Northern Arizona University
Northern Arizona University is a public research university with its main campus in Flagstaff, Arizona. Governed by the Arizona Board of Regents and accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the university offers 158 baccalaureate and graduate degree programs; as of fall 2017, 31,057 students were enrolled, 22,376 at the Flagstaff campus. The average cost of tuition and fees for a full-time, Arizona resident undergraduate student for two semesters is $11,059, out-of-state undergraduates pay an estimated $24,841. NAU participates in the Western Undergraduate Exchange Program, which offers lower tuition rates for students from the Western United States. For 2017–18, WUE tuition and fees are $16,078. NAU offers Flagstaff undergraduate students the Pledge Program, which guarantees the same tuition rate for four years. According to the global university rankings published by Times Higher Education in 2018, NAU ranked among the top 500 universities in the world and in the top 10 percent worldwide for the frequency of citations of its research by other researchers.
The Center for World University Rankings places Northern Arizona in the top 2.9% of degree-granting institutions of higher education worldwide. NAU is the state leader in setting up remote campuses, where classes have delivered via a video link; the oldest branch campus, the largest, is NAU Yuma. Named the Northern Arizona Normal School, the institution opened on September 11, 1899, with 23 students, two faculty members—one, Almon Nicholas Taylor, the school president—and "two copies of Webster's International Dictionary bound in sheepskin" as teaching resources; the first graduating class, in 1901, consisted of four women who received credentials to teach in the Arizona Territory. In 1925, the Arizona State Legislature allowed the school, called the Northern Arizona State Teachers College, to grant bachelor of education degrees. In 1929, the school became Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff. In 1929, the Great Depression struck the nation, the ASTC found new meaning in community outreach.
Rather than collapsing, the school endured through the depression. In fact, Grady Gammage, the school president at the time, described higher education as "a'depression industry' that fared well in hard times." Despite financial difficulties, enrollment increased from 321 students to 535 students between 1930 and 1940, graduate work was introduced in 1937. ASTC provided an education during economically trying times creating jobs to help students afford their education; the self-sufficiency of the college helped conserve monetary resources, it was a major contributor to the local economy of the surrounding Flagstaff community, injecting a half million dollars in 1938. ASTC was known for ethnic tolerance. In fact, the first Hopi to receive a college degree was Ida Mae Fredericks in 1939. Students came from rural farms, mining families, the East Coast, points between. During the depression, lots of fraternities and clubs sprang up, reflecting the diversity of background and interests. Enrollment dropped at the beginning of World War II, dropping to 161 in 1945.
During this time, ASTC became a Navy V-12 program training site. However, the end of World War II brought increased enrollment as returning veterans returned to continue their education; the end of the war expanded programs beyond teaching degrees in the fields of art and science. To reflect this growth, the school changed its name to Arizona State College at Flagstaff in 1945 and, in 1958, became Arizona State College after the former Arizona State College at Tempe became Arizona State University. In 1958, the Forestry Program was introduced. With further growth over the next two decades, the Arizona Board of Regents granted Arizona State College university status as Northern Arizona University in 1966. Perched at 6,950 feet above sea level, one of the highest-elevation four-year college campuses in the country, the main campus is surrounded by the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the world and enjoys a four-season climate, with an average annual snowfall of 260 inches. Winter skiing is accessible at Arizona Snowbowl, an alpine ski resort located on the San Francisco Peaks, 7 miles northwest of Flagstaff, ranked the third best college town in the United States by the American Institute of Economic Research in 2017.
NAU offers 153 baccalaureate programs, 81 master's degree programs, 15 doctoral programs, along with 49 undergraduate and 30 graduate certificates. In 2006, the Arizona Board of Regents directed the university to develop innovative ways to provide access and affordability to all Arizona residents. NAU developed the Pledge Program and 2NAU partnerships with community colleges and NAU–Yavapai, a collaboration with Yavapai College in Prescott Valley, Arizona. NAU–Yuma, a quarter-century partnership with Arizona Western College, is nationally recognized as a model community college/university effort. In addition to the more than 22,000 students who study on the Flagstaff campus, NAU serves another 8,000 students online and statewide. NAU offers 99 online accredited degree programs at statewide campuses. NAU is the first public university to offer a competency-based online degree program that allows students to earn credit for experience. Personalized Learning, launched in 2013, is an competency-based degree path.
The program offers students access to a self-paced, affordable college education. The program has a flat fee for a six-month subscription, federal financial aid is available; this subscription allows students to access all
Milton is a borough in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, on the West Branch Susquehanna River, 50 miles north of Harrisburg. It is about 10 miles upriver from the mouth of the West Branch Susquehanna River and about 30 miles downriver of Williamsport. Settled in 1770, it was incorporated in 1817, is governed by a charter, revised in 1890, its extensive manufacturing plants included car and woodworking machinery shops. In 1900, 6,175 people lived in Milton. In 1940, 8,313 people lived there; the population was 6,650 at the 2000 census, 7,042 at the 2010 census. The Milton Historic District, Pennsylvania Canal and Limestone Run Aqueduct, Milton Armory, Milton Freight Station are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. At the turn of the 20th century, several industrial and manufacturing companies were located within the borough; the six principal industries were Samuel J. Shimer & Sons, the Milton Manufacturing Company, the American Car and Foundry Company, the F. A. Godcharles Company, the Sydney H. Souter Silk Company, the West Branch Novelty Company.
Many smaller businesses flourished in parallel with the large manufacturing companies during this early period, which made the borough an industrial center in the region at the time. Milton is located at 41°1′3″N 76°51′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 3.8 square miles, of which, 3.5 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is covered by water. Milton's terrain is flat with some scattered hills; the borough is home to the Milton State Park, is served by Pennsylvania Route 254, Pennsylvania Route 405, Pennsylvania Route 642. As of the census of 2000, 6,650 people, 2,762 households, 1,748 families resided in the borough; the population density was 1,922.6 people per square mile. The 3,000 housing units averaged 867.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 94.81% White, 2.38% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.95% from other races, 1.53% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.17% of the population.
As of 2010, the 7,042 people populating the borough were 88.4% White, 4.5% African American, 6.2% Hispanic. The community has a growing Puerto Rican population; the Hispanic population has tripled since the 2000 census. Of the 2,762 households, 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were not families. About 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29, the average family size was 2.89. In the borough, the population was distributed as 23.7% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $30,252, for a family was $38,438.
Males had a median income of $30,636 versus $21,384 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $16,980. About 10.6% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those age 65 or over. James Curtis Hepburn – missionary and linguist. S. Civil War James Pollock – Congressman. S. Representative Pennsylvania's 11th congressional district from 1853 to 1855 The local public school system, Milton Area School District, serves just over 2000 students. Enrollment is projected by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to decline over the next 10 years. In 2005, Standard & Poors reported the district's student to teacher ratio was 13.9 to 1. Milton High School has a 59.9% graduation rate according to the district report card 2005–2006. In 11th grade, 46.4% were proficient in math. For reading, 43.2% were proficient in 2005–2006. The high school is ranked 600th out of 606 public high schools in Pennsylvania. In 2007, the Pittsburgh Business Times ranked the district 356th out of 499 Pennsylvania school districts based on three years of Pennsylvania System of Student Assessment test scores.
The Montandon Elementary School earned a No Child Left Behind Blue Ribbon Award for outstanding performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment for 2004. The students scored better in mathematics and 72.4 % proficient in reading. The Milton Area School Board set the budget at $24.8 million for 2011–2013. The board levies a variety of taxes to support its programs. Taxes include 48.39 mills real estate tax in 2007 for district properties located in Northumberland County. For properties located in White Deer Township, Union County, the real estate property tax was set at 10.10 mills. By law, the local public school must provide transportation to schools within 10 mi of the borders of the scho
Northumberland County, Pennsylvania
Northumberland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 94,528, its county seat is Sunbury. The county was formed in 1772 from parts of Lancaster, Bedford and Northampton Counties and named for the county of Northumberland in northern England. Northumberland County is a fifth class county according to the Pennsylvania's County Code. Northumberland County comprises the Sunbury, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Bloomsburg-Berwick-Sunbury, PA Combined Statistical Area. Among its famous residents, Joseph Priestley, the Enlightenment chemist and theologian, left England in 1796 due to religious persecution and settled on the Susquehanna River, his former house is a historical museum. Before European settlement the area was inhabited by the Akhrakouaeronon or Atrakouaehronon, a subtribe of the Susquehannock. By 1813 the area once comprising the sprawling county of Northumberland had been divided over time and allotted to other counties such that lands once occupied by Old Northumberland at its greatest extent are now found in Centre, Luzerne, Mifflin, Clearfield, Montour, Lackawanna, Wyoming, Potter, McKean, Venango and Schuylkill Counties.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 478 square miles, of which 458 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water; the main river in Northumberland County is the Susquehanna River and the divergence of the 977 miles long river into its two branches of navigable river and former divisions of the Pennsylvania Canal System. The Susquehanna River's tributaries in the county include the West Branch Susquehanna River, Chillisquaque Creek, Shamokin Creek, the west flowing Mahanoy Creek, whose valley is a rail and road transportation corridor to Tamaqua and points thereafter either east, north, or south such that: east along rail or US 209 through Nesquehoning and historic Jim Thorpe; the county has mountains in the south and north, with the rest being rolling hills. Lycoming County Montour County Columbia County Schuylkill County Dauphin County Perry County Juniata County Snyder County Union County As of the census of 2000, there were 94,556 people, 38,835 households, 25,592 families residing in the county.
The population density was 206 people per square mile. There were 43,164 housing units at an average density of 94 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.09% White, 1.52% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. 1.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32.5 % were of 12.9 % Polish, 9.9 % American, 8.2 % Italian, 8.1 % Irish and 5.8 % Dutch ancestry. 95.8% spoke English and 1.5% Spanish as their first language. There were 38,835 households out of which 27.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.40% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.10% were non-families. 30.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.90% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, 19.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.80 males. Northumberland County's live birth rate was 1,167 births in 1990. Northumberland County's live birth rate in 2000 declined to 919 births, while in 2011 it was 961 babies. Over the past 50 years, rural Pennsylvania saw a steady decline in both the number and proportion of residents under 18 years old. In 1960, 1.06 million rural residents, or 35 percent of the rural population, were children. County poverty demographics According to research by The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, a legislative agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the poverty rate for Northumberland County was 15.9% in 2014. The statewide poverty rate was 13.6% in 2014. The 2012 childhood poverty rate by school district was: Line Mountain School District - 38.4% living at 185% or below than the Federal Poverty Level, Milton Area School District - 51.9, Mount Carmel Area School District - 59.5%, Shikellamy School District - 45%, Shamokin Area School District - 59.5% and Warrior Run School District - 32.2%.
According to the US Census Bureau, from 2009-2014 Northumberland County saw a 62% increase in the number of families in the federal food assistance program called SNAP. The number of people or families receiving monthly SNAP assistance dollars rose from 2,965 in 2009 to 4,814 people in 2014. Teen Pregnancy rateThe Pennsylvania Department of Health reports the annual teens aged 15–19 birth rate. From 2011 to 2015, Northumberland County experienced a 10% decline in teen pregnancies. In Pennsylvania the majority of p
Downtown is a term used in North America by English-speakers to refer to a city's commercial and the historical and geographic heart, is synonymous with its central business district. In British English, the term "city centre" is most used instead; the two terms are used interchangeably in Canada. The Oxford English Dictionary's first citation for "down town" or "downtown" dates to 1770, in reference to the center of Boston; some have posited that the term "downtown" was coined in New York City, where it was in use by the 1830s to refer to the original town at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan. As the town of New York grew into a city, the only direction it could grow on the island was toward the north, proceeding upriver from the original settlement, the "up" and "down" terminology coming from the customary map design in which up was north and down was south. Thus, anything north of the original town became known as "uptown", was a residential area, while the original town –, New York's only major center of business at the time – became known as "downtown".
During the late 19th century, the term was adopted by cities across the United States and Canada to refer to the historical core of the city, most the same as the commercial heart of the city. "Uptown" spread, but to a much lesser extent. In both cases, the directionality of both words was lost, so that a Bostonian might refer to going "downtown" though it was north of where they were. Downtown lay to the south in Detroit, but to the north in Cleveland, to the east in St. Louis, to the west in Pittsburgh. In Boston, a resident pointed out in 1880, downtown was in the center of the city. Uptown was south of downtown in New Orleans and San Francisco. Notably, "downtown" was not included in dictionaries as late as the 1880s, but by the early 1900s, "downtown" was established as the proper term in American English for a city's central business district, although the word was unknown in Britain and Western Europe, where expressions such as "city centre", "le centre-ville", "el centro", "o centro" and "das Zentrum" are used.
As late as early part of the 20th century, English travel writers felt it necessary to explain to their readers what "downtown" meant. Although American downtowns lacked legally-defined boundaries, were parts of several of the wards that most cities used as their basic functional district, locating the downtown was not difficult, as it was the place where all the street railways and elevated railways converged, – at least in most places – where the railroad terminals were, it was the location of the great department stores and hotels, as well as the theatres, clubs and dance halls, where skyscrapers were built once that technology was perfected. It was frequently, at first, the only part of a city, electrified, it was the place where street congestion was the worst, a problem for which a solution was never found. But most of all, downtown was the place. Inside its small precincts, sometimes as small as several hundred acres, the majority of the trading and purchasing – retail and wholesale – in the entire area would take place.
There were hubs of business in other places around the city and its environs, but the downtown area was the chief one the central business district. And as more and more business was done downtown, those who had their homes there were pushed out, selling their property and moving to quieter residential areas uptown; the skyscraper would become the hallmark of the downtown area. Prior to the invention of the elevator – and the high-speed elevator – buildings were limited in height to about six stories, a de facto limit set by the amount of stairs it was assumed that people would climb, but with the elevator, that limit was shattered, buildings began to be constructed up to about sixteen stories. What limited them was the thickness of the masonry needed at the base to hold the weight of the building above it; as the buildings got taller, the thickness of the masonry and the space needed for elevators did not allow for sufficient rentable space to make the building profitable. What shattered that restriction was the invention of first the iron- and the steel frame building, in which the building's load was carried by an internal metal frame skeleton, which the masonry – and glass – hung off of without carrying any weight.
Although first used in Chicago, the steel-framed skyscraper caught on most in New York City in the 1880s, from there spread to most other American cities in the 1890s and 1900s. The apparent lack of a height limitation of this type of building set off a fervent debate over whether their height should be restricted by law, with proponents and opponents of height limits bringing out numerous arguments in favor of their position; the question of height limits had a profound implication for the nature of downtown itself: would it continue to be a concentrated core, or as it grew, would height limits force it to spread out into a larger area. In the short run, the proponents of height limits were successful in their efforts. By the 1910s, most of the largest and medium-sized cities had height limits in effect, with New York – despite several concerted efforts to enact them, Detroit and Minneapolis being notable holdouts. Though, it would not be height limits per se that restricted skyscrapers, but comprehensive zoning laws which would set up separate requirements for different parts of a c
Lycoming County, Pennsylvania
Lycoming County is a county located in the U. S. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; as of the 2010 census, the population was 116,111. Its county seat is Williamsport. Lycoming County comprises the Williamsport, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Located about 130 miles northwest of Philadelphia and 165 miles east-northeast of Pittsburgh, Lycoming County is the largest county in Pennsylvania in area. Lycoming County was formed from Northumberland County on April 13, 1795; the county was larger. It took up most of the land, now north central Pennsylvania; the following counties have been formed from land, once part of Lycoming County: Armstrong, Centre, Clinton, Jefferson, McKean, Sullivan, Venango, Forest and Cameron. Lycoming County was named Jefferson County in honor of Thomas Jefferson; this name proved to be unsatisfactory. The name change went through several steps. First a change to Lycoming County was rejected, next the name Susquehanna County was struck down as was Muncy County, before the legislature revisited and settled on Lycoming County for Lycoming Creek, the stream, the center of the pre-Revolutionary border dispute.
1615: The first European in Lycoming County was Étienne Brûlé. He was a voyageur for New France. Brule descended the West Branch Susquehanna River and was held captive by a local Indian tribe near what is now Muncy before escaping and returning to Canada.1761: The first permanent homes were built in Muncy. Three log cabins were built by Bowyer Brooks, Robert Roberts and James Alexander.1772: The first gristmill is built on Muncy Creek by John Alward1775: The first public road is built along the West Branch Susquehanna River. The road followed Indian trails from Fort Augusta in what is now Sunbury to Bald Eagle Creek near modern-day Lock Haven.1786: The first church built in the county was Lycoming Presbyterian church in what was known as Jaysburg and is now the Newberry section of Williamsport.1792: The first sawmill was built on Lycoming Creek by Roland Hall.1795: The first elections for Lycoming County government are held soon after the county was formed from Northumberland County. The elected officers were Samuel Stewart, county sheriff and the first county commissioners were John Hanna, Thomas Forster and James Crawford.
Andrew Gregg was elected to represent Lycoming County in the United States Congress, William Hepburn was voted to the Pennsylvania State Senate and Flavel Roan, Hugh White and Robert Martin served as representatives in the Pennsylvania General Assembly.1823: The county government funded the construction of the first bridges over Loyalsock and Lycoming Creeks.1839: The first railroad is built. It connected Williamsport with Ralston in northern Lycoming County; the railroad followed Lycoming Creek. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,244 square miles, of which 1,229 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water. Lycoming County is the largest county in second-largest by total area. Lycoming County is divided between the Appalachian Mountains in the south, the dissected Allegheny Plateau in the north and east, the valley of the West Branch Susquehanna River between these; the West Branch of the Susquehanna enters Lycoming County from Clinton County just west of the borough of Jersey Shore, on the northwest bank of the river.
The river flows east and a little north with some large curves for 15 miles to the city of Williamsport, followed by the borough of Montoursville as well as the boroughs of Duboistown and South Williamsport. The river flows just north of Bald Eagle Mountain through much of its course in Lycoming County, but it passes the end of the mountain and turns south just before the borough of Muncy, it continues south past the borough of Montgomery and leaves Lycoming County, where it forms the border between Union and Northumberland Counties. From there the West Branch merges with the North Branch Susquehanna River at Northumberland and flows south to the Chesapeake Bay; the major creeks of Lycoming County are all tributaries of the West Branch Susquehanna River. On the north or left bank of the river they are: Pine Creek which the river receives just west of Jersey Shore. Loyalsock and Muncy Creeks are the major watersheds of Sullivan County. There is White Deer Hole Creek, the only major creek in Lycoming County on the right bank of the river.
It is south of Bald Eagle Mountain, flows from west to east. The river receives it at the village of Allenwood in Gregg Township in Union County. Other creeks found on the right bank of the West Branch Susquehanna River in Lycoming County are minor, including Antes Creek in the Nippenose valley, Mosquito Creek, Hagermans Run, Black Hole Creek; the entire county is in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The percent of the county drained by each creek's watershed is as follows: Pine Creek, 15.27%.
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Shikellamy State Park
Shikellamy State Park is a 132-acre Pennsylvania state park located at the confluence of the West Branch Susquehanna River and Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania in the United States. The park is divided into two sections; the older part, on a bluff on the western bank of the river, is the 78-acre Shikellamy overlook in Union Township, Union County. The newer part is the 54-acre marina on the southern end of Packer Island in Upper Augusta Township, Northumberland County. Packer's Island lies between the city of Sunbury and the borough of Northumberland at the confluence of the two branches of the river. Shikellamy State Park is named in honor of an Iroquois chief. Chief Shikellamy played a major role in the history of the frontier in Pennsylvania, he was the American Colonists of the 18th century. Shikellamy's village was located near. Shikellamy State Park was opened in two different phases. First the overlook was opened for visitors in 1960, followed by the marina for boaters in 1972; the Adam T. Bower Memorial Dam is the world's longest inflatable dam and it impounds the Susquehanna River.
The dam is located just below the confluence of the West and North Branches of the Susquehanna, between the towns of Shamokin Dam and Sunbury. The dam is 2,100 feet long; when it is raised in the summer, it creates the 3,000-acre Lake Augusta, used for recreation. The dam and lake are part of Shikellamy State Park; the dam was named for Adam T. Bower, Chief Clerk of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1967–68 and Director of Services during the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1967-68, by Act 2001-5 of the Pennsylvania General Assembly. There are plans underway to add a fish ladder to the dam; the fish ladder is to allow the American shad to access the upper part of the Susquehanna. On this site there was the earlier Shamokin Dam; this dam maintained an adequate water level for ferry traffic across the Susquehanna from Shamokin to the west bank. It was destroyed in 1904 by the breakup of 22 inches of ice in the spring thaw; this is the dam. There is another, low head dam 1.2 miles down stream, for the Shamokin Dam Power Plant The Overlook has been an important prominent feature of the susquehanna valley for centuries.
Before Moravian settlers inhabitated the valley in the 18th century, the Penns creek path began and ended where county line road now sits, an important logistics route for the Native americans in the area. The path ran from Frankstown, through New Berlin, to Northumberland. In the 1840s, the cliff was home to John Mason, an eccentric bachelor who constructed a viewing tower that hung at a 45 degree angle of the precipice; the tower was destroyed in 1864. In 1894, a beautiful hotel was constructed where the current pavillion is now, that hotel burnt to the ground in 1898. In the early 20th century, the cliff was frequented by locals for picnics and leisure at what was called table rock. Wealthy mineral miners attempted an excavation of the cliff, in hopes of discovering valuable minerals, but were unsuccesful, leading to a small cut out which gives the appearance of a cave, there are no caves anywhere in the cliff. Over the years, scout camps and rehabilitation camps were set up on the land, in 1960 the state opened a public state park on the land.
Shikellamy Overlook offers two scenic overlooks. They are 360 feet above the confluence of the West Branch Susquehanna River and North Branch Susquehanna River. One can get a view of the northern and western rivers as well as a bird's-eye view of Northumberland and Hummels Wharf. A breeding pair of state-endangered peregrine falcons have established a successful nest on the cliffs below the scenic overlook, it is only the third known "wild nest" built by the birds in the state. Most other breeding pairs have been introduced to sites throughout the state by the Pennsylvania Game Commission. Both sections of Shikellamy State Park have a hiking trail. At the overlook there is a one-mile nature trail. Careful hikers will get the chance to observe some wildlife, they might see many different songbirds and a wide variety of wildflowers. Hikers can observe the development of forests at the overlook; the forest changes from scrub forest to mature hardwood forest. The marina is encircled by paved walking paths for those interested in taking a walk along the river and marina.
In the early-to-mid-19th century, the construction of a dam across the Susquehanna River, just south of the city of Sunbury, produced a lake known as Lake Augusta. In 1874 a group of rowers from Shamokin Dam and Sunbury competed in a regatta on Lake Augusta, rowing in both singles and doubles; the rowers from Shamokin Dam were victorious that day, winning a barrel of flour, gold sleeve buttons and a silver cup, while the rowers from Sunbury vowed to win in the next year. The most popular event of the day was a "tub" race in which the same rowers sat in wash tubs and paddled over a shorter course; the sport of rowing became a popular sport in central Pennsylvania, in 1888 a National Association of Amateur Oarsmen Championship was held on the Lake Augusta. Rowers traveled from as far away as Canada and the Midwest to compete, thousands of spectators lined the banks of the river; the number of spectators was so great, the railroad companies rerouted trains to accommodate the throngs of people. Rowing in Central Pennsylvania was popular until an ice surge in 1904 demolished the dam that made conditions ideal for the sport.