Rawlins is a city in Carbon County, United States. The population was 9,259 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Carbon County. It was named for Union General John Aaron Rawlins, who camped in the locality in 1867; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,259 people, 3,443 households, 2,206 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,123.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,960 housing units at an average density of 480.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.7% White, 1.1% African American, 1.3% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.2% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24.3% of the population. There were 3,443 households of which 35.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.9% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 34.3 years. 25.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 54.7% male and 45.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,538 people, 3,320 households, 2,237 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,153.4 people per square mile. There were 3,860 housing units at an average density of 521.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.86% White, 0.81% African American, 1.46% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 8.28% from other races, 2.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.05% of the population. There were 3,320 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,600, the median income for a family was $42,137. Males had a median income of $33,179 versus $22,580 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,887. About 10.4% of families and 13.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 17.7% of those age 65 or over. Rawlins is located in Wyoming. 41°47′25″N 107°14′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.28 square miles, of which, 8.24 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The city is 6800 feet above sea level.
Rawlins' climate is semi-arid. The Wyoming Department of Corrections Wyoming State Penitentiary is located in Rawlins; the facility was operated by the Wyoming Board of Charities and Reform until that agency was dissolved as a result of a state constitutional amendment passed in November 1990. The United States Postal Service operates the Rawlins Post Office. Residents are zoned to schools in the Carbon County School District#1All residents are zoned to Rawlins Elementary School, Rawlins Middle School and Rawlins High School. Western Wyoming Community College offers outreach programs through the Carbon County Higher Education Center; the main campus is housed in the former Sunny Side Elementary School building. Rawlins is served by the Rawlins Daily Times; the town's two radio stations, KRAL and KIQZ have both been silent for some time. The stations are owned by Inc.. Sources connected to the FCC say, "...that any station owned or operated by Mt. Rushmore Broadcasting will "not likely" have their licenses renewed once they expire, due to the history of "past violations and cavalier attitude towards following and maintaining" rules and regulations, that this and other Mt. Rushmore stations could have their broadcasting rights taken away "at any moment."
In early 2015, it was reported that staff had unexpectedly resigned, there was difficulty finding new employees. Interstate highways: I-80 East-west interstate running from New York City, NY to San Francisco, CA. I-80 runs south of Rawlins; the I-80 business loop runs through Rawlins, following Cedar Street before turning north onto Third Street, west onto Spruce Street. US routes: US 30 Runs concurrent with I-80; the US-30 business loop runs concurrent with the I-80 business loop. US 287 Runs through Rawlins on east Cedar Street before moving north onto North Higley Boulevard. Wyoming state highways: WYO 71 Starts at CR401 near Teton Reservoir and travels through southern parts of Rawlins until ending at Wyoming 78 near I-80 exit 214. WYO 78 Wyoming Highway 78 known as South Higley Boulevard, begins at the Wyoming State Penitentiary south of Rawlins, until ending at W
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st
Albany County, Wyoming
Albany County is a county in the U. S. state of Wyoming. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 36,299, its county seat is the site of the University of Wyoming. Its south border lies on the northern Colorado state line. Albany County comprises WY Micropolitan Statistical Area. Albany County was organized in 1868 of territory annexed from Laramie County in Dakota Territory, which at the time had jurisdiction over part of modern-day Wyoming, it became a county in Wyoming Territory when that territory's government was formally organized on May 19, 1869. Charles D. Bradley, a member of the legislature of the Dakota Territory named the county for Albany, New York, the capital of his native state. In 1875, the Wyoming Territorial legislature authorized portions of Albany County to be annexed to create Crook and Johnson counties, in 1888 land was taken from Albany County for the creation of Converse County. Further adjustments were made to the county's boundary in 1911 and 1955. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,309 square miles, of which 4,274 square miles is land and 35 square miles is water.
At the 2000 United States Census, there were 32,014 people, 13,269 households and 7,006 families in the county. The population density was 8 per square mile. There were 15,215 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.32% White, 1.11% Black or African American, 0.95% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.65% from other races, 2.22% from two or more races. 7.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 24.4 % were of 11.1 % English, 10.2 % Irish and 6.1 % American ancestry. There were 13,269 households of which 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.2% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.84. The county population contained 18.4% of the population under the age of 18, 28.2% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 8.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 106.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.4 males. The median household income was $28,790 and the median family income was $44,334. Males had a median income of $31,087 compared with $22,061 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,706. About 10.8% of families and 21.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.7% of those under the age of 18 and 8.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 36,299 people, 15,691 households, 7,430 families in the county; the population density was 8.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,939 housing units at an average density of 4.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.1% white, 2.8% Asian, 1.2% black or African American, 0.7% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.4% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 8.8% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 31.2% were German, 15.3% were Irish, 12.5% were English, 4.4% were American. Of the 15,691 households, 21.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.9% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 52.6% were non-families, 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age was 26.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,890 and the median income for a family was $70,054. Males had a median income of $43,484 versus $33,512 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,622. About 7.2% of families and 21.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.7% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over. Laramie Rock River Owing to the presence of a substantial student body at the University of Wyoming, Albany County voters have selected the Democratic Party candidate in national elections more than the state as a whole.
Since 1892 the county has selected the Republican Party candidate in 63% of national elections. National Register of Historic Places listings in Albany County, Wyoming
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit, it does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates; the proprietor is taxed on all income from the business. The term is often used colloquially to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.
Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common entities exist: Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgments against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, for example, a computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturing equipment, or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the sole proprietor. Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business; the three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are general partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships. Corporation: The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners.
Corporations can be either government-owned or owned, they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A owned, for-profit corporation can be either held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. Cooperative: Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. Limited liability companies, limited liability partnerships, other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections.
In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are not as protected. Franchises: A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open and run a business from a larger corporation. Franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of twelve retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. A company limited by guarantee: Commonly used where companies are formed for non-commercial purposes, such as clubs or charities; the members guarantee the payment of certain amounts if the company goes into insolvent liquidation, but otherwise, they have no economic rights in relation to the company. This type of company is common in England. A company limited by guarantee may be without having share capital. A company limited by shares: The most common form of the company used for business ventures. A limited company is a "company in which the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount individually invested" with corporations being "the most common example of a limited company."
This type of company is common in many English-speaking countries. A company limited by shares may be a publicly traded company or a held company A company limited by guarantee with a share capital: A hybrid entity used where the company is formed for non-commercial purposes, but the activities of the company are funded by investors who expect a return; this type of company may no longer be formed in the UK, although provisions still exist in law for them to exist. A limited liability company: "A company—statutorily authorized in certain states—that is characterized by limited liability, management by members or managers, limitations on ownership transfer", i.e. L. L. C. LLC structure has been called "hybrid" in that it "combines the characteristics of a corporation and of a partnership or sole proprietorship". Like a corporation, it has limited liability for members of the company, like a partnership, it has "flow-through taxation to the members" and must be "dissolved upon the death or bankruptcy of a member".
An unlimited company with or without a share capital: A hybrid entity, a company where the liability of members or shareholders for the debts of the company are not limited. In this case, the doctrine of a veil of incorporation does not apply. Less common types of companies are: Companies formed by letters patent: Most corpor
John J. Hickey
John Joseph Hickey was Governor of Wyoming, United States Senator from Wyoming and a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit. Born in Rawlins, Carbon County, Hickey's mother was an immigrant from Ireland, he received a Bachelor of Laws from University of Wyoming College of Law in 1934. He was in private practice of law in Rawlins from 1934 to 1942, he was city treasurer of Rawlins from 1935 to 1940. He was county attorney of Carbon County from 1939 to 1942, he was a United States Army Captain from 1942 to 1945. He was county attorney of Carbon County from 1946 to 1949, he was the United States Attorney for the District of Wyoming from 1949 to 1954. He was the Wyoming Democratic Party Chairman from 1954 to 1958, he was the Governor of Wyoming from 1958 to 1960. As Governor, he appointed himself as United States Senator from Wyoming from 1961 to 1962, but lost election in 1962, he was in private practice of law in Rawlins from 1962 to 1966. Hickey was nominated by President Lyndon B. Johnson on May 12, 1966, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit vacated by Judge John Coleman Pickett.
He was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 9, 1966, received his commission the same day. His service was terminated on September 1970, due to his death in Cheyenne, Wyoming, he was interred in Rawlins Cemetery. FJC BioUnited States Congress. "John J. Hickey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John J. Hickey at Find a Grave
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counselor, counselor at law, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services; the role of the lawyer varies across legal jurisdictions, so it can be treated here in only the most general terms. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine, recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers and solicitors, whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer. A solicitor is a lawyer, trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Both barristers and solicitors have gone through law school, completed the requisite practical training. However, in jurisdictions where there is a split-profession, only barristers are admitted as members of their respective bar association. In Australia, the word "lawyer" can be used to refer to both barristers and solicitors, whoever is admitted as a lawyer of the Supreme Court of a state or territory. In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practising in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used to refer to persons who provide reserved and unreserved legal activities and includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, registered foreign lawyers, patent attorneys, trade mark attorneys, licensed conveyancers, public notaries, commissioners for oaths, immigration advisers and claims management services. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the "legal activities" that may only be performed by a person, entitled to do so pursuant to the Act.'Lawyer' is not a protected title. In Pakistan, the term "Advocate" is used instead of lawyer in The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973. In India, the term "lawyer" is colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961. In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of trained people, it includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law.
It is never used to refer to patent paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept. In most countries civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners; these countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider. It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals. Notably, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between procurators in some civil law countries.
Several countries that had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to Anglo-American competition. In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States, that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro