International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
For a musician, see Erik Friedlander. Eric Mark Friedlander is an American mathematician, working in algebraic topology, algebraic geometry, algebraic K-theory and representation theory. Friedlander graduated from Swarthmore College with bachelor's degree in 1965 and in 1970 received a Ph. D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, under the supervision of Michael Artin. He was a postdoctoral instructor at Princeton University: a lecturer in 1971 and assistant professor in 1972. From 1973 to 1974, he was, through the US exchange program, at France, in particular at the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques. In 1975, he became an associate professor and in 1980 a professor at Northwestern University, where he was a chairman of the mathematics department from 1987 to 1990 and from 1999 to 2003. In 1999, he became Henry S. Noyes Professor of mathematics; as of 2008, he is Dean's Professor at the University of Southern California. In 1981 and from 1985 to 1986, he was at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton.
He received the Humboldt Research Award, while at the University of Heidelberg, from 1996 to 1998. He was a visiting scholar and visiting professor at ETH Zurich, at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in Bonn, at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, in Oxford, Paris, at Brown University, the Hebrew University, at the Institut Henri Poincaré. Since 2000, he is on the Board of Trustees of the American Mathematical Society. Friedlander is a co-editor of the Journal of Applied Algebra. In 1998, he was an invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Berlin. In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society. Friedlander is married to Susan Friedlander. Among his students is David A. Cox. With Andrei Suslin, Voevodsky cycles and motivic mathematics from theories, Annals of mathematical studies, Princeton University Press 2000 With Barry Mazur, Filtration on the mathematics from of algebraic varieties, memoir of the AMS, 1994 Etale Homotopy of Simplicial Schemes, Annals of mathematical studies, Princeton University Press 1982 Editor with Daniel Grayson, Handbook of K-Theory, 2 volumes, Springer Verlag 2005 Editor with Spencer j.
Bloch, R. k. Dennis, M.: Applications of algebraic K-theory to algebraic geometry and number theory, contemporary mathematics 55, 1986 Editor with M. Stone, Algebraic K-theory, Springer Verlag, lecture notes in mathematics 854, 1981 Editor with Mark Mahowald and representation theory, contemporary mathematics, volume 158, American Mathematical Society, 1994 With Charles Weibel, An overview over algebraic K-theory, in Algebraic K-theory and its applications, World Scientific 1999, pp. 1–119 Homepage
Fabien Morel is a French algebraic geometer and key developer of A¹ homotopy theory with Vladimir Voevodsky. Among his accomplishments is the proof of the Friedlander conjecture, the proof of the complex case of the Milnor conjecture stated in Milnor's 1983 paper'On the homology of Lie groups made discrete'; this result was presented at the Second Abel Conference, held in January–February 2012. Morel, Fabien.
Aleksandr Sergeyevich Merkurjev is a Russian-American mathematician, who has made major contributions to the field of algebra. Merkurjev is a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles. Merkurjev's work focuses on algebraic groups, quadratic forms, Galois cohomology, algebraic K-theory and central simple algebras. In the early 1980s Merkurjev proved a fundamental result about the structure of central simple algebras of period dividing 2, which relates the 2-torsion of the Brauer group with Milnor K-theory. In subsequent work with Suslin this was extended to higher torsion as the Merkurjev–Suslin theorem; the full statement of the norm residue isomorphism theorem was proven by Voevodsky. In the late 1990s Merkurjev gave the most general approach to the notion of essential dimension, introduced by Buhler and Reichstein, made fundamental contributions to that field. In particular Merkurjev determined the essential p-dimension of central simple algebras of degree p 2 and, in joint work with Karpenko, the essential dimension of finite p-groups.
Merkurjev won the Young Mathematician Prize of the Petersburg Mathematical Society for his work on algebraic K-theory. In 1986 he was an invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Berkeley and his talk was entitled "Milnor K-theory and Galois cohomology". In 1995 he won an international prize awarded to renowned scholars. Merkurjev gave a plenary talk at the 2nd European Congress of Mathematics in Budapest, Hungary in 1996. In 2012 he won the Cole Prize in Algebra for his work on the essential dimension of groups. In 2015 a special volume of Documenta Mathematica was published in honor of Merkurjev's sixtieth birthday. Max-Albert Knus, Alexander Merkurjev, Markus Rost, Jean-Pierre Tignol: The book of involutions, American Mathematical Society 1998. ISBN 0-8218-0904-0 Skip Garibaldi, Jean-Pierre Serre, Alexander Merkurjev: Cohomological Invariants in Galois Cohomology, American Mathematical Society 2003. ISBN 0-8218-3287-5 Richard Elman, Nikita Karpenko, Alexander Merkurjev: Algebraic and geometric theory of quadratic forms, American Mathematical Society 2008.
ISBN 978-0-8218-4329-1 Alexander Merkurjev - personal webpage at UCLA Alexander Merkurjev at the Mathematics Genealogy Project "Alexander Merkurjev's results". International Mathematical Olympiad
Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure and change. Mathematicians use patterns to formulate new conjectures; when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back; the research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano, David Hilbert, others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are discovered later; the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The first abstraction, shared by many animals, was that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges have something in common, namely quantity of their members; as evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, years. Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, for astronomy.
The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry, it is in Babylonian mathematics that elementary arithmetic first appear in the archaeological record. The Babylonians possessed a place-value system, used a sexagesimal numeral system, still in use today for measuring angles and time. Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom and proof, his textbook Elements is considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. The greatest mathematician of antiquity is held to be Archimedes of Syracuse, he developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.
Other notable achievements of Greek mathematics are conic sections, trigonometry (Hipparchus of Nicaea, the beginnings of algebra. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics. Other notable developments of Indian mathematics include the modern definition of sine and cosine, an early form of infinite series. During the Golden Age of Islam during the 9th and 10th centuries, mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics; the most notable achievement of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra. Other notable achievements of the Islamic period are advances in spherical trigonometry and the addition of the decimal point to the Arabic numeral system. Many notable mathematicians from this period were Persian, such as Al-Khwarismi, Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī. During the early modern period, mathematics began to develop at an accelerating pace in Western Europe.
The development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century revolutionized mathematics. Leonhard Euler was the most notable mathematician of the 18th century, contributing numerous theorems and discoveries; the foremost mathematician of the 19th century was the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous contributions to fields such as algebra, differential geometry, matrix theory, number theory, statistics. In the early 20th century, Kurt Gödel transformed mathematics by publishing his incompleteness theorems, which show that any axiomatic system, consistent will contain unprovable propositions. Mathematics has since been extended, there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to
Inventiones Mathematicae is a mathematical journal published monthly by Springer Science+Business Media. It was established in 1966 and is regarded as one of the most prestigious mathematics journals in the world; as of 2016, the managing editors are Jean-Benoît Bost. The journal is abstracted and indexed in: Official website
A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1, not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because the only ways of writing it as a product, 1 × 5 or 5 × 1, involve 5 itself. However, 6 is composite because it is the product of two numbers that are both smaller than 6. Primes are central in number theory because of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every natural number greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be factorized as a product of primes, unique up to their order; the property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of checking the primality of a given number n, called trial division, tests whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and n. Faster algorithms include the Miller–Rabin primality test, fast but has a small chance of error, the AKS primality test, which always produces the correct answer in polynomial time but is too slow to be practical.
Fast methods are available for numbers of special forms, such as Mersenne numbers. As of December 2018 the largest known prime number has 24,862,048 decimal digits. There are infinitely many primes, as demonstrated by Euclid around 300 BC. No known simple formula separates prime numbers from composite numbers. However, the distribution of primes within the natural numbers in the large can be statistically modelled; the first result in that direction is the prime number theorem, proven at the end of the 19th century, which says that the probability of a randomly chosen number being prime is inversely proportional to its number of digits, that is, to its logarithm. Several historical questions regarding prime numbers are still unsolved; these include Goldbach's conjecture, that every integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes, the twin prime conjecture, that there are infinitely many pairs of primes having just one number between them. Such questions spurred the development of various branches of number theory, focusing on analytic or algebraic aspects of numbers.
Primes are used in several routines in information technology, such as public-key cryptography, which relies on the difficulty of factoring large numbers into their prime factors. In abstract algebra, objects that behave in a generalized way like prime numbers include prime elements and prime ideals. A natural number is called a prime number if it is greater than 1 and cannot be written as a product of two natural numbers that are both smaller than it; the numbers greater than 1 that are not prime are called composite numbers. In other words, n is prime if n items cannot be divided up into smaller equal-size groups of more than one item, or if it is not possible to arrange n dots into a rectangular grid, more than one dot wide and more than one dot high. For example, among the numbers 1 through 6, the numbers 2, 3, 5 are the prime numbers, as there are no other numbers that divide them evenly. 1 is not prime, as it is excluded in the definition. 4 = 2 × 2 and 6 = 2 × 3 are both composite. The divisors of a natural number n are the numbers.
Every natural number has both itself as a divisor. If it has any other divisor, it cannot be prime; this idea leads to a different but equivalent definition of the primes: they are the numbers with two positive divisors, 1 and the number itself. Yet another way to express the same thing is that a number n is prime if it is greater than one and if none of the numbers 2, 3, …, n − 1 divides n evenly; the first 25 prime numbers are: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97. No number n greater than 2 is prime because any such number can be expressed as the product 2 × n / 2. Therefore, every prime number other than 2 is an odd number, is called an odd prime; when written in the usual decimal system, all prime numbers larger than 5 end in 1, 3, 7, or 9. The numbers that end with other digits are all composite: decimal numbers that end in 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 are and decimal numbers that end in 0 or 5 are divisible by 5; the set of all primes is sometimes denoted by P or by P.
The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, from around 1550 BC, has Egyptian fraction expansions of different forms for prime and composite numbers. However, the earliest surviving records of the explicit study of prime numbers come from Ancient Greek mathematics. Euclid's Elements proves the infinitude of primes and the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, shows how to construct a perfect number from a Mersenne prime. Another Greek invention, the Sieve of Eratosthenes, is still used to construct lists of primes. Around 1000 AD, the Islamic mathematician Alhazen found Wilson's theorem, characterizing the prime numbers as the numbers n that evenly divide