Chamblee is a city in northern DeKalb County, United States, northeast of Atlanta. The population was 9,892 at the 2010 census; the area that would become Chamblee was dairy farms. During the late nineteenth century, an intersection of two railroads was constructed in Chamblee. A settlement known as Roswell Junction emerged at the intersection, the United States Postal Service decided to establish a post office there. However, feeling the name of the settlement was too similar to nearby Roswell, they randomly selected Chamblee from a list of petitioners for the new post office name. Chamblee was incorporated in 1907. During World War I and World War II, Chamblee served as the site of U. S. military operations. During World War I, the U. S. operated home to 40,000 servicemen. This influx of new people created a building boom in the town. Camp Gordon was closed after the war and re-opened as Navy Flight Training Center at the advent of World War II. After World War II, Chamblee experienced growth in blue-collar industry and residents due to its proximity to the newly opened General Motors plant in neighboring Doraville.
Manufacturing plants located along the newly constructed Peachtree Industrial Boulevard. By the 1980s, much of the city's industrial base had eroded. By the time of the 1996 Summer Olympics, Chamblee had emerged as a multi-cultural city inhabited by a large immigrant community. During the first decade of the 2000s, the city grew as it refined its image, constructing a new city hall in 2002. In 2010, Chamblee annexed an area directly to the northwest that includes Huntley Hills and a resident population of 5,000, it renamed Peachtree Industrial Boulevard to Peachtree Boulevard, took steps to revitalize its downtown. Chamblee is south of Dunwoody, southwest of Doraville, northeast of Brookhaven, north of Interstate 85; the city is located at 33°53′15″N 84°18′19″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.1 square miles, all land. US 23 I-85 SR 141 Xpress GA / RTA commuter buses and MARTA heavy rail subway and buses serve the county. Chamblee Currently, there are plans for the construction of a multi-use trail, known as the Peachtree Creek Greenway.
The goal of the greenway is to provide residents with close-to-home and close-to-work access to bicycle and pedestrian trails, serve transportation and recreation needs, help encourage quality of life and sustainable economic growth. The trail will connect the cities of Atlanta, Brookhaven and Doraville; as of the 2010 Census Chamblee had a population of 9,892. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 45.0% white, 7.0% black or African American, 2.1% Native American, 1.8% Vietnamese, 1.6% Asian Indian, 4.6% other Asian, 33.5% from some other race and 4.1% reporting two or more races. 58.5% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,552 people, 2,673 households, 1,849 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,043.3 people per square mile. There were 2,730 housing units at an average density of 869.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 45.36% White, 3.71% African American, 0.91% Native American, 13.98% Asian, 0.32% Pacific Islander, 31.45% from other races, 4.27% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 56.37% of the population. There were 2,673 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.4% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.8% were non-families. 15.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.57 and the average family size was 3.65. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 17.9% from 18 to 24, 41.0% from 25 to 44, 12.8% from 45 to 64, 5.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 161.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 176.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,992. Males had a median income of $22,024 versus $22,368 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,492. About 15.8% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.2% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.
In addition, 16.7% of families reported a household income higher than $100,000. Downtown: Downtown Chamblee has been preserved has an early 20th-century railroad community. Many of the buildings are of historic vintage, the district has architectural similarities to other similar former railroad communities, such as Decatur and Norcross. Much of the downtown businesses are devoted to Chamblee's antique industry, but, changing; the district has attracted significant commercial development since 2000, including lofts and townhomes. The Chamblee MARTA Station and City Hall are both located downtown. Sexton Woods: Partially in Chamblee and in neighboring city Brookhaven, Sexton Woods is mixed neighborhood of 1950's ranch style homes and more new craftsman style infill housing. Sexton Woods is bordered by Chamblee
Sandy Springs, Georgia
Sandy Springs is a city in northern Fulton County, United States, part of the Atlanta metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, Sandy Springs had a population of 93,853, its 2017 estimated population was 106,739. Sandy Springs is Georgia's sixth-largest city and is the site of several corporate headquarters such as UPS, Inspire Brands, Cox Communications, Mercedes-Benz USA's corporate offices. In 1842, the Austin-Johnson House was erected on, it is the oldest house in Sandy Springs. In 1851, Wilson Spruill donated 5 acres of land for the founding of the Sandy Springs United Methodist Church, near the natural spring for which the city is named. In 1905, the Hammond School was built at Johnson Ferry Road and Mt. Vernon Highway, across the street from the church. In 1950, the state legislature blocked Atlanta from annexing the community, which remained rural until the Interstate Highway System was authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. In 1959, after a fire at Hammond Elementary School, William Hartsfield, the mayor of Atlanta, urged residents to support annexation so that the area would have better firefighting protection.
Community opposition killed the proposal. In the early 1960s, Georgia 400 and Interstate 285 were constructed, connecting Sandy Springs to metro Atlanta and initiating a housing boom that brought new residents and major land development. In 1966, annexation by Atlanta was defeated with two-thirds voting against. On January 16, 1997, Eric Rudolph bombed an abortion clinic in Sandy Springs. Efforts to incorporate Sandy Springs began in 1966, in response to attempts by the city of Atlanta to annex this unincorporated area of North Fulton County. Sandy Springs residents, led by Eva Galambos, fought for 40 years to obtain their own government. In the 1970s, the city of Atlanta attempted to use a state law to force annexation of Sandy Springs; the attempt failed. In response, the Committee for Sandy Springs was formed in 1975. In every legislative session, state legislators representing the area introduced a bill in the Georgia General Assembly to authorize a referendum on incorporation. Legislators representing Atlanta and southwestern Fulton County, who feared tax revenue that would be lost from incorporation, blocked the bills using the procedural requirement that all local legislation be approved first by a delegation of representatives from the affected area.
In 1989, a push was made for Sandy Springs to join neighboring Chattahoochee Plantation in Cobb County. This move was blocked by Speaker Tom Murphy; when the Republican Party gained a majority in both houses of the General Assembly in 2005, the procedural rules used to prevent a vote by the full chamber were changed so that the bill was handled as a state bill and not as a local bill. The assembly repealed the requirement that new cities must be at least 3 miles from existing cities, because the new city limits border both Roswell and Atlanta; the bill allowing for a referendum on incorporation was introduced and passed as HB 37. The referendum initiative was signed by Governor Sonny Perdue; the referendum was held on June 21, 2005, residents voted 94% in favor of incorporation. Shortly afterwards, voters returned to the polls selecting Eva Galambos as the City’s first mayor. Many residents expressed displeasure with county services, based upon financial information provided by the county, that the county was redistributing revenues to fund services in less financially stable areas of the county, ignoring local opposition to rezoning, allowing excessive development.
Many residents of unincorporated and less-developed south Fulton County opposed incorporation, fearing the loss of tax revenues which fund county services. County residents outside Sandy Springs were not allowed to vote on the matter. Efforts such as requesting the U. S. Justice Department to reject the plan were unsuccessful. A mayor and six city council members were elected in early November 2005, with Eva Galambos, who had initiated and led the charge for incorporation, elected mayor by a wide margin. Formal incorporation occurred on December 1, making Sandy Springs the third-largest city to incorporate in the U. S; the city's police force and fire department began service in 2006. Prior to 2005, residents relied upon a large, traditionally modeled county government for the provision of services, which residents felt did not adequately meet their needs; these challenges formed the basis for desiring a streamlined government physically closer to constituents and responsive to community desires.
Sandy Springs initiated a non-traditional approach by operating as a Public Private Partnership, with nearly half of City staff employed by a private company. In 2010, the City undertook a comprehensive procurement process to rebid all general city services, resulting in multiple providers, providing considerable savings and higher levels of service for the City; the Sandy Springs PPP model is regarded as an example for other local governments, with city leaders from across the country and around the globe, including China, Korea and others visiting Sandy Springs to learn about the PPP model. Since the incorporation of Sandy Springs, several other metro cities have formed – Dunwoody, Peachtree Hills and Johns Creek – each instituting a form of the Public-Private model. In 2010, the city became the first jurisdiction in Georgia to "bail out" from the preclearance requirements of Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act; the boundaries of Sandy Springs are Atlanta to the south, Cobb Count
Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position. Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The Wesley brothers founded the "Holy Club" at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
In 1735, at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony, General James Oglethorpe, both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church. At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history."The Wesley brothers began to preach salvation by faith to individuals and groups, in houses, in religious societies, in the few churches which had not closed their doors to evangelical preachers.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield, a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services. Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organization and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship. Divisions between one group and another are defined by doctrine. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity"; these branches differ in many ways through differences in practices and belief. Individual denominations vary in the degree to which they recognize one another. Several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices; because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term "denomination" to describe themselves, to avoid implying equivalency with other churches or denominations.
The Catholic Church which claims 1.2 billion members – over half of all Christians worldwide – does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church, a view rejected by other Christians. Protestant denominations account for 37 percent of Christians worldwide. Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity. Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; the Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world and considers itself the original pre-denominational church. Unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others; the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, constitutes Eastern Christianity. Eastern Christian denominations are represented in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East, Northeast Africa and South India.
Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the divine church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other. Sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation. Members of the various denominations acknowledge each other as Christians, at least to the extent that they have mutually recognized baptisms and acknowledge orthodox views including the Divinity of Jesus and doctrines of sin and salvation though doctrinal and ecclesiological obstacles hinder full communion between churches. Since the reforms surrounding the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Catholic Church has referred to Protestant communities as "denominations", while reserving the term "church" for apostolic churches, including the Eastern Orthodox.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though sometimes regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs; this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as a "recognized autonomous branch of the Christian Church". "Church" as a synonym, refers to a "particular Christian organization with its own clergy and distinctive doctrines". Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the universal church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church; some evangelical groups describe themselves as interdenominational fellowships, partnering with local churches to strengthen evangelical efforts targeting a particular group with specialized needs, such as students or ethnic groups.
A related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices.. Protestant leaders differ from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, the two largest Christian denominations; each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be t
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Forsyth County, Georgia
Forsyth County is a county in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. At the 2010 census, the population was 175,511; the county seat is Cumming. Forsyth County is one of the fastest-growing areas in the United States, stimulated by its proximity to Atlanta and appeal as a commuter base for people working there; the influx of high-earning professionals has increased the average income dramatically. In the 1980s, the county attracted national media attention as the site of large civil rights demonstrations and counter-demonstrations. Organizers hoped to dispel the county's image as a hate-filled sundown town. Thousands of marchers on both sides came from outside the area. From 2007 to 2009, the county received national attention because of a severe drought. Water supplies for the Atlanta area and downstream areas of Alabama and Florida were threatened; this followed a more severe drought in 2007 and 2008, flooding in 2009. Flooding occurred in 2013, severe drought again in 2016. Georgia and Florida have been in a tri-state water dispute since 1990 over apportionment of water flow from Lake Lanier, which forms the eastern border of the county and is regulated by the Army Corps of Engineers as a federal project.
For thousands of years, varying indigenous cultures lived in this area along the Etowah River. Starting near the end of the first millennium, Mound Builders of the Mississippian culture settled in this area, they disappeared about 1500CE. Members of the Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee Nation migrated into the area from the North from the Great Lakes area, they settled in the territory that would become Forsyth County and throughout upper Georgia and Alabama having settlements or towns in present-day Tennessee and western North Carolina. After the discovery of gold by European Americans in the surrounding area in 1829, numerous settlers moved into the area, they increased the pressure on the state and federal government to have the Cherokee and other Native Americans removed to west of the Mississippi River, in order to extinguish their land claims and make land available for purchase. The Cherokee were forced to relocate during. Forsyth County was named after John Forsyth, Governor of Georgia from 1827–1829 and Secretary of State under Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren.
For many years, much of this hill country was farmed by yeomen farmers. The county population of about 10,000 was 90 percent white in the early 20th century, residents still depended on agriculture, its more than 1,000 "blacks" included 440 persons classified as mixed race on the census, indicating a continuing history of racial mixing that dated to slavery times. After two different incidents in September 1912, in which black men were alleged to have raped white women, tensions rose in the county. In the first case, a black preacher was assaulted by whites for suggesting that the alleged victim may have been having a consensual relationship with a black man; the Sheriff gained support from the governor, who sent more than 20 National Guard troops to keep peace. The suspects in the first case were never tried, for lack of evidence. In the second case, five suspects were held in the Cumming jail. A lynch mob of 4,000 whites dragged out one of the men, they hanged his body on the town square. The woman rape victim died two weeks after being attacked.
Charges against two of the four suspects held in the second case were dropped after a plea bargain. But two black youths under the age of 18 were convicted by all-white juries and executed by hanging. Whites afterward intimidated blacks in Forsyth and neighboring counties. Within weeks, they forced most of the blacks to leave the region in fear of their lives, losing land and personal property, never recovered; every single one of Forsyth's 1,098 African Americans — prosperous and poor and unlettered — was driven out of the county. It took only a few weeks. Marauding residents wielded guns, sticks of dynamite, bottles of kerosene, they stole everything, from farmland to tombstones. Forsyth County remained white right through the 20th century. A black man or woman couldn't so much as drive through without being run out.... During the 1950s and'60s, there were no "colored" water fountains in the courthouse or "whites only" diners in the county seat, Cumming. By 1987, the county was "all white". In 1997, African Americans numbered just 39 in a population of 75,739.
During the 1950s, with the introduction of the poultry industry, the county had steady economic growth but remained rural and all white in population. Georgia State Route 400 opened in 1971 and was extended through the county and northward; the opening of Georgia State Route 400 spurred industrial growth in the South West portion of the county along the McFarland Parkway area starting in the early 1970s. By 1980, the county population was 27,500, growing to 40,000
DeKalb County, Georgia
DeKalb County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 691,893, its county seat is Decatur. DeKalb County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it contains 10% of the city of Atlanta. It is Georgia's most diverse county. DeKalb is a suburban county, is the second-most-affluent county with an African-American majority in the United States, behind Prince George's County, Maryland, in suburban Washington, D. C. In 2009, DeKalb earned the Atlanta Regional Commission's "Green Communities" designation for its efforts in conserving energy and fuel. In recent years, some communities in North DeKalb have incorporated, following a trend in other suburban areas around Metro Atlanta. Dunwoody and Brookhaven are now the largest cities within the county. DeKalb County, formed in 1822 from Henry and Fayette counties, took its name from Baron Johann de Kalb, a Bavarian-born former officer in the French Army, who fought for the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War.
The oldest existing house in the county is the 1831 Goodwin House along Peachtree Road in Brookhaven. In 1853, Fulton County formed from the western half of DeKalb, divided along a straight and due north/south line down the middle; until this time, the growing city of Atlanta had been inside DeKalb. Atlanta grew because the city of Decatur did not want to become the railroad terminus in the 1830s, thus a spot at the Thrasherville encampment in western DeKalb was picked to become Terminus and Marthasville, before becoming Atlanta a few years after its founding. North and southwest Fulton came from two other counties: Milton and southeast Campbell, respectively. DeKalb once extended further north to the Chattahoochee River, but this strip was given to Milton, is now the panhandle of Sandy Springs. During the Civil War, much of the Battle of Atlanta took place in DeKalb; until the 1960s, DeKalb was a agricultural county, but as the sprawl of the metropolitan Atlanta region expanded, DeKalb became urbanized.
Finished in 1969, the eastern half of the Interstate 285 beltway, called "the Perimeter", ringed the northeastern and southern edges of the county, placing most of it "inside the Perimeter" along with nearly all of Atlanta. Interstate 675 and Georgia 400 were planned to connect inside the Perimeter, along with the Stone Mountain Freeway connecting with the Downtown Connector near Moreland Avenue, destroying many neighborhoods in western DeKalb, but community opposition in the early 1970s spared them this fate of urbanization, although part of the proposed Stone Mountain Tollway became the Freedom Parkway. Only Interstate 20 and Interstate 85 were built through the county. DeKalb became one of only two counties to approve MARTA rapid transit in the 1970s. In April 2018, more than 350 bus drivers for DeKalb County School District went on strike over low pay and poor working conditions, resulting in seven bus drivers being fired. In recent years, along with many other counties in the Atlanta area, DeKalb County has voted Democratic in presidential elections, while in the past it was more of a swing county, voting Democratic and Republican an equal number of times from 1960 until 1988.
In the wake of the United States elections, 2018, it no longer has any Republican representatives in the state legislature or United States House of Representatives, for the first time since the breakdown of the old Solid South. The current Chief Executive Officer of DeKalb County is Michael Thurmond, he took office on January 1, 2017. Current County Commissioners as of January 2019: Unincorporated DeKalb County is policed by the DeKalb County Police Department, the DeKalb Sheriff's Office, responsible for serving criminal warrants and securing the courts and county jail, the DeKalb Marshal's Office, which serves civil processes issued through state court, such as evictions. Fire services are provided throughout the county by Rescue. DeKalb County Fire and Rescue provided emergency medical services throughout the county; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is based in the Druid Hills CDP in an unincorporated area in the county. The Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Field Office is located in Chamblee.
The Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice has its headquarters near Decatur. The Georgia Bureau of Investigation has its headquarters near Decatur, in an unincorporated area; the Metro State Prison of the Georgia Department of Corrections was located in an unincorporated area in DeKalb County. Female death row inmates resided in the Metro State Prison; the prison was closed in 2011. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 271 square miles, of which 268 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water. The county is crossed by the South River and numerous creeks, including Nancy Creek, Snapfinger Creek and two forks of Peachtree Creek. Peachtree Creek and Nancy Creek drain into the Chattahoochee River and to the Gulf of Mexico. South River drains into the Ocmulgee River and into the Atl