The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union. Together with the Council of the European Union and the European Commission, the Parliament is composed of 751 members, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been elected every five years by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42. 54% of all European voters. The Parliament is the first institution of the EU, and shares equal legislative and it likewise has equal control over the EU budget. Finally, the European Commission, the body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, and it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017 and he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European Peoples Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats.
The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections, the European Parliament has three places of work – Brussels, the city of Luxembourg and Strasbourg. Luxembourg is home to the administrative offices, meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Strasbourg and in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels, the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952. One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and it was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers. Its development since its foundation shows how the European Unions structures have evolved without a master plan. Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union, nobody would have designed a government as complex. Even the Parliaments two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements, the body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration.
It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europes Assembly to perform the task, a separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy. The wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term representatives of the people. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the treaty to establish a European Political Community
Saint Patrick was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland. Known as the Apostle of Ireland, he is the patron saint of Ireland, along with saints Brigit of Kildare. He is venerated in the Anglican Communion, the Old Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church as equal-to-the-apostles and Enlightener of Ireland. The dates of Patricks life cannot be fixed with certainty but there is agreement that he was active as a missionary in Ireland during the second half of the 5th century. He has been generally so regarded ever since, despite evidence of some earlier Christian presence in Ireland, after becoming a cleric, he returned to northern and western Ireland. In life, he served as a bishop, but little is known about the places where he worked, by the seventh century, he had already come to be revered as the patron saint of Ireland. Saint Patricks Day is observed on 17 March, the date of his death. It is celebrated inside and outside Ireland as a religious and cultural holiday, in the dioceses of Ireland, it is both a solemnity and a holy day of obligation, it is a celebration of Ireland itself.
Two Latin works survive which are accepted as having been written by St. Patrick. These are the Declaration and the Letter to the soldiers of Coroticus, the Declaration is the more biographical of the two. In it, Patrick gives an account of his life. Most available details of his life are from subsequent hagiographies and annals, the only name that Patrick uses for himself in his own writings is Pātricius, which gives Old Irish Pátraic and Modern Irish Pádraig, English Patrick and Welsh Padrig. Hagiography records other names he is said to have borne, Magonus appears in the ninth century Historia Brittonum as Maun, descending from British *Magunos, meaning servant-lad. Succetus, which appears in Muirchú moccu Machthenis seventh century Life as Sochet, is identified by Mac Neill as a word of British origin meaning swineherd. The dates of Patricks life are uncertain, there are conflicting regarding the year of his death. His own writings provide no evidence for any dating more precise than the 5th century generally, the Letter to Coroticus implies that the Franks were still pagans at the time of writing, their conversion to Christianity is dated to the period 496–508.
The Irish annals for the century date Patricks arrival in Ireland at 432. The date 432 was probably chosen to minimise the contribution of Palladius, who was known to have sent to Ireland in 431
Brittany is a cultural region in the north-west of France. Brittany has referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain. It is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and its land area is 34,023 km². Since reorganisation in 1956, the administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments. The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, at the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71% lived in the region of Brittany, while 29% lived in the Loire-Atlantique department, in 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes and Brest. Brittany is the homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic, the word Brittany, along with its French and Gallo equivalents Bretagne and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means Britons land.
This word had been used by the Romans since the 1st century to refer to Great Britain and this word derives from a Greek word, Πρεττανικη or Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC. This term probably comes from a Gallic word, which close to the sea. Another name, was used until the 12th century and it possibly means wide and flat or to expand and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany, Llydaw. Later, authors like Geoffrey of Monmouth used the terms Britannia minor, breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin. Breton can be divided into two dialects, the KLT and the dialect of Vannes. KLT speakers pronounce it and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it, the official spelling is a compromise between both variants, with a z and an h together. In 1941, efforts to unify the dialects led to the creation of the so-called Breton zh, on its side, Gallo language has never had a widely accepted writing system and several ones coexist.
For instance, the name of the region in that language can be written Bertaèyn in ELG script, or Bertègn in MOGA, Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic. This population was scarce and very similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe and their only original feature was a distinct culture, called Colombanian. One of the oldest hearths in the world has found in Plouhinec
County Cork is the largest and southernmost county of Ireland. It lies in the province of Munster and is named after the city of Cork, Cork County Council is the local authority for the county. Its largest settlements are Cork City and Carrigaline, in 2016, the countys population was 542,196, making it the third most populous county in Ireland. There are two local authorities whose remit collectively encompasses the area of the county and city of Cork. The county, excluding Cork city, is administered by Cork County Council, both city and county are part of the South-West Region. For standardized European statistical purposes both Cork County Council and Cork City Council rank equally as first-level local administrative units of the NUTS3 South-West Region, there are 34 such LAU1 entities in the Republic of Ireland. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is divided into five constituencies—Cork East, Cork North–Central, Cork North–West, Cork South–Central, together they return 19 deputies to the Dáil.
The county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections, for purposes other than local government, such as the formation of sporting teams, the term County Cork is often taken to include both city and county. County Cork is located in the province of Munster and it borders four other counties, Kerry to the west, Limerick to the north, Tipperary to the north-east and Waterford to the east. Cork is the largest county in the state by land area and it is the largest of Munsters 6 counties by both population and area. The population of Cork city stood at 125,622 in 2016, the population of the entire county is 542,196 making it the states second most populous county and the third most populous county on the island of Ireland. The remit of Cork County Council includes some suburbs of the city not within the area of Cork City Council, there are 24 historic baronies in the county—the most of any county in Ireland. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for administrative purposes.
Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, there are 253 civil parishes in the county. Townlands are the smallest officially defined geographical divisions in Ireland, there are approximately 5447 townlands in the county, the Shehy Mountains are on the border with Kerry and may be accessed from the area known as Priests Leap, near the village of Coomhola. The Galtee Mountains are located across parts of Tipperary, the upland areas of the Ballyhoura, Boggeragh and the Mullaghareirk Mountain ranges add to the range of habitats found in the county. Important habitats in the uplands include blanket bog, glacial lakes, Cork has the 13th highest county peak in Ireland. The three great rivers, the Bandon, the Blackwater and the Lee, and their valleys dominate central Cork, habitats of the valleys and floodplains include woodlands, marshes and species-rich limestone grasslands
Hurling, is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The game has prehistoric origins, and has played for 3,000 years. One of Irelands native Gaelic games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, the number of players, there is a similar game for women called camogie. It shares a common Gaelic root with the sport of shinty, the sliotar can be caught in the hand and carried for not more than four steps, struck in the air, or struck on the ground with the hurley. It can be kicked, or slapped with a hand for short-range passing. A player who wants to carry the ball for more than four steps has to bounce or balance the sliotar on the end of the stick, no protective padding is worn by players. A plastic protective helmet with a faceguard is mandatory for all age groups, including senior level, the game has been described as a bastion of humility, with player names absent from jerseys and a players number decided by his position on the field.
Hurling is played throughout the world, and is popular among members of the Irish diaspora in North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Argentina, in many parts of Ireland, hurling is a fixture of life. It has featured regularly in art such as film, music. A team comprises 15 players, or hurlers, the hurley is generally 24 to 36 inches in length. The ball, known as a sliotar, has a cork centre, the goalkeepers hurley usually has a bas twice the size of other players hurleys to provide some advantage against the fast moving sliotar. A good strike with a hurley can propel the ball over 150 km/h in speed and 110 metres in distance, a ball hit over the bar is worth one point. A ball that is hit under the bar is called a goal and is three points. As of 2010, all players must wear a helmet, a hurling pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. The grass pitch is rectangular, stretching 130–145 metres long and 80–90 m wide. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are usually 6–7 metres high, set 6.5 m apart, a net extending behind the goal is attached to the crossbar and lower goal posts.
The same pitch is used for Gaelic football, the GAA, lines are marked at distances of 14 yards,21 yards and 65 yards from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams, teams consist of fifteen players, a goalkeeper, three full backs, three half backs, two midfielders, three half forwards and three full forwards
Killarney is a town in County Kerry, southwestern Ireland. Its natural heritage and location on the Ring of Kerry make Killarney a popular tourist destination, Killarney won the Best Kept Town award in 2007, in a cross-border competition jointly organised by the Department of the Environment and the Northern Ireland Amenity Council. In 2011, it was named Irelands tidiest town and the cleanest town in the country by Irish Business Against Litter, Killarney has featured prominently in early Irish history, with religious settlements playing an important part of its recorded history. Its first significantly historical settlement was the monastery on nearby Innisfallen Island founded in 640 by St. Finian the Leper, Innisfallen or Inishfallen is an island in Lough Leane, one of the three Lakes of Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland. It is home to the ruins of Innisfallen Abbey, one of the most impressive archaeological remains dating from the early Christian period found in the Killarney National Park, the monastery was founded in 640 by St.
Finian the Leper, and was occupied for approximately 850 years. Over a period of about 300 of these, the monks wrote the Annals of Innisfallen, the monks were dispossessed of the abbey on 18 August 1594, by Elizabeth I. The location of the monastery on the island is thought to have given rise to the name Lough Leane, according to tradition the Irish High King Brian Boru received his education at Innisfallen under Maelsuthain OCarroll. Maelsuthain has been credited as the originator of the Annals. It is possible for tourists to visit the island during the summer months, the local townland which overlooks present day Killarney, may have begun as a pagan religious site. The site has associated with the 5th century missionary St. Abban. According to legend, St. Finian founded a monastery at Aghadoe in the 6th or 7th century, the first written record of a monastery dates from 939 AD in the Annals of Innisfallen where the Aghadoe monastery is referred to as the Old Abbey. Following the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, the Normans built Parkavonear Castle, the castle was perhaps intended as an early warning outpost due to its views of the entire Killarney valley and lakes region.
Ross Castle was built on the shore in the late 15th century by local ruling clan the ODonoghues Mor. Ownership of the castle changed hands during the Desmond Rebellions of the 1580s to the Mac Carty Mor, Muckross Abbey was founded in 1448 as a Franciscan friary for the Observantine Franciscans by Donal McCarthy Mor. The abbey was burned down by Cromwellian forces under General Ludlow in 1654, Killarney was heavily involved in the Irish War of Independence. The town, and indeed the county, had strong republican ties. The Great Southern Hotel, was for a while taken over by the British, One notable event during the war was the Headford Ambush when the IRA attacked a railway train a few miles from town. A day after the Ballyseedy Massacre, five Republican prisoners were murdered in Killarney in retaliation, killarneys tourism history goes back at least to the mid 18th century, when Thomas, fourth Viscount Kenmare, began to attract visitors and new residents to the town
Local government in the Republic of Ireland
In Ireland, local government functions are mostly exercised by thirty-one local authorities, termed County, City or City and County Councils. The principal decision-making body in each of the local authorities is composed of the members of the council. Irish Local Authorities are the closest and most accessible form of Government to people in their local community, many of the authorities statutory functions are, the responsibility of ministerially appointed career officials termed Chief executives. The competencies of the city and county councils include planning, transport infrastructure, sanitary services, public safety, Local government in the state is governed by Local Government Acts, the most recent of which – the Local Government Act 2001 – established this two-tier structure. The Local Government Act 1898 is the document of the present system. The Twentieth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland provided for constitutional recognition of local government for the first time in Ireland.
The Local Government Reform Act 2014 changed the structure, in line with reforms announced in October 2012 by the Minister for the Environment, Community. These included the abolition of all councils and the merger of some county councils. The reforms came into effect in 2014, to coincide with that years local elections, the county was a unit of judicial and administrative government introduced to Ireland following the Norman invasion. The country was shired in a number of phases with County Wicklow being the last to be shired in 1625, the traditional county of Tipperary was split into two judicial counties following the establishment of assize courts in 1838. Sixty years later, a radical reorganisation of local government took place with the passage of the Local Government Act. This Act established a county council for each of the thirty-three Irish counties, to this number may be added the county boroughs. The five county boroughs of Dublin, Galway, the remaining county boroughs in place at the foundation of the state were downgraded by the 2001 Act to town council status.
From 1 January 2002 the existing Urban District Councils and boards of Town Commissioners were renamed as Town Councils, the city of Kilkenny, along with the four towns of were reduced in status to the level of Town Council. In recognition of the history, the towns were permitted to use the title of Borough Council instead of Town Council. There were 75 other town councils in addition to these five borough councils, the distinction between urban district and towns with town commissioners had been abolished. At various times in the past, other entities at a level below that of the county or county borough have been employed in Ireland for various judicial and revenue collecting purposes. Some of these, such as the barony and Grand jury, such as the Poor Law Unions, have been transformed into entities still in use by the modern state, but again, their original functions have been substantially altered
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Tralee is the county town of County Kerry in the south-west of Ireland. The town is on the side of the neck of the Dingle Peninsula. The towns population including suburbs was 23,693 as of the 2011 census making it the 7th largest town, Tralee is well known for the Rose of Tralee International Festival which has been held annually in August since 1959. On this old track is located a large boulder sometimes called Scotias Grave, anglo-Normans founded the town in the 13th century, which became a stronghold of the Earls of Desmond, who built a castle. John Fitz-Thomas FitzGerald founded the monastery of the Dominican order and was buried there in 1260, the medieval town was burnt in 1580 in retribution for the Desmond Rebellions against Elizabeth I. Elizabeth I in 1587 granted Tralee to Edward Denny and it was recognised in 1613 by Royal Charter, Sir Edward was the first of the Dennys to settle in Tralee, the Dennys did not occupy the castle of the Earls of Desmond until 1627. Sir Edwards son was Arthur Denny, in whose lifetime the towns charter was granted by King James, the third English settler, another Sir Edward, married Ruth Roper, whose father Thomas Roper was the lease holder of the Herbert estate centred on Castleisland.
This Sir Edward was a royalist and he fought for the King in the wars of 1641. He died in 1646, before the triumph of Oliver Cromwell over affairs in England and Ireland and he granted the circuit of the Abbey to the corporation set up under the charter, in return for the fees of the town clerk. His son Arthur Denny married Ellen Barry, granddaughter of Richard Boyle, the latter held many land titles in West Kerry and claimed property in Tralee. Sir Edward Denny, 4th Baronet was a landlord in his day, during the time of the Great Famine, he maintained rents to suit his tenants. He was a notable Plymouth Brother, the modern layout of Tralee was created in the 19th century. Denny Street, a wide Georgian street, was completed in 1826 on the site of the old castle, a monument commemorating the 1798 rebellion plus the rebellions of 1803,1848 and 1867 – a statue of a Pikeman - stands in Denny Street. First unveiled in 1905, the original Pikeman stood until the Irish War of Independence, in 1921 the Black and Tans dragged it from its pedestal and destroyed it.
In June 1939 a replacement Pikeman was installed, created by renowned Dublin sculptor Albert Power, Tralee Courthouse was designed by Sir Richard Morrison and built in 1835. It has a monument of two cannons commemorating those Kerrymen who died in the Crimean War and the Indian Rebellion, ballymullen Barracks was the depot of the Royal Munster Fusiliers. The Tralee Ship Canal was built to accommodate larger ships sailing into Tralee, the House of Commons authorised an Act of Parliament in June 1829 for the canal, with work beginning in 1832. Issues with funding meant that the canal was not completed until 1846 when it was opened, the canal was 2 miles long with a new canal basin built in Tralee, and lock gates and a wooden swing bridge constructed in Blennerville
Muskerry West is one of the baronies of Ireland, a historical geographical unit of land. It is one of 24 baronies in the county of Cork and it may be viewed as a half barony because sometime before the 1821 census, it was divided from its other half – Muskerry East. Other neighbouring baronies include Duhallow to the north and the Barony of Carbery East to the south, baronies were created after the Norman invasion of Ireland as divisions of counties and were used the administration of justice and the raising of revenue. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they have been obsolete since 1898. However, they continue to be used in registration and in specification. In many cases, a barony corresponds to an earlier Gaelic túath which had submitted to the Crown, the Múscraige and Corcu Duibne descend form Corc, a son of Cairbre Musc. While the Múscraige petty kingdoms were scattered throughout the province of Munster, the tribes or septs were pre-Eóganachta, that is before the 6th century.
At this time, the territory did not extend south of the River Lee, a pedigree of the chieftains of the tribe may be found in the Book of Leinster. The main septs were, Rivalry between the houses of the outer circle of the Eóganacht would eventually undo the kingdom of Múscraige Mittaine. The ODonoghues, originally from Eóganacht Raithlind, moved in to become the new princes of Eóganacht Locha Léin and this forced the erstwhile rulers of Locha Léin - the OFlynns - to migrate eastwards. Sometime after 1096, Múscraighe Mittaine fell to the OFlynns, the local Ó Donnagáin dynasty persisted in their opposition to the usurpers, at least until 1115 when they killed the reigning OFlynn king of Muskerry. Thereafter, both dynasties were united in obscurity, from 1118 onwards, the kings of Desmond came from the leading family of Eóganacht Chaisil - the MacCarthy dynasty. The reigning king at the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland was Dermod Mór na Cill Baghain MacCarthy, in so doing, he hoped to secure the kings protection for his lands, particularly from Henrys own barons, as was the Gaelic way.
Instead, Henry granted of Dermods entire kingdom to two of his leading adventurer knights, Robert Fitz-Stephen and Milo de Cogan in 1177. According to Giraldus, the grantees took possession of seven cantrefs only, the remaining twenty four cantrefs they allowed to MacCarthy at rent. They proceeded thence to Cenn Eich, spent a week there, as neither Fitz-Stephen nor de Cogan left male heirs, the inheritance was confused. This suited the purposes of King John of England who, when he came to the throne, was determined to weaken the power of the Irish barons. He sequestered the kingdom of Desmond to the English crown and from 1200 to 1207 he proceeded to parcel out the land among his loyal subjects, richard de Cogan got Múscraige Mittaine which he was expected to win by the sword
South (European Parliament constituency)
South is a constituency of the European Parliament in Ireland. It elects 4 Members of the European Parliament using the single transferable vote form of proportional representation, the constituency was created in 2004 as a successor to the Munster constituency, with County Clare being moved to the North-West constituency. It comprised the counties of Cork, Limerick and Waterford, and the cities of Cork and Waterford. For the 2014 European Parliament election, the constituency was increased in size by the addition of counties Carlow, Kilkenny and Wicklow, and the number of seats was increased to 4. Note, The columns in this table are used only for presentational purposes, for details of the order in which seats were won at each election, see the detailed results of that election. European Parliament constituencies in the Republic of Ireland South MEPs – European Parliament Office in Ireland
Mallow, County Cork
Mallow is a town in County Cork, about thirty-five kilometres north of Cork. Mallow is in the barony of Fermoy and it is the administrative centre of north County Cork and has been nicknamed the Crossroads of Munster. The Northern Divisional Offices of Cork County Council are located in the town, the earliest form of the name is Magh nAla, meaning plain of the stone. In the anglicisation Mallow, -ow originally represented a reduced schwa sound, in 1975, Mala—a shortening of Magh nAla—was among the first Irish placenames adopted by statute, on the advice of the Placenames branch of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. In the Annals of the Four Masters, compiled in the 1630s, Magh nAla is misrepresented as Magh Eala, P. W. Joyce in 1869 surmised that in Magh Eala, Ealla referred to the river Blackwater, and connected the name to the nearby barony of Duhallow. Professor T. F. ORahilly in 1938 interpreted Magh Eala as plain of the swans and this false etymology remains widely cited and has caused resentment of the official Mala as being a gratuitous simplification of Magh Eala.
However, the name Mala has been used in Irish for more than 300 years, evidence of pre-historic settlement is found in Beenalaght, where an alignment of six standing stones lie on a hill to the west of the Mallow-Coachford Road. During the Irish War of Independence, the town was the HQ of the North Cork Militia – known as North Cork Rifles, the towns RIC barracks was the only one captured nationwide during the war. In retaliation, several main street premises were subsequently torched by the British Army, mrs King, wife of Captain W H King, RIC was killed during an attack on her husband near Mallow Railway station. In retaliation, British military and Black and Tans killed three railway workers-Patrick Devitt, Daniel Mullane and Bennett, the killings prompted industrial action by the National Railworkers Union in Britain and Ireland. Some of the highest naturally occurring readings of radon ever have been recorded in Mallow, the urban area has a population of 7,864 and with improved road and rail since the mid-1980s, has developed significant student and worker commuter traffic with Cork city.
Mallow developed as a defensive settlement protecting an important ford on the River Blackwater, Mallow developed in the late 16th century as a plantation town. It has prospered throughout the centuries as a town due to its rich agricultural hinterland. Irish states-men such as Thomas Davis and William OBrien were both born in Mallow in the 19th century, the main street in Mallow is called Davis Street, and joins with William OBrien Street outside Mallow Town Hall. At the point where Davis Street meets OBrien Street there is a monument to J. J, fitzgerald, a little-known local politician who was instrumental in establishing both Mallow Urban District Council and Cork County Council. Changes in the European Union sugar subsidy programme resulted in the closure of the Sugar Beet factory in mid-2006, one of the last sugar beet plants to be closed in Ireland. The development of Market Square in 2006 effectively relocated the town centre, Mallow is a stop on the Bus Éireann 51 bus service from Cork to Galway and 243 bus service from Cork to Newmarket service.
Mallow is served by the Citylink Galway-Cork Airport service, the Mallow railway viaduct which straddles the Blackwater, commonly known as the Ten Arch Bridge, was bombed and destroyed during the Irish Civil War