An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Teatro de Arena
Teatro de Arena was a theatre in São Paulo, Brazil. Established in 1953, it was one of the most important Brazilian theatre groups in the 1950s and 1960s, its importance stemmed from the rising of Brazilian nationalism promoted by the Vargas era. It performed works by the likes of Renato José Pécora, Augusto Boal and Gianfrancesco Guarnieri, before closing in 1972; the Teatro de Arena was founded in Sāo Paulo in 1953 by It was an alternative form of theater production from the current expensive state of Brazilian theater. Jose Renato was a prominent actor and one of the founders whose vision was for the theater and production was to make it more accessible than those productions being put on by the Brazilian Theater Comedy; the first professional casting the theater company put on was Tonight is Ours in 1953 in MAM Halls, Museum of Modern Art. This early company consisted of José Renato, Sérgio Britto, Henrique Becker, Geraldo Mateus, Renata Blaunstein and Monah Delacy. After two years of performing in makeshift areas, the company inaugurates the room of Rua Theodoro Biama in 1955, in a renovated garage in front of the Church of the consolation, in the middle of São Paulo.
The saving of the theater due to economic reasons was credited to Gianfrancesco Guarnieri. He was a young playwright who graduated from the Teatro Paulista do Estudante. Though Guarnieri is Italian, he was passionate about the path that Brazilian theater was going on. In 1958, They Don't Wear; the success of the production allowed for the space for the beginning of the Seminars of Dramaturgy movement, to bring new Brazilian authors to the light. Out of this movement, Oduvaldo Vianna Filho and Flávio Migliaccio emerged; the theater had an odd process of falling apart. During the Rio tour of They Don't Wear Black-Tie, Oduvaldo Vianna Filho and Milton Gonçalves left the company and founded the 1961 movement of Popular Centers of Culture, by the National Union of Students - UNE; the next person to leave the theater was José Renato. He moved to Rio in 1962 to be head of direction of the National Theater of Comedy -. In 1968 and 1969, Guarnieri left the theater; these were busy years considering there was an international tour through the United States and Mexico with the Arena tells of Zumbi from Guarnieri and Boal, Arena tells of Bolivar from Boal.
In 1971, when Boal was putting together the script for Arena Conta Bolivar, which did end up banned in Brazil, Boal was arrested and soon after goes into exile. The last production the theater put on was carried out by Núcleo 2 do Arena from 1969; this is. The last two shoes from the theater were Bertolt Brecht's Night Drums and Carlos Queiroz Telles These Intrepid Guys and Their Wonderful Week of Modern Art, however it was presented by Núcleo 2 do Arena; these shows were directed by Fernando Peixoto. Arena closes its doors in 1972 and is bought by the no longer running National Service of Theater - SNT in 1977; as of 1990, the rooms are no longer used to teach theatrical language research processes that add to the cultural life of the region. Panorama of the Brazilian Theater, by Sábato Magaldi - Global Editora Small History of the Theater in Brazil, by Mario Cacciaglia - EDUSP Le Théâtre Arena - Richard du Roux, Aix-en-Provence, Université de Provence, 1991,2 vol. 758 p.- Du "théâtre en rond" au "théâtre populaire" «Le théâtre brésilien».
In: CORVIN, Dictionnaire encyclopédique du théâtre, Bordas, 1st ed. 1991.
The Favorite is a Brazilian telenovela produced and broadcast Rede Globo. It premiered 2 June 2008 to 17 January 2009 with a total number of episodes of 197, it is directed by Ricardo Waddington. It is the first telenovela by the writer to air in the 9 pm timeslot. A Favorita storylines examine two friends and Flora, who became rivals. One of them committed a crime and is lying, so there are two versions of the same story; the telenovela was screened as six episodes per week, from Monday to Saturday, with an average running time of one hour. A Favorita has remained significant in terms of Rede Globo's success and audience share, in Brazilian television drama history, tackling many controversial and taboo issues unseen on mainstream television in Brazil, it made history for being the first telenovela where the public did not know, the villain and, telling the truth. Claudia Raia, Patricia Pillar, Murilo Benicio, Mariana Ximenes, Lília Cabral, Taís Araújo, Deborah Secco, Carmo Dalla Vecchia, Glória Menezes, Mauro Mendonça and Tarcísio Meira in the leading roles.
In August 2014, Globo Marcas released an edited version of the telenovela in DVD format. Donatela and Flora, two friends who became rivals. One of them pretends to be innocent. There are two versions for the same story. Who, after all, is telling the truth? Donatela or Flora? Donatela and Flora grew up together. Donatela ended up being adopted by Flora's family. By the time they were children, the two girls were best friends to the point of starting a country band, “Faísca e Espoleta”; the partnership made a reasonable success at the time, but the career was interrupted after they met friends Marcelo and Dodi, to whom they became engaged. Donatela married Marcelo, Gonçalo Fontini's son, heir of a paper and cellulose corporation, while Flora married Dodi, an unscrupulous man who worked for his friend's father; however and Marcelo's happiness didn't last too long. The couple's first son, was kidnapped when he was six months old, never to appear again. Since the couple started to argue often. In the meantime and Dodi split up and she had an affair with Marcelo.
She gave birth to Lara, daughter to Marcelo, harming more his relationship with Donatela and the relationship between the two friends. In the worst period of the crisis between Donatela and Flora, Marcelo was murdered, he was shot three times with a gun. She was sent to jail for eighteen years. Donatela, despite of not forgiving Flora for the treason and for killing the love of her life, raised Lara with the love of a true mother. Eighteen years after being released from prison, Flora starts trying to prove her innocence, blaming Donatela for the crime she has paid for. Donatela fears. Lara becomes the target of the dispute between the two women. While Flora tries to get her daughter back, Donatela will do everything. A Favorita has released three official soundtrack albums: one composed of Brazilian songs, one of international songs, a third one, with sertanejo music. Nacional soundtrack"É o Que Me Interessa" - Lenine "Amado" - Vanessa da Mata "Sou Dela" - Nando Reis "Não Vou Me Adaptar" - - Arnaldo Antunes and Nando Reis "Quantas Vidas Você Tem?"
- Moska "Fala" - Ritchie "Tudo Passa" - Túlio Dek "Pa'Bailar" - Bajofondo "Mulher Sem Razão" - Adriana Calcanhotto "Morena dos Olhos d'água" - Chico Buarque "O Tempo Vai Apagar" - Zé Renato "Me Abrace" - Camila & Wanessa Camargo Internacional soundtrack"Viva La Vida" - Coldplay "Bottle It Up" - Sara Bareilles "I'm Yours" - Jason Mraz "Carry You Home" - James Blunt "Love is Noise" - The Verve "That's Not My Name" - The Ting Tings "Blame" - Tiago Iorc "Fidelity" - Regina Spektor "Sweet About Me" - Gabriella Cilmi "No Substitute Love" - Estelle "Baby When the Light" - David Guetta "Pumpkin Soup" - Kate Nash "Young Folks" - Peter Bjorn and John In his first chapter, A Favorita recorded 35 points and 49% share, with the worst debut of a 8PM telenovela to date. These ratings are low due to the good performance of the final chapter of Caminhos do Coração, displayed simultaneously; the ratings varied over the weeks, until in Chapter 56, the telenovela recorded his record: 46 points and 65% share.
Lowest audience was recorded on New Year's Eve: 25 points with a peak of 32. In the final chapters, showed better performance: 52 points/76% share in the penultimate chapter. Argentina / Telefe / September 22, 2009 - April 16, 2010 United States / Telemundo / April 20, 2010 - October 25, 2010 Russia / Domashniy / August 2, 2010 - April 15, 2011 Israel / Viva / December 7, 2009 - July 20, 2010 Chile / canal 13 / September 22, 2009 - April 16, 2010 Bosnia and Herzegovina / Hayat TV / June 13, 2011 - January 24, 2012 Montenegro / TV Vijesti / November 28, 2011 – present Kosovo / RTV21 / April 15, 2011 - November 29, 2011 Kenya / Citizen TV Canada / OM
William McChord Hurt is an American actor. He began acting on stage in the 1970s. Hurt made his film debut in 1980 as a troubled scientist in Ken Russell's science-fiction feature Altered States, for which he received a Golden Globe nomination for New Star of the Year, he subsequently played a leading role, as a lawyer who succumbs to the temptations of Kathleen Turner, in the neo-noir Body Heat. He played another leading role, in Gorky Park. In 1985, Hurt garnered critical acclaim and multiple acting awards, including an Academy Award and a BAFTA Award for Best Actor, for Kiss of the Spider Woman, he received another two Academy Award nominations for his lead performances in Children of a Lesser God and Broadcast News. Hurt remained an active stage actor throughout the 1980s, appearing in Off-Broadway productions, including Henry V, Fifth of July, Richard II and A Midsummer Night's Dream. Hurt received his first Tony Award nomination in 1985 for the Broadway production of Hurlyburly. After playing a diversity of character roles in the following decade, Hurt earned his fourth Academy Award nomination for his supporting performance in David Cronenberg's crime thriller A History of Violence.
Other notable films in recent years have included A. I. Artificial Intelligence, The Village, The Good Shepherd, Mr. Brooks, Into the Wild, Robin Hood and his role as Thunderbolt Ross in The Incredible Hulk, Captain America: Civil War and Avengers: Infinity War. Hurt was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Claire Isabel, who worked at Time Inc. and Alfred McChord Hurt, who worked for the State Department. With his father, he lived in Lahore and Khartoum. After his parents divorced, his mother married Henry Luce III during Hurt's childhood. Hurt graduated from Middlesex School in 1968 where he was vice president of the Dramatics Club and had the lead role in several school plays, his high school yearbook predicted: "With characteristics such as these, you might see him on Broadway." Hurt attended Tufts University and studied theology, but turned instead to acting and joined the Juilliard School. Two of his classmates there were Robin Williams. Hurt began his career in stage productions, only acting in films.
From 1977 to 1989, he was a member of the acting company at Circle Repertory Company. He won an Obie Award for his debut appearance there in Corinne Jacker's My Life, won a 1978 Theatre World Award for his performances in Fifth of July, Ulysses in Traction, Lulu. In 1979, Hurt played Hamlet under the direction of Marshall W. Mason opposite Lindsay Crouse and Beatrice Straight, his first major film role was in the science-fiction film Altered States where his performance as an obsessed scientist gained him wide recognition. His performance with Richard Crenna, Ted Danson and newcomer Kathleen Turner in Lawrence Kasdan's neo-noir classic Body Heat elevated Hurt to stardom, he also co-starred in The Big Chill, he appeared in the thriller Gorky Park opposite Lee Marvin. He received the Best Male Performance Prize at the Cannes Film Festival and the Academy Award for Best Actor for Kiss of the Spider Woman in 1985, he has received three additional Oscar nominations: Best Actor for Children of a Lesser God and Broadcast News and Best Supporting Actor for A History Of Violence.
Hurt starred in Tuck Everlasting as Angus Tuck. Cast as an intellectual, Hurt has starred as such in films such as Lost in Space, but has been effective in other kinds of role, as in I Love You to Death and David Cronenberg's psychological drama A History of Violence, where in less than 10 minutes of screen time he plays the creepy mob boss, Richie Cusack. In 2005, Hurt played a mysterious government operative in Stephen Gaghan's ensemble drama about the politics of big oil, Syriana. Hurt was in the miniseries adaptation of Stephen King's Nightmares and Dreamscapes, in a piece entitled Battleground, he plays Renshaw, a hitman who receives a package from the widow of a toymaker he had killed, unaware of what is waiting inside for him. He appeared in the cast of Vanya, an adaptation of Chekhov's Uncle Vanya, at the Artists Repertory Theatre in Portland, Oregon. In June 2007, Marvel Studios announced Hurt would portray the Hulk character General "Thunderbolt" Ross in 2008's The Incredible Hulk alongside Edward Norton, Liv Tyler and Tim Roth.
Hurt reprised his role in Captain America: Avengers: Infinity War. He appeared in the true story of Christopher McCandless, he appeared as President Henry Ashton in the 2008 action-thriller Vantage Point. Hurt played Mr. Brooks's alter ego in Mr. Brooks starring Kevin Costner. In 2009, Hurt became a series regular on the FX series Damages playing a corporate whistleblower opposite Glenn Close and Marcia Gay Harden. For his role in the series, Hurt earned a 2009 Primetime Emmy Award nomination in the "Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series" category. Hurt's 2009 Sundance film The Yellow Handkerchief was released in theaters on February 26, 2010 by Samuel Goldwyn Films, he was in the Thailand-based 2011 thriller Hellgate alongside Cary Elwes and Paula Taylor, directed by John Penney. In September 2010, Hurt played United States Secretary of the Treasury Henry Paulson in the HBO film Too Big to Fail, an adaptation of Andrew Ross Sorkin's book, he starred as Captain Ahab in the 2011 television
Héctor Eduardo Babenco was an Argentine-born Brazilian film director, screenwriter and actor. He worked in several countries including Argentina and the United States, his best known films are Pixote, Kiss of the Spider Woman, Ironweed, At Play in the Fields of the Lord and Carandiru. Babenco was raised in Mar del Plata, his mother, Janka Haberberg, was a Polish Jewish immigrant, his father, Jaime Babenco, was an Argentine gaucho of Ukrainian Jewish origin. Babenco lived in Europe from 1964 to 1968. In 1969, he decided to stay in São Paulo, permanently, his first solo feature film as a director was King of the Night. Babenco had an international success with Pixote – A lei do mais fraco, it concerns Brazil's abandoned children. In the words of E. Ruby Rich while it concerns "a pair of boys who form a symbiotic sexual union", the film cannot "be held up as an example of how gay desire can be depicted, given its sensationalistic and sordid treatment of gay sex as accommodation and punishment"; the film featured impressive work of young actor Fernando Ramos da Silva, 10 years old at the time, discovered in the suburbs of São Paulo.
The film received numerous prizes. For Kiss of the Spider Woman, Babenco was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director, the first Latin American to be nominated in this category. In 1994, Babenco had to undergo a bone marrow transplant to treat a lymphatic cancer, he directed some of the most respected American actors of his time, including William Hurt, John Lithgow, Raul Julia, Jack Nicholson, Meryl Streep, Tom Berenger, Daryl Hannah, Aidan Quinn and Kathy Bates. In 2012 Babenco was part of the jury in the 34th Moscow International Film Festival, his last film was My Hindu Friend. It recounts the story of a film director close to death; the Venice Project Before Night Falls Héctor Babenco on IMDb Héctor Babenco at Cinenacional.com
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog