Big Creek Greenway
The Big Creek Greenway is a multi-use trail with two completed sections along Big Creek in the state of Georgia, United States. The first section begins at Big Creek Park in Roswell, GA and runs 8 miles to Marconi Drive in Alpharetta. A second completed section of the trail begins in Forsyth County at McFarland Parkway and runs 9.6 miles. Once complete, the trail will be 12 feet wide and traverse the cities of Roswell and Cumming. Big Creek Park Barrington Farms Neighborhood Mansell Crossing North Point Parkway Rock Mill Park Haynes Bridge Road Old Milton Parkway Preston Ridge Marconi Drive In 2016 the City of Alpharetta partnered with Zagster, Inc to provide free bike share for Big Creek Greenway users. Bikes can be rented for up to 3 hrs free of charge. Stations are now located at 4 stops along the Big Creek GreenwayLocations: Big Creek Park North Point Parkway - Greenway Parking Lot Rock Mill Park Ed Isakson YMCA In December 2017, the Alpharetta City Council approved spending $407,425 to have its on-call engineering consultant design the Big Creek Greenway extension from the trail’s current terminus at Marconi Drive north to Union Hill Park on the Fulton-Forsyth county line.
The trail design is expected to be completed 9 to 12 months after the notice to proceed. The city of Milton is in the concept study phase of establishing a connection to the greenway. Cycling infrastructure 10-Minute Walk Smart growth Walkability Big Creek Greenway website Bike Roswell! Big Creek Greenway info page
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevation may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic datum –, used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and aircraft flight levels. A common and straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied over geological time scales; however 20th century and current millennium sea level rise is caused by global warming, careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change. The term above sea level refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a "mean sea level" is difficult to achieve because of the many factors that affect sea level. Instantaneous sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of space.
This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point and use it as a datum. For example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point. Still-water level or still-water sea level is the level of the sea with motions such as wind waves averaged out. MSL implies the SWL further averaged over a period of time such that changes due to, e.g. the tides have zero mean. Global MSL refers to a spatial average over the entire ocean. One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the mean sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the vertical datum was MSL at the Victoria Liverpool. Since the times of the Russian Empire, in Russia and other former its parts, now independent states, the sea level is measured from the zero level of Kronstadt Sea-Gauge.
In Hong Kong, "mPD" is a surveying term meaning "metres above Principal Datum" and refers to height of 1.230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and offers the longest collapsed data about the sea level, it is used for main part of Africa as official sea level. As for Spain, the reference to measure heights below or above sea level is placed in Alicante. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, which dates back to the 1690s. Satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite in 2008. Height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum, it is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to mean sea level, in the atmospheric sciences, land surveying.
An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, what systems such as GPS do. In aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is used to define heights; the alternative is to use a geoid-based vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, variations in elevation are shown by contour lines; the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, the elevation AMSL is negative. For one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. To extend this definition far from the sea means comparing the local height of the mean sea surface with a "level" reference surface, or geodetic datum, called the geoid. In a state of rest or absence of external forces, the mean sea level would coincide with this geoid surface, being an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravitational field.
In reality, due to currents, air pressure variations and salinity variations, etc. this does not occur, not as a long-term average. The location-dependent, but persistent in time, separation between mean sea level and the geoid is referred to as ocean surface topography, it varies globally in a range of ± 2 m. Adjustments were made to sea-level measurements to take into account the effects of the 235 lunar month Metonic cycle and the 223-month eclipse cycle on the tides. Several terms are used to describe the changing relationships between sea level and dry land; when the term "relative" is used, it means change relative to a fixed point in the sediment pile. The term "eustatic" refers to global changes in sea level relative to a fixed point, such as the centre of the earth, for example as a result of melting ice-caps; the term "steric" refers to global changes in sea level due to thermal expansion and salinity variations. The term "isostatic" refers to changes in
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution; the U. S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general; the Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation. It was elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, was transformed by the Postal Reorganization Act in 1970 into the USPS as an independent agency; the USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world; the USPS is obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.
S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx. Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail. Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to prefund employee retirement health benefits, revenue dropped due to recession-influenced declining mail volume, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit. In the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service.
These early attempts were of small scale and involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, setting up a location in Boston where one could post a letter back home to England. Other attempts focused on a dedicated postal service between two of the larger colonies, such as Massachusetts and Virginia, but the available services remained limited in scope and disjointed for many years. For example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service. On February 17, 1691, a grant of letters patent from the joint sovereigns, William III and Mary II, empowered him: to erect and establish within the chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, to receive and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.
The patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later. Neale appointed Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster; the first postal service in America commenced in February 1692. Rates of postage were fixed and authorized, measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed postal laws, a imperfect post office system was established. Neale's patent expired in 1710; the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies. Most of the mail went forth to counting houses and government offices in London; the revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the information hub of the new nation. News, new laws, political intelligence, military orders circulated with a new urgency, a postal system was necessary.
Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at low cost, to exchange news from newspapers between the thirteen states. Overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774–1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, created a new postal system; the United States Post Office was created on July 26, 1775, by decree of the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin headed it briefly. Before the Revolution, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post; the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress "To establish post offices and post roads"; the 1792 law provided for a expanded postal network, served editors by charging newspapers an low rate.
The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, provided the entire country with low-cost access to information on public affairs, while establishing a right to personal privacy. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St. Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger. Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west o
Orders of magnitude (area)
This page is a progressive and labelled list of the SI area orders of magnitude, with certain examples appended to some list objects. Orders of magnitude
Centered today at the crossroads of Georgia Highways 140 and 372, Georgia, is one of the oldest parts of Fulton County, Georgia. Part of Cherokee County, Crabapple was part of the land contributed in 1857 to form Milton County, Georgia; the first permanent settlement at Crabapple was made in 1874, with the community taking its name from a crabapple tree near the original town site. As a result of the Great Depression, Milton County was absorbed into Fulton County in 1932; the historic heart of Crabapple is anchored by an historic brick building at the crossroads of Crabapple Road-Mayfield Road, Birmingham Road-Broadwell Road, Mid-Broadwell Road. In 2006, a portion of Crabapple was one of several communities incorporated into the new city of Milton. Crabapple hosts. Major League Baseball pitcher Nap Rucker was born in Crabapple, as was his nephew, MLB outfielder Johnny Rucker. State Route 140 State Route 372
Georgia State Route 140
State Route 140 is a 78.6-mile-long state highway in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. It connects the Armuchee and Norcross areas, within portions of Floyd, Cherokee, Gwinnett counties. SR 140 begins at an intersection with US 27/SR 1 near Armuchee, within Floyd County, it travels east, crosses over the Oostanaula River, meets SR 53. It enters Adairsville. In town, it has an intersection with US 41/SR 3 and an interchange with Interstate 75, it continues to the east and curves to the southeast to meet US 411/SR 61, just north of Rydal. It heads east into Cherokee County and curves to the southeast. In Waleska, the highway intersects SR 108; the roadway enters Canton. Here, it has an intersection with SR 5 Connector. Farther to the south it has a concurrency with SR 5 Business; the two routes curve to the southwest, cross over the Etowah River, meet SR 20, which joins the concurrency for less than 1 mile. At Interstate 575/SR 5, SR 5 Business ends, SR 20 joins the freeway to the northeast, SR 140 curves to the northeast, before heading southeast again.
SR 140 enters Fulton County. In the county is SR 372; the route enters Roswell, where it joins a concurrency of SR 9/SR 120. At the Roswell Town Center, the three routes meet the eastern terminus of SR 92. At this intersection, SR 9/SR 120 depart to the southwest, while SR 140 continues to the southeast. Less than 1 mile is US 19/SR 400. To the southeast, it crosses over the Chattahoochee River on the Fulton–Gwinnett County border for a short while, before it enters Gwinnett County proper and the city of Peachtree Corners. Just to the west of Norcross, SR 140 meets SR 141. Shortly to the southeast, in town, it intersects US 23/SR 13, it continues to the southeast until it meets its eastern terminus, an interchange with I-85, just south of Norcross. The section of SR 140 from Roswell to its eastern terminus is the only part of the route, included in the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility. In February 2019, the Cherokee County Board of Commissioners approved a study to determine the need for various improvements along a section of the road.
The Georgia Department of Transportation plans to expand the route from two to four lanes by the year 2037. Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 140 at Wikimedia Commons Georgia Roads
Alpharetta is a city located in northern Fulton County, United States and is an affluent suburb of Atlanta. As of the 2010 census, Alpharetta's population was 57,551; the estimated population in 2017 was 65,799. In the 1830s, the Cherokee people in Georgia and elsewhere in the South were forcibly relocated to the Indian Territory under the Indian Removal Act. Pioneers and farmers settled on the newly vacated land, situated along a former Cherokee trail stretching from the North Georgia mountains to the Chattahoochee River. One of the first permanent landmarks in the area was the New Prospect Camp Ground, located beside a natural spring near what is now downtown Alpharetta, it served as a trading post for the exchanging of goods among settlers. Known as the town of Milton through July 1858, the city of Alpharetta was chartered on December 11, 1858, with boundaries extending in a 0.5-mile radius from the city courthouse. It served as the county seat of Milton County until 1931, when Milton County was merged with Fulton County to avoid bankruptcy during the Great Depression.
The city's name is a variation of a fictional Indian girl, Alfarata, in a 19th-century song, "The Blue Juniata". The name of the city is believed to have been derived from the first letter of the Greek alphabet. Alpharetta is governed by a city council composed of a mayor; the mayor and council members serve staggered four-year terms. Mayors: Jim Gilvin 2018 - David Belle Isle 2012 – 2018 Arthur Letchas 2001 – 2011 Chuck Martin 1995 - 2002 Jimmy Phillips 1979 - 1994 George Wills Randall Moore Sindey Dees Alpharetta is located in northern Fulton County at 34°4′24″N 84°16′52″W, it is bordered to the southeast by Johns Creek, to the south and west by Roswell, to the north by Milton, to the northeast by unincorporated land in Forsyth County. Downtown Alpharetta is 26 miles north of downtown Atlanta. According to the United States Census Bureau, Alpharetta has a total area of 27.3 square miles, of which 26.9 square miles is land and 0.39 square miles, or 1.37%, is water. Alpharetta is part of USDA hardiness zone 7b.
State Route 9 State Route 120 State Route 140 State Route 372 State Route 400 There are plans for the creation of the Alpha Loop. The multi-use path will serve to connect residents of Alpharetta to activity centers and jobs by a network of multi-use trails providing safe alternatives to driving and offering recreational benefit; the Big Creek Greenway is a concrete multi-use trail that runs from Windward Parkway to Mansell Road. The concrete trail is 8 miles and meanders along Big Creek parallel to North Point Parkway, from Windward Parkway at Marconi Drive on the north end to Mansell Road on the south end. A soft mulch trail encircles a large wetland between Haynes Bridge Mansell Road. Wildlife such as blue heron, deer and Canada geese can be observed in this preserved water setting. Future plans are to connect the trail to Cumming. Alpharetta is by multiple bus routes. There have only been plans to connect Alpharetta to the rest of Metro Atlanta via heavy rail. Http://www.itsmarta.com/uploadedFiles/SystemMap2017_w.pdf As of the census of 2000, there were 34,854 people, 13,911 households, 8,916 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,631.6 people per square mile. There were 14,670 housing units at an average density of 686.7 per square mile. The population has been increasing over the last decade. During the workday, the city swells to more than 120,000 residents and visitors, due to the more than 3,600 businesses that are located in the city. According to the 2010 census, the racial composition of the city of Alpharetta was as follows: White: 72.0% Asian: 13.7% Black or African American: 11.2% Hispanic or Latino: 8.7% Other: 2.9% Two or more races: 2.8% Native American: 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1%There were 13,911 households out of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.2% had someone living alone, 65 or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.13.
In the city, 27.0% of the population was under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 40.5% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, 5.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $95,888, the median income for a family was $111,918; the per capita income for the city was $42,431. Males had a median income of $79,275 versus $59,935 for females. About 2.9% of families and 1.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including.3% of those under age 18 and.6% of those age 65 or over. Cynergy Data is headquartered in Alpharetta. According to the City's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top private sector employers in the city are: Major retail complexes include North Point Mall. A 86-acre mixed-use development, opened in 2014; the Downtown Alpharetta Welcome Center is located at 178 South Main Street and has more than 200 complimentary brochures providing information on the surrounding area.
The center is open Monday — Friday from 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. and Saturday 10 a.m. - 4 p.m. The Alpharetta Family Skate Center is on 10