commercial production of oil comes from the efforts of Jack Pippen at Brownwood.
1919 The first large field begins producing from a depth of 1,100 feet in 1919 near Cross Cut. 1926 An oil boom follows the success of the White well on Jim Ned Creek. 1938 Lake Brownwood State Park opens to the public. 1940 Work begins on Camp Bowie. 1943 The first German prisoners of war arrive. 1953 Howard Payne College and Daniel Baker College combine under the name Howard Payne College. By 1991 more than 50,561,000 barrels of oil had been taken from Brown County lands since 1917. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 957 square miles, of which 944 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 183 U. S. Highway 377 State Highway 279 Farm to Market Road 45 Eastland County Comanche County Mills County San Saba County McCulloch County Coleman County Callahan County As of the census of 2000, 37,674 people, 14,306 households, 10,014 families resided in the county; the population density was 40 people per square mile. There were 17,889 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 87.35% White, 4.01% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 6.07% from other races, 1.66% from two or more races. About 15.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 14,306 households in the county, 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.90% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.00% were not families. About 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was distributed as 25.80% under the age of 18, 10.10% from 18 to 24, 24.70% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100, there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,974, for a family was $37,725.
Males had a median income of $30,169 versus $19,647 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,624. About 14.00% of families and 17.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 12.10% of those age 65 or over. The Brownwood Bulletin is the local daily newspaper, an American Consolidated Media company that serves media online through its website. Brown County is part of the Abilene/Sweetwater/Brownwood television media market. Area television stations include KRBC-TV, KTXS-TV, KXVA, KTAB-TV, KIDU-LD. Area radio stations include News/Talk 102.3 KXYL, which simulcasts on KXYL 1240 AM, Hot A/C "The Breeze" KQBZ 96.9, Country KOXE 101.3, Christian KPSM 99.3, KBUB 90.3, Oldies KBWD 1380 AM. Blue Sky Entertainment manages KBNX - 97.9/103.9 SUNNY FM, KXXU - 104.3 KISS FM, KQMJ - 104.7 LA LEY, KSZX - 105.5 - THE BULL Bangs Brownwood Early Blanket Lake Brownwood Thunderbird Bay
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Comanche County, Texas
Comanche County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in Central Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 13,974; the county seat is Comanche. The county is named for the Comanche Native American tribe. Among the first inhabitants of present-day Comanche County were the Comanche Indian tribe. In 1854, Jesse M. Mercer and others organized a colony near the future settlement of Newburg. in Comanche County on lands earlier granted by Mexico to Stephen F. Austin and Samuel May Williams. Frank M. Collier built the first log house in the county. In 1856, the Texas legislature formed Comanche County from Bosque counties. Cora community, named after Cora Beeman of Bell County, was designated as the county seat. Comanche became the county seat in 1859; as of 1860, the county population was 709 persons, including 61 slaves. The Comanche Chief began publication in 1873. Editor Joe Hill's brother, Robert T. Hill, worked on the newspaper while developing his esteemed career as a geologist. In 1874, John Wesley Hardin and his gang celebrated his 21st birthday in Brown and Comanche counties.
Deputy Charles Webb drew his gun. A lynch mob was formed; the mob hanged his brother Joe and two cousins. Hardin fled, he was arrested in 1877 by Texas Rangers and a local authority on a train in Pensacola, while traveling under the alias James W. Swain, he was tried in Comanche for the murder of Deputy Sheriff Charles Webb, sentenced to 25 years in Huntsville Prison. Known for its fertile soil, Comanche County was a hotbed of political populism in the latter years of the 19th century. In 1886, white residents drove African Americans out of the county with death threats and adopted a sundown town policy that prohibited African Americans from entering the county after dark; the Texas Central Railroad began service in Comanche County in 1885 and began carrying cattle and cotton to market. By 1890, cotton had become king in the county, but by the start of the 20th century, the boll weevil had devastated the county cotton industry for three decades. In 1907, farmers in the county began to experiment with peanut farming.
Oil was discovered at Desdemona in 1910. The peak year for the Comanche County oil boom was 1920. In the early 20th century, the Comanche region raised hogs, peanuts, watermelons and engaged in dairying. More than 70,000 fruit trees were grown in the county; the area receives twenty inches of precipitation per year, but in the Dust Bowl of the Great Depression, drought conditions persisted. Farm products lost some 75 percent of their value during the depression, which the area state representative, Oscar Callaway, blamed on the Federal Reserve System. Nearly 200 county families were on public relief, area churches formed a private community chest for charity; some sought employment as day laborers. Rabbits raided the peanut crop. Home canning saved many from total ruin; the county sought federal loans for water resources, civic buildings, parks. At the time, none of the public schools in Comanche County had a gymnasium. Ben Barnes, a lobbyist, reared in Comanche County and the former Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives and lieutenant governor, recalled how the Rural Electrification Administration in particular eased the plight of county residents.
Despite the hardships, in 1934 all downtown buildings in the county seat were in use, a few additional businesses opened as the depression continued. Like much of the rest of the nation, Comanche County persevered through the hard times. In 1951–1952, a desperate, drought-stricken county experimented with rain making. Proctor Lake was impounded in 1963 to provide drinking water. From 1968 to 1974, Comanche County native Jim Reese served as the mayor of Texas, he launched unsuccessful congressional campaigns in the 1976 general election against the Democrat George H. Mahon and in the 1978 Republican primary against George W. Bush. During the 1970s, the oil industrialist Bill Noël of Odessa purchased orchards in Comanche County; as of 1982, Comanche produced more than 45,546,000 pounds of ranking second in Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 948 square miles, of which 938 square miles is land and 9.9 square miles is water. The county is located some sixty miles north of the geographic center of Texas.
The county is home to Proctor Lake. Erath County Hamilton County Mills County Brown County Eastland County As of the census of 2000, there were 14,026 people, 5,522 households, 3,926 families residing in the county; the population density was 15 people per square mile. There were 7,105 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.30% White, 0.44% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 9.70% from other races, 1.82% from two or more races. About 21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,522 households, of which 29.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.90% were not families. About 26% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 23.30% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 20.30% who
Central Texas is a region in the U. S. state of Texas surrounding Austin and bordered by Brady to Brenham to Seguin to Waco. Central Texas contains the Texas Hill Country and corresponds to a physiographic section designation within the Edwards Plateau, in a geographic context. Central Texas includes the Austin–Round Rock, Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, Bryan–College Station, Waco metropolitan areas; the Austin–Round Rock and Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood areas are among the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the state. Some of the largest cities in the region are Austin, College Station, Round Rock, Waco; the United States Army's Fort Hood, a large military installation, is located in this region. The counties that are always included in the Central Texas region are: Counties that are sometimes included in the Central Texas region are: List of geographical regions in Texas Texas Hill Country Edwards Plateau Llano Estacado Barkley, Mary Starr. A History of Central Texas. Austin, Texas: Austin Printing.
Fredericksburg, Texas Chamber of Commerce "Celebrate Diversity in Central Texas." Austin American-Statesman