Chicago Union Station
Chicago Union Station is a major railroad station that opened in 1925 in Chicago, replacing an earlier station built in 1881. It is the only remaining intercity rail terminal in Chicago, is the city's primary terminal for commuter trains; the station stands on the west side of the Chicago River between West Adams Street and West Jackson Boulevard, just outside the Chicago Loop. Including approach and storage tracks, it covers about nine and a half city blocks — underground, buried beneath streets and skyscrapers; the station serves as Amtrak's flagship station in the Midwest, is the downtown terminus for six Metra commuter lines. Chicago Union Station is the fourth-busiest rail terminal in the United States, after Grand Central Terminal and Penn Station and Jamaica station in New York City, it is Amtrak's overall fourth-busiest station, the busiest outside of its Northeast Corridor. It handles about 140,000 passengers on an average weekday and is one of Chicago's most iconic structures, reflecting the city's strong architectural heritage and historic achievements.
It has Bedford limestone Beaux-Arts facades, massive Corinthian columns, marble floors, a Great Hall, all highlighted by brass lamps. In 2011, its lighting system was replaced with more energy-efficient light bulbs and motion sensors, reducing the station's annual carbon emissions by 4 million tons. Custom steel lighting covers were added to top these safety/light towers, helping them blend in with the overall neoclassical style of the station. Chicago Union Station was designated as one of America's "Great Places" in 2012 by the American Planning Association; the program recognized the station as a "Great Public Space" for promoting social activity and reflecting local culture and history. In celebration of the 2018 Illinois Bicentennial, Union Station was selected as one of the Illinois 200 Great Places by the American Institute of Architects Illinois component. Union Station is laid out with a double stub-end configuration, with 10 tracks coming into the station from the north and 14 from the south.
Unlike most of Amtrak's major stations, every train calling at Union Station either originates or terminates there. There are two through tracks to allow out-of-service equipment moves between the north and south side, including one with a platform to allow extra long trains to board. Between the north and south sides of the station is a passenger concourse. Passengers can walk through the concourse to get from any platform to any other without stairs or elevators. Odd-numbered platforms are on the north half of the station, even-numbered platforms on the south half; the north tracks are used by Amtrak for the Hiawatha Service and the Empire Builder, by Metra for the Milwaukee District West, Milwaukee District North, North Central Service routes. The south tracks are used for all other services. Two station management structures, one on each side of the terminal, monitor train-to-track assignments and the flow of traffic in and out of the station. Actual oversight and control of switching and signalling is accomplished by two "train director" positions, one for each side of the station, located in the Amtrak control center in the station's headhouse.
Inside the concourse are ticket counters for both Metra and Amtrak services, as well as three waiting rooms and a baggage claim for Amtrak passengers, a set of restrooms, offices for Metra and Amtrak. The concourse has a mezzanine level between platform and street level, containing a food court featuring local vendors as well as national chains. Located west of Canal Street, Union Station's headhouse occupies an entire city block. At its center is the Great Hall, a 110-foot -high atrium capped by a large barrel-vaulted skylight. Arrayed around the Great Hall are numerous smaller spaces containing restaurants and services, a wide passageway leading to the concourse. Above the headhouse are several floors of office space used by Amtrak. Original plans called for many more floors of offices; this was never completed. Numerous entrances provide access to Union Station's underground platform level; the main entrance is on Canal Street opposite the headhouse, but passengers can reach the platforms directly from the headhouse via an underground passageway.
Two secondary entrances are located in Riverside Plaza near the Jackson Boulevard and Adams Street bridges. On Madison Street, across the street, one block east from Ogilvie Transportation Center, are a set of entrances to the north platforms; the current Union Station is the second by that name built in Chicago, the third rail station to occupy the site. The need for a single, centralized station was an important political topic in 19th and 20th-century Chicago, as various competing railroads had built a series of terminal stations; the numerous stations and associated railyards and tracks surrounded the city's central business district, the Loop, threatened its expansion. The various stations made travel difficult for through-travelers, many of whom had to make inconvenient and unpleasant transfers from one station to another through the Loop. On December 25, 1858, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad opened as far as Van Buren Street in Chicago, it built the first station at what would become today's Union Station on the west bank of the Chicago River.
On April 7, 1874 five railroads agreed to build and share a union station just north of the original Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, Chicago Railroad
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad
The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad; the company went through several official names and faced bankruptcy on multiple occasions throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In 1980, it abandoned its Pacific Extension as a cost-cutting measure following a 1977 bankruptcy. What remained of the system operated for another six years until it merged into the Soo Line Railroad, a subsidiary of Canadian Pacific Railway, on January 1, 1986. Although the "Milwaukee Road" as such ceased to exist, much of its trackage continues to be used by multiple railroads, it is commemorated in buildings like the historic Milwaukee Road Depot in Minneapolis and in railroad hardware still maintained by rail fans, such as the Milwaukee Road 261 steam locomotive. The railroad that became the Milwaukee Road began as the Milwaukee and Waukesha Railroad in Wisconsin, whose goal was to link the developing Lake Michigan port city of Milwaukee with the Mississippi River; the company incorporated in 1847, but changed its name to the Milwaukee and Mississippi Railroad in 1850 before construction began.
Its first line, all of 5 miles, opened between Milwaukee and Wauwatosa, on November 20, 1850. Extensions followed to Waukesha in February 1851, the Mississippi River at Prairie du Chien in 1857; as a result of the financial panic of 1857, the M&M went into receivership in 1859, was purchased by the Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien in 1861. In 1867, Alexander Mitchell combined the M&PdC with the Milwaukee and St. Paul under the name Milwaukee and St. Paul. Critical to the development and financing of the railroad was the acquisition of significant land grants. Prominent individual investors in the line included Alexander Mitchell, Russell Sage, Jeremiah Milbank and William Rockefeller. In 1874, the name was changed to Chicago, St. Paul after absorbing the Chicago & Pacific Railroad Company, the railroad that built the Bloomingdale Line as part of the 36-mile Elgin Subdivision from Halsted Street to the suburb of Elgin, Illinois. By 1887, the railroad had lines running through Wisconsin, Iowa, South Dakota, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.
The corporate headquarters were moved from Milwaukee to the Rand McNally Building in Chicago, America's first all-steel framed skyscraper, in 1889 and 1890, with the car and locomotive shops staying in Milwaukee. The company General Offices were located in Chicago's Railway Exchange building until 1924, at which time they moved to Chicago Union Station. In the 1890s the Milwaukee's directors felt they had to extend the railroad to the Pacific in order to remain competitive with other roads. A survey in 1901 estimated costs to build to the Pacific Northwest as $45 million. In 1905 the board approved the Pacific Extension, now estimated at $60 million, equal to $1.67 billion today. The contract for the western part of the route was awarded to Horace Chapin Henry of Seattle. Construction began in 1906 and was completed in 1909; the route chosen was 18 miles shorter than the next shortest competitor's, as well as better grades than some, but it was an expensive route, since the Milwaukee received few land grants and had to buy most of the land or acquire smaller railroads.
The two main mountain ranges that had to be crossed required major civil engineering works and additional locomotive power. The completion of 2,300 miles of railroad through some of the most varied topography in the nation in only three years was a major feat; some historians question the choice of route, since it bypassed some population centers and passed through areas with limited local traffic potential. Much of the line paralleled the Northern Pacific Railway. Trains magazine called the building of the extension a long-haul route, "egregious" and a "disaster." George H. Drury listed the Pacific Extension as one of several "wrong decisions" made by the Milwaukee's management which contributed to the company's eventual failure. Beginning in 1909, several smaller railroads were acquired and expanded to form branch lines along the Pacific Extension; the Montana Railroad formed the mainline route through Sixteenmile Canyon as well as the North Montana Line which extended North from Harlowton to Lewistown.
This branch led to the settlement of the Judith Basin and, by the 1970s, accounted for 30% of the Milwaukee Road's total traffic. The Gallatin Valley Electric Railway built as an interurban line, was extended from Bozeman to the mainline at Three Forks. In 1927 the railroad built the Gallatin Gateway Inn, where passengers travelling to Yellowstone National Park transferred to buses for the remainder of their journey; the White Sulphur Springs & Yellowstone Park Railway built by Lew Penwell and John Ringling carried lumber and agricultural products. Operating conditions in the mountain regions of the Pacific Extension proved difficult. Winter temperatures of −40 °F in Montana made it challenging for steam locomotives to generate sufficient steam; the line snaked through mountainous areas, resulting in "long steep grades and sharp curves." Elect
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Milwaukee metropolitan area
The Milwaukee metropolitan area is a major metropolitan area located in Southeastern Wisconsin, consisting of the city of Milwaukee and the surrounding area. There are several definitions of the area, including the Milwaukee–Waukesha–West Allis metropolitan area and the Milwaukee–Racine–Waukesha combined statistical area, it is the largest metropolitan area in Wisconsin, the 39th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The U. S. Census Bureau defines the Milwaukee Metropolitan area as containing four counties in southeastern Wisconsin: Milwaukee, Waukesha and Ozaukee; the Metropolitan population of Milwaukee was 1,572,245 in a 2014 estimate. The city of Milwaukee is the hub of the metropolitan area; the eastern parts of Racine County, eastern parts of Waukesha County, southern part of Ozaukee County, southeastern part of Washington County, remainder of Milwaukee County are the most urbanized parts of the outlying counties. The character of the area varies widely. Mequon and the North Shore are more white-collar, while West Milwaukee, West Allis, St. Francis are more blue-collar.
Metro Milwaukee draws commuters from outlying areas such as Madison and the Fox Cities. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis containing an estimated 54 million people; the Milwaukee–Racine–Waukesha Combined Statistical Area is made up of the Milwaukee–Waukesha–West Allis Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Racine Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Beaver Dam Micropolitan Statistica Area, the Watertown-Fort Atkinson Micropolitan Area, the Whitewater-Elkorn Micropolitan Area according to the U. S. Census. Updated definitions released in February 2013 added Dodge and Walworth Counties to the Milwaukee CSA. Kenosha, despite being just 32 miles from Milwaukee and 50 miles from Chicago, is included as part of the Chicago CSA, as Kenosha has more residents who commute to the Chicago area. In a 2014 estimate the Milwaukee–Racine–Waukesha Combined Statistical Area population was 2,043,904, the largest in Wisconsin and the 30th largest in the United States. There are eight counties in the U. S. Census Bureau's Milwaukee–Racine–Waukesha Combined statistical area.
Dodge Milwaukee Jefferson Ozaukee Racine Walworth Washington Waukesha Milwaukee Racine Waukesha Although each county and its various municipalities are self-governing, there is some cooperation in the metropolitan area. The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District is a state-chartered government agency which serves 28 municipalities in the five counties. At the same time, some in the area see the need for more consolidation in government services; the Kettl Commission and former Wisconsin Governor Scott McCallum have supported initiatives to do this. However, full consolidation has been criticized as a means of diluting minority voting power. Metro Milwaukee Portal 2003 article on consolidation of area governments https://web.archive.org/web/20170118134056/https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/bulletins/2013/b-13-01.pdf
Checked baggage is luggage delivered to an airline or train for transportation in the hold of an aircraft or baggage car of a passenger train. Checked baggage is inaccessible to the passenger during the flight or ride, as opposed to carry-on baggage; this baggage is limited by airlines with regard to size and number dependent upon the fare paid, or class of ticket. Baggage exceeding the limits is regarded as excess baggage; every airline has its own policies with regard to baggage allowance. The policy is dependent on where the flight goes to or comes from. Tickets executed by multiple airlines may have different rules; the exact conditions of a specific booking are mentioned in the ticket information online. On short-haul internal flights in the US, with some exceptions, checked baggage is no longer complimentary with most discounted economy tickets, must be paid for in addition to the ticket price. For long-haul and transoceanic flights, checked baggage is included as standard. Low-cost carriers such as Ryanair in Europe and AirAsia in Asia charge for checked baggage, whilst for full-service airlines the cost is included in the ticket price.
According to the rules of most air transportation authorities, such as the U. S. Federal Aviation Administration and European Union's Joint Aviation Authorities, should passengers flying internationally with checked baggage fail to arrive at the departure gate before the flight is closed, that person's baggage must be retrieved from the aircraft hold before the flight is permitted to take off. For Singapore, passengers with prohibited items are required to take it out from the bags retrieved at the check-in counter, failing which the baggage will be flagged with prohibited items and will be dumped away before boarding. In the United States, this does not apply to domestic flights since all bags are required to go through explosive detection machines prior to loading. Making sure passengers board flights onto which they have checked baggage is called "passenger-baggage reconciliation" and is accomplished automatically through two commercially available systems; the security presumption of passenger-baggage reconciliation is that terrorists will not want to kill themselves, will not board an aircraft if they have caused a bomb to be placed in its hold.
This presumption does not hold true of suicide bombers. Unaccompanied suitcases led to the downing of four flights, when a bomb inside the suitcase exploded: 1983: Gulf Air Flight 771 1985: Air India Flight 182 1988: Pan Am Flight 103 1989: UTA Flight 772 Spare lithium-ion batteries, inclusive of battery packs and powerbanks are not allowed on checked-in luggage. Excess baggage is the amount of baggage, in excess of the free allowance in size, number, or weight permitted for the journey. At the carrier's discretion, this may be carried at an extra charge, but no guarantee is made and it may have to be sent as freight instead; some airlines impose excess baggage embargoes on certain routes, indicating that they will accept no excess baggage. Bag tag
Tacoma station (Milwaukee Road)
The Milwaukee Road Depot was a passenger rail station in Tacoma, owned by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, it opened in 1954 and closed in 1961. It was the Milwaukee Road's final station in Tacoma, replacing a station owned by the Tacoma Eastern Railroad; the building was designed by K. E. Hornung of Chicago; the station interior was 4,000 square feet and included a ticket office, baggage room, a separate lounge for women. A noteworthy feature of the waiting room was a gold-toned mural of the Chicago skyline; the masonry construction incorporated a Red Roman brick finish. The building's centerpiece was a 32 feet tower topped by a large stainless-steel sign bearing the name of the company; the waiting room itself featured full-height glass windows on two facings, overlooking the Milwaukee rail yards. The station cost the Milwaukee Road $150,000; the Milwaukee Road had used the Tacoma Eastern Railroad's former station since beginning service to Tacoma in 1909. That station was located at South 25th and A street, near the present location of the South 25th Street Tacoma Link station and Interstate 705.
The new station sat at East 11th and Milwaukee Way, near the Milwaukee Road's yard in the Tideflats area and 1.7 miles from the old station. The first train to use the station was a westbound Columbian, which arrived from Chicago on April 20, 1954; the first train to depart was an eastbound Olympian Hiawatha. Service ended with the discontinuation of the Olympian Hiawatha on May 22, 1961. Union Station Media related to Milwaukee Road Tideflats station at Wikimedia Commons
Hiawatha Service, or Hiawatha, is the name of an 86-mile train route operated by Amtrak on the western shore of Lake Michigan, although the name was applied to several different routes that extended across the Midwest and to the Pacific Ocean. As of 2007, fourteen trains run daily between Chicago and Milwaukee, making intermediate stops in Glenview, Sturtevant and Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport; the line is supported by funds from the state governments of Wisconsin and Illinois. The service carried over 800,000 passengers in fiscal year 2011, a 4.7% increase over FY2010. Revenue during FY2011 totaled $14,953,873, a 6.1% increase over FY2010. It is Amtrak's ninth-busiest route, the railroad's busiest line in the Midwest. Ridership has been increasing, with 8 of the last 9 years showing ridership increases as of 2013. Ridership per mile is very high, exceeded only by the Northeast Regional and the Capitol Corridor. A one-way trip between Milwaukee and Chicago takes about 90 minutes. In the 1930s the same trip took 75 minutes on the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad's Hiawatha.
In 2014, free WiFi service was added to the Hiawatha. The Hiawatha Service is the second-shortest route on the Amtrak system, with the first being the New Haven–Springfield Shuttle; the Hiawathas were operated by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad and traveled from Chicago to the Twin Cities; the first Hiawatha trains ran in 1935. By 1948, there were five routes carrying the Hiawatha name: Chicago–Minneapolis, Chicago–Omaha, Chicago–Wausau–Minocqua, Chicago–Ontanogan, Chicago-Minneapolis-Seattle; the Hiawathas were among the world's fastest trains in the 1930s and 1940s, these trains reached some of their peak speeds on this stretch, directly competing with trains from the Chicago and North Western Railway which ran on parallel tracks. A 90-minute non-stop service between Chicago and Milwaukee was first introduced in the mid-1930s, this fell to 75 minutes for several years. A self-imposed 100 miles per hour speed limit was exceeded by locomotive engineers, until the Interstate Commerce Commission rules imposed a stricter limit of 90 mph in the early 1950s, the train slowed to a schedule of 80 minutes, though an added stop in Glenview contributed to a longer travel time.
The speed limit fell to 79 mph in 1968 because of signaling changes, the scheduled duration went back to 90 minutes end-to-end. Under Amtrak, which assumed control of most intercity passenger rail service in the United States on May 1, 1971, the Hiawatha name survived in two forms; the first was a Chicago–Milwaukee–Minneapolis service, known as the Hiawatha. This would be renamed the Twin Cities Hiawatha extended to Seattle and renamed the North Coast Hiawatha; this service ended in 1979. The second was a Chicago–Milwaukee corridor known as the Hiawatha Service. Although Amtrak had retained Chicago–Milwaukee service during the transition, it did not name these trains until October 29, 1972. At this time both Hiawatha and Hiawatha Service could be found on the same timetable. On June 15, 1976, Amtrak introduced Turboliners to the route and the name Hiawatha Service left the timetable, not to return until 1989; the Chicago–Milwaukee trains were known as "Turboliners" until October 26, 1980, when Amtrak introduced individual names for each of the trains.
This practice ended on October 29, 1989, when the name Hiawatha Service returned as an umbrella term for all Chicago–Milwaukee service. A resurfacing project on Interstate 94 led to a three-month trial of service west of Milwaukee to Watertown, Wisconsin beginning on April 13, 1998. Intermediate stops included Wauwatosa, Elm Grove and Oconomowoc. Amtrak extended four of the six daily Hiawathas over the route; the Canadian Pacific Railway, which owned the tracks, estimated that the route would require between $15–33 million in capital investment before it could host the extended service permanently. Money was not forthcoming and service ended July 11; the three-month trial carried 32,000 passengers. Between 2000 and 2001, Amtrak considered extending one Hiawatha Service round-trip 70 miles north from Milwaukee to Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. Potential stops included Elm Grove, Brookfield and Lomira. Travel time would be nearly two hours. Amtrak hoped to attract mail and express business along the route as part of its Network Growth Strategy, similar to the short-lived Lake Country Limited.
Amtrak abandoned the idea in September 2001. In 2005, another station opened on the line, the Milwaukee Airport Railroad Station at Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport; the expansion was intended to facilitate travel to and from the airport, with shuttles running between the station and the main terminal. The new station gave residents on the south side of Milwaukee easier access to the service, along with an alternative to the central station in downtown, now accessible after completion of the Marquette Interchange; the station was funded and is maintained by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. It is proposed that the Hiawatha Service, along with the Empire Builder would shift one stop north to North Glenview in Glenview, Illinois; this move would eliminate lengthy stops. This move would involve reconstruction of the North Glenview station to handle the additional traffic, depends on commitments from Glenview, the Illinois Gener