Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
Happy Days is an American television sitcom that aired first-run from January 15, 1974 to September 24, 1984 on ABC, with a total of 255 half-hour episodes spanning eleven seasons. Created by Garry Marshall, the series presented one of the most successful series of the 1970s, an idealized vision of life in the mid-1950s to mid-1960s Midwestern United States, starred Ron Howard as teenager Richie Cunningham, Henry Winkler as his friend Arthur "Fonzie"/"The Fonz" Fonzarelli, Tom Bosley and Marion Ross as Richie's parents and Marion Cunningham. Happy Days became one of the biggest hits in television history and influenced the television style of its time; the series began as an unsold pilot starring Howard and Anson Williams, which aired in 1972 as a segment entitled "Love and the Television Set" on ABC's anthology show Love, American Style. Based on the pilot, director George Lucas cast Howard as the lead in his 1973 hit film American Graffiti, causing ABC to take a renewed interest in the pilot.
The first two seasons of Happy Days focused on the experiences and dilemmas of "innocent teenager" Richie Cunningham, his family, his high school friends, attempting to "honestly depict a wistful look back at adolescence". A moderate hit, the series' ratings began to fall during its second season, causing Marshall to retool it emphasizing broad comedy and spotlighting the minor character of Fonzie, a "cool" biker and high school dropout. Following these changes, Happy Days became the number-one program in television in 1976–1977, Fonzie became one of the most merchandised characters of the 1970s, Henry Winkler became a major star; the series spawned a number of spin-offs, including the hit shows Laverne & Shirley and Mork & Mindy. Set in Milwaukee, the series revolves around teenager Richie Cunningham and his family: his father, who owns a hardware store; the earlier episodes revolve around Richie and his friends, Potsie Weber and Ralph Malph, with Fonzie as a secondary character. However, as the series progressed, Fonzie proved to be a favorite with viewers and soon more story lines were written to reflect his growing popularity, Winkler was credited with top billing in the opening credits alongside Howard as a result.
Fonzie befriended Richie and the Cunningham family, when Richie left the series for military service, Fonzie became the central figure of the show, with Winkler receiving sole top billing in the opening credits. In seasons, other characters were introduced including Fonzie's young cousin, Charles "Chachi" Arcola, who became a love interest for Joanie Cunningham; the eleven seasons of the series track the eleven years from 1955 to 1965, inclusive, in which the show was set. The series' pilot was shown as Love and the Television Set retitled Love and the Happy Days for syndication, a one-episode teleplay on the anthology series Love, American Style, aired on February 25, 1972. Happy Days spawned the hit television shows Laverne & Shirley and Mork & Mindy as well as three failures, Joanie Loves Chachi, Blansky's Beauties featuring Nancy Walker as Howard's cousin, Out of the Blue; the show is the basis for the Happy Days musical touring the United States since 2008. The leather jacket worn by Winkler during the series was acquired by the Smithsonian Institution for the permanent collection at the National Museum of American History.
The original tan McGregor jacket Winkler wore during the first season was thrown into the garbage after ABC relented and allowed the Fonzie character to wear a leather jacket. With season four, Al Molinaro was added as Al Delvecchio, the new owner of Arnold's, after Pat Morita's character of Arnold moved on after his character got married. Al Molinaro played Al's twin brother Father Anthony Delvecchio, a Catholic priest. Al married Chachi's mother and Father Delvecchio served in the wedding of Joanie to Chachi in the series finale; the most major character changes occurred after season five with the addition of Scott Baio as Fonzie's cousin, Charles "Chachi" Arcola. The character Spike was supposed to be the character who became Chachi. Season five saw the introduction of more outlandish and bizarre plots including Fonzie making a bet with the Devil, the appearance of Mork, an alien who wanted to take Richie back to his homeworld. Although when first aired this ended with it all being a dream Richie was having, this episode was retconned in subsequent airings by way of additional footage to have taken place, with Mork having wiped everyone's memory except Richie's and deciding to time travel to the present day.
Lynda Goodfriend joined the cast as semi-regular character Lori Beth Allen, Richie's steady girlfriend, in season five, became a permanent member of the cast between seasons eight and nine, after Lori Beth married Richie. After Ron Howard left the series, Ted McGinley joined the cast as Roger Phillips, the new physical educat
Dawn of the Dead (2004 film)
Dawn of the Dead is a 2004 American action horror film directed by Zack Snyder, produced by Richard P. Rubinstein, Marc Abraham and by Eric Newman and the screenplay written by James Gunn while the special effects for the film were done by Heather Langenkamp and David LeRoy Anderson, who co-own AFX Studio, it is the remake of George A. Romero's 1978 film, stars Sarah Polley, Ving Rhames, Jake Weber, Mekhi Phifer, its plot centers on a handful of human survivors living in a shopping mall located in the fictional town of Everett, surrounded by swarms of zombies. Ty Burrell, Michael Kelly, Kevin Zegers, Lindy Booth play supporting roles; the film was released by Universal Pictures on March 19, 2004. The film grossed $102 million worldwide against a budget of $26 million. After finishing a long shift as a nurse, Ana returns to her suburban neighborhood and her husband, Luis. Caught up in a scheduled date night, they miss an emergency news bulletin; the next morning, a neighborhood girl enters their bedroom and kills Luis, who reanimates as a zombie and attacks Ana.
She flees in her car and passes out. Upon waking, Ana joins police sergeant Kenneth Hall, electronics salesman Michael, petty criminal Andre and his pregnant wife, Luda, they are attacked by a zombified security guard, who scratches Luda. Three living guards—C. J. Bart, Terry—make them surrender their weapons in exchange for refuge, they split into groups to secure the mall. On the roof, they see another survivor, stranded in his gun store across the zombie-infested parking lot; the next day, a delivery truck carrying more survivors enters the lot, pursued by zombies. C. J. and Bart are overruled and disarmed. The newcomers include Norma, Tucker, Glen and his daughter, Nicole. Another woman is too ill to walk. After she is killed, the group determines. Andre leaves to see Luda, they realize that Frank is a potential threat. After some debate, Frank elects to be isolated; when he dies and turns, Kenneth shoots him. Kenneth and Andy start a friendship by way of messages written on a whiteboard; when the power goes out, CJ, Bart and Kenneth go to the parking garage to activate the emergency generator.
Zombies kill Bart, forcing the others to douse the zombies in gas and set them ablaze. Meanwhile, Luda -- tied up by Andre -- dies, she reanimates as Norma checks on the couple. When Norma kills the zombified Luda, Andre snaps; the others arrive to find a zombie baby. The group decides to fight their way to the local marina and travel on Steve's yacht to an island on Lake Michigan, they reinforce two shuttle buses from the parking garage for their escape. To rescue Andy, the group straps supplies onto the dog and lower him into the parking lot. Chips enters Andy's store safely. Nicole, fond of Chips, crashes the delivery truck into the gun store, where she is trapped by a zombified Andy. Kenneth, Tucker, C. J. reach the gun store via the sewers, kill Andy, rescue Nicole. They go back to the mall. J shoots him out of mercy. Once inside, they are unable to lock the door. While navigating through the city, Glen loses control of a chainsaw, accidentally killing himself and Monica. Steve is ambushed by a zombie.
While C. J. Kenneth, Terry look for survivors, Ana kills the zombified Steve and retrieves his boat keys. At the marina, C. J sacrifices himself. Michael, after revealing a bite wound, kills himself as Ana, Nicole and Chips flee on the yacht. Footage from a camcorder found on the boat shows Steve's escapades before the outbreak and concludes as the group runs out of supplies, arrives at an island, is attacked by a swarm of zombies; the camcorder drops. Plans to remake George A. Romero's 1978 cult horror film Dawn of the Dead was conceived by producer Eric Newman. A fan of the original film, Newman offered Strike Entertainment's Marc Abraham to produce the remake with him, which Abraham accepted, he and Abraham secured the rights to the film after it was handed over by Richard P. Rubinstein, the original's producer. Rubinstein stated that he agreed to grant the rights after several years because he was worried "that somewhere along the way a studio would sanitize Newman's vision for producing a version with'attitude'," as Romero's film was independently produced.
In addition, the producer was impressed by Abraham's "long track record in keeping the creative integrity of the studio distributed films he has produced intact". Newman and Abraham said that the new Dawn of the Dead is more of a "re-envisioning" of Romero's film, geared toward younger audiences who had not seen the original. Newman stated that the production's goal is "to make a lot of new fans; because that's the only reason we are doing it." He cited his favorite classic horror films Invasion of the Body Snatchers, The Thing, The Fly as cinematic influences, explaining that these had "som
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; the word "Michigan" referred to the lake itself, is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water". Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians, their culture declined after 800 AD, for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa.
The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan in 1634 or 1638. In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron; the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox–Wisconsin Waterway.
The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago travelled east over Lake Michigan during the antebellum years, only falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping; the first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition. In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College; this formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated; the warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in 2018. In each decade since 1980, steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred; this is to lead to decreasing native habitat and to adversely affect native species survival. Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States, it lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area, it is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long.
The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay. Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas; the economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by Lake Michigan. Seasonal residents have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter; the southern
A microbrewery or craft brewery is a brewery that produces small amounts of beer much smaller than large-scale corporate breweries, is independently owned. Such breweries are characterized by their emphasis on quality and brewing technique; the microbrewing movement began in the United Kingdom in the 1970s, although traditional artisanal brewing existed in Europe for centuries and subsequently spread to other countries. As the movement grew, some breweries expanded their production and distribution, the more encompassing concept of craft brewing emerged. A brewpub is a pub. Although the term "microbrewery" was used in relation to the size of breweries, it came to reflect an alternative attitude and approach to brewing flexibility, adaptability and customer service; the term and trend spread to the US in the 1980s and was used as a designation of breweries that produce fewer than 15,000 U. S. beer barrels annually. Microbreweries have adopted a marketing strategy that differs from those of the large, mass-market breweries, offering products that compete on the basis of quality and diversity instead of low price and advertising.
Their influence has been much greater than their market share, which amounts to only 2% in the UK, indicated by the introduction by large commercial breweries of new brands for the craft beer market. However, when the strategy failed, the corporate breweries invested in microbreweries or, in many cases, acquired them outright. Microbreweries appeared in other countries, such as New Zealand and Australia. Craft beer and microbreweries were cited as the reason for a 15 million L drop in alcohol sales in New Zealand over 2012, with New Zealanders preferring higher-priced premium beers over cheaper brands; the website The Food Section defines a "nanobrewery" as "a scaled-down microbrewery run by a solo entrepreneur, that produces beer in small batches." The US Department of the Treasury defines nanobreweries as "very small brewery operations" that produce beer for sale. The term "farm brewery" or "farmhouse brewery" has been around for centuries. Several beer styles are considered "farmhouse" stemming from farmers brewing low ABV beer as an incentive for field workers.
Farm breweries were not large scale. This had different effects on the overall product; the term "farm brewery" has more found its way into several local and state laws, in order to give farm breweries certain agriculturally related, privileges not found under standard brewery laws. These privileges come at a price: some portion of the ingredients used in the beer must be grown on the given licensed farm brewery. "Craft brewing" is a more encompassing term for developments in the industry succeeding the microbrewing movement of the late 20th century. The definition is not consistent but applies to small, independently-owned commercial breweries that employ traditional brewing methods and emphasize flavor and quality; the term is reserved for breweries established since the 1970s but may be used for older breweries with a similar focus. A United States trade group, the Brewers Association, interested in brand transparency, offers a definition of craft breweries as "small and traditional"; the craft brewing process can be considered an art by the brewmasters.
In the United Kingdom, the "Assured Independent British Craft Brewer" initiative is run by the Society of Independent Brewers, who ensure that any beers which carry the Independent Craft Brewer logo are small and brewing quality beer. The use of cans by craft brewers in the US has doubled since 2012, with over 500 companies using cans to package their beverages. Associated with the major brewing corporations, cans are now favored by craft brewers for numerous reasons: cans are impervious to oxygen, beer-degrading light does not affect canned beer, canned beer is more portable since less room is required for storage or transportation, canned beer cools more and cans have a greater surface area for wraparound designs and decorations; the perception that bottles lead to a taste, superior to canned beer is outdated, as most aluminum cans are lined with a polymer coating that protects the beer from the problematic metal. However, since drinking directly from a can may still result in a metallic taste, most craft brewers recommend pouring beer into a glass prior to consumption.
In June 2014, the BA estimated 3% of craft beer is sold in cans, 60% is sold in bottles, kegs represent the remainder of the market. Brewpub is an abbreviated term combining the ideas of a pub or public-house. A brewpub can be a restaurant that brews beer on the premises. Beer arrived in Australia at the beginning of British colonisation. In 2004, Australia was ranked fourth internationally in per capita beer consumption, at around 110 L per year, though lower in terms of total per capita alcohol consumption; the most popular beer style in modern-day Australia is lager. The oldest brewery still in operation is the Cascade Brewery, established in Tasmania in 1824; the largest Australian-owned brewery is the family-owned Coopers, as the other two major breweries, Foster's and Lion Nathan are owned by the British-South African SABMiller and the Japanese Kirin Brewing Company respectively. Foster's Lager is made for export or under licence in other countr
A statue is a free-standing sculpture in which the realistic, full-length figures of persons or animals or non-representational forms are carved in a durable material like wood, metal, or stone. Typical statues are close to life-size. Statues have been produced in many cultures from prehistory to the present. Statues represent many different people and animals and mythical. Many statues are placed in a public places as public art; the world's tallest statue, Statue of Unity, is 182 metres tall and is located near the Narmada dam in Gujarat, India. Ancient statues survive showing the bare surface of the material of which they are made. For example, many people associate Greek classical art with white marble sculpture, but there is evidence that many statues were painted in bright colors. Most of the color has weathered off over time. A travelling exhibition of 20 coloured replicas of Greek and Roman works, alongside 35 original statues and reliefs, was held in Europe and the United States in 2008: Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity.
Details such as whether the paint was applied in one or two coats, how finely the pigments were ground, or which binding medium would have been used in each case—all elements that would affect the appearance of a finished piece—are not known. Richter goes so far as to say of classical Greek sculpture, "All stone sculpture, whether limestone or marble, was painted, either wholly or in part." Medieval statues were usually painted, with some still retaining their original pigments. The coloring of statues ceased during the Renaissance, as excavated classical sculptures, which had lost their coloring, became regarded as the best models; the Löwenmensch figurine from the Swabian Alps in Germany is the oldest known statue in the world, dates to 30,000-40,000 years ago. The Venus of Hohle Fels, from the same area, is somewhat later. Throughout history, statues have been associated with cult images in many religious traditions, from Ancient Egypt, Ancient India, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome to the present.
Egyptian statues showing kings as sphinxes have existed since the Old Kingdom, the oldest being for Djedefre. The oldest statue of a striding pharaoh dates from the reign of Senwosret I and is the Egyptian Museum, Cairo; the Middle Kingdom of Egypt witnessed the growth of block statues which became the most popular form until the Ptolemaic period. The oldest statue of a deity in Rome was the bronze statue of Ceres in 485 BC; the oldest statue in Rome is now the statue of Diana on the Aventine. The wonders of the world include several statues from antiquity, with the Colossus of Rhodes and the Statue of Zeus at Olympia among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. While Byzantine art flourished in various forms and statue making witnessed a general decline. An example was the statue of Justinian which stood in the square across from the Hagia Sophia until the fall of Constantinople in the 15th century. Part of the decline in statue making in the Byzantine period can be attributed to the mistrust the Church placed in the art form, given that it viewed sculpture in general as a method for making and worshiping idols.
While making statues was not subject to a general ban, it was hardly encouraged in this period. Justinian was one of the last Emperors to have a full-size statue made, secular statues of any size became non-existent after iconoclasm. Starting with the work of Maillol around 1900, the human figures embodied in statues began to move away from the various schools of realism that been followed for thousands of years; the Futurist and Cubist schools took this metamorphism further until statues still nominally representing humans, had lost all but the most rudimentary relationship to the human form. By the 1920s and 1930s statues began to appear that were abstract in design and execution; the notion that the position of the hooves of horses in equestrian statues indicated the rider's cause of death has been disproved. UK Public Monument and Sculpture Association
A zombie is a fictional undead being created through the reanimation of a human corpse. Zombies are most found in horror and fantasy genre works; the term comes from Haitian folklore, in which a zombie is a dead body reanimated through various methods, most magic. Modern depictions of the reanimation of the dead do not involve magic but invoke science fictional methods such as carriers, mental diseases, pathogens, scientific accidents, etc; the English word "zombie" was first recorded in 1819, in a history of Brazil by the poet Robert Southey, in the form of "zombi". The Oxford English Dictionary gives the origin of the word as West African, compares it to the Kongo words nzambi and zumbi. A Kimbundu-to-Portuguese dictionary from 1903 defines the related word nzumbi as soul, while a Kimbundu–Portuguese dictionary defines it as being a "spirit, supposed to wander the earth to torment the living."One of the first books to expose Western culture to the concept of the voodoo zombie was The Magic Island by W. B.
Seabrook in 1929. This is the sensationalized account of a narrator who encounters voodoo cults in Haiti and their resurrected thralls. Time claimed that the book "introduced'zombi' into U. S. speech". Zombies have a complex literary heritage, with antecedents ranging from Richard Matheson and H. P. Lovecraft to Mary Shelley's Frankenstein drawing on European folklore of the undead. In 1932, Victor Halperin directed a horror film starring Bela Lugosi. Here zombies are depicted unthinking henchmen under the spell of an evil magician. Zombies still using this voodoo-inspired rationale, were uncommon in cinema, but their appearances continued sporadically through the 1930s to the 1960s, with notable films including I Walked with a Zombie and Plan 9 from Outer Space. A new version of the zombie, distinct from that described in Haitian folklore, emerged in popular culture during the latter half of the twentieth century; this "zombie" is taken from George A. Romero's seminal film Night of the Living Dead, in turn inspired by Richard Matheson's 1954 novel I Am Legend.
The word zombie is not used in Night of the Living Dead but was applied by fans. The monsters in the film and its sequels, such as Dawn of the Dead and Day of the Dead, as well as its many inspired works, such as Return of the Living Dead and Zombi 2, are hungry for human flesh, although Return of the Living Dead introduced the popular concept of zombies eating brains; the "zombie apocalypse" concept, in which the civilized world is brought low by a global zombie infestation, has since become a staple of modern popular art. However, the late 2000s and 2010s saw the humanization and romanticization of the zombie archetype, with the zombies portrayed as friends and love interests for humans. Notable examples of the latter include movies Warm Bodies and Life After Beth, novels American Gods by Neil Gaiman, Generation Dead by Daniel Waters, Bone Song by John Meaney, animated movie Corpse Bride, TV series Pushing Daisies and iZombie, manga/anime series Sankarea: Undying Love. In this context, zombies are seen as stand-ins for discriminated groups struggling for equality, the human-zombie romantic relationship is interpreted as a metaphor for sexual liberation and taboo breaking.
The English word "zombie" is first recorded in 1819, in a history of Brazil by the poet Robert Southey, in the form of "zombi" referring to the Muslim Afro-Brazilian rebel leader named Zumbi and the etymology of his name in "nzambi". The Oxford English Dictionary gives the origin of the word as West African and compares it to the Kongo words "nzambi" and "zumbi". In Haitian folklore, a zombie is an animated corpse raised by magical means, such as witchcraft; the concept has been popularly associated with the religion of voodoo, but it plays no part in that faith's formal practices. How the creatures in contemporary zombie films came to be called "zombies" is not clear; the film Night of the Living Dead made no spoken reference to its undead antagonists as "zombies", describing them instead as "ghouls". Although George Romero used the term "ghoul" in his original scripts, in interviews he used the term "zombie"; the word "zombie" is used by Romero in his 1978 script for his sequel Dawn of the Dead, including once in dialog.
According to George Romero, film critics were influential in associating the term "zombie" to his creatures, the French magazine "Cahiers du Cinéma". He accepted this linkage though he remained convinced at the time that "zombies" corresponded to the undead slaves of Haitian voodoo as depicted in Bela Lugosi's White Zombie. Zombies are featured in Haitian rural folklore as dead persons physically revived by the act of necromancy of a bokor, a sorcerer or witch; the bokor is opposed by the houngan or priest and the mambo or priestess of the formal voodoo religion. A zombie remains under the control of the bokor as a personal slave; the Haitian tradition includes an incorporeal type of zombie, the "zombie astral", a part of the human soul. A bokor can capture a zombie astral to enhance his spiritual power. A zombie astral can be sealed inside a specially decorated bottle by a bokor and sold to a client to bring luck, healing, or business success, it is believed that God will reclaim the zombie's soul, so the zombie is a temporary spiritual ent