Brooklyn Academy of Music
The Brooklyn Academy of Music is a performing arts venue in Brooklyn, New York City, known as a center for progressive and avant garde performance. It presented its first performance in 1861 and began operations in its present location in 1908. Katy Clark has been president since 2015 and David Binder became artistic director in 2019. Founded in 1861, the first BAM facility at 176–194 Montague Street in Brooklyn Heights was conceived as the home of the Philharmonic Society of Brooklyn; the building, designed by architect Leopold Eidlitz, housed a large theater seating 2,109, a smaller concert hall and chorus rooms, a vast "baronial" kitchen. BAM presented amateur and professional music and theater productions, including performers such as Ellen Terry, Edwin Booth, Fritz Kreisler. After the building burned to the ground on November 30, 1903, plans were made to relocate to a new facility in the fashionable neighborhood of Fort Greene; the cornerstone was laid at 30 Lafayette Avenue in 1906 and a series of opening events were held in the fall of 1908 culminating in a grand gala evening featuring Geraldine Farrar and Enrico Caruso in a Metropolitan Opera production of Charles Gounod's Faust.
The Met would continue to present seasons in Brooklyn, featuring star singers such as Caruso until 1921. BAM is adjacent to downtown Brooklyn, near the Long Island Rail Road's Atlantic Terminal, the Barclays Center arena, the Williamsburgh Savings Bank Tower, once the tallest building in Brooklyn. BAM is part of the Brooklyn Cultural District. In 1967, Harvey Lichtenstein was appointed executive director and during his 32 years in that role, BAM experienced a turnaround, attracting audiences with new programming and establishing an endowment. BAM, a multi-venue cultural center, hosts the annual Next Wave Festival in the fall, it began in 1983, features performances by international and American artists. Its Winter/Spring season of theater and music is presented from January through June. Humanities and events for children take place throughout the year, plus first-run and repertory films and series. From 1999 to 2015, Karen Brooks Hopkins was president and Joseph V. Melillo was executive producer through 2018.
Artists who have presented work at BAM include Philip Glass, Trisha Brown, Peter Brook, Pina Bausch, Merce Cunningham, Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Company, Laurie Anderson, Lee Breuer, ETHEL, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Steve Reich, Mark Morris, Robert Wilson, Peter Sellars, BLACKstreet, Ingmar Bergman, Ralph Lemon, Ivo van Hove, the Mariinsky Theater and conducted by Valery Gergiev, among others. Lichtenstein gave a home to the Chelsea Theater Center, in residence from 1967–77. Another regular event is a festival focusing on independent films. BAM's facilities include: The Peter Jay Sharp Building houses the Howard Gilman Opera House and the BAM Rose Cinemas, it was designed by the firm Herts & Tallant in 1908. It is a "U" shaped building with an open court in the center of the lot between two theater wings above the first story; the building has a high base of gray granite with cream colored brick trimmed in terra cotta with some marble detail above. It is located within the Fort Greene Historic District.
The Howard Gilman Opera House has 2,109 seats and BAM Rose Cinemas, which opened in 1998, comprises four screens, shows first-run and repertory films and series. Within the Peter Jay Sharp Building is the Lepercq Space a ballroom and now a flexible event space which houses the BAMcafé, the Hillman Attic Studio, a flexible rehearsal/performing space; the 874-seat BAM Harvey Theater known as the Majestic Theater, was named in Lichtenstein's honor in 1999. A renovation by architect Hugh Hardy left the interior paint faded, with exposed masonry, giving the theater a unique feel of a "modern ruin." In April 2014, CNN named the BAM Harvey as one of the "15 of the World's Most Spectacular Theaters". Today, the BAM Harvey has become a top choice of venues at BAM among directors and actors for presenting traditional theater; the BAM Fisher Building, opened in 2012 contains Fishman Space, a 250-seat black box theater, Fisher Hillman Studio, a flexible rehearsal and performance space. The BAM Hamm Archives is located off-site in Crown Heights at 1000 Dean St. and maintains the publicly accessible Levy Digital Archive.
The BAM Sharp and Fisher Buildings are located within the Brooklyn Academy of Music Historic District created by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1978. List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City List of concert halls Notes Brooklyn Academy of Music Brooklyn Academy of Music on NYC-ARTS.org Brooklyn Academy of Music on NYCkidsARTS.org Brooklyn Academy of Music at Google Cultural Institute
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Stranger Things is an American science fiction horror web television series created and directed by the Duffer Brothers and released on Netflix. The Duffer Brothers, Shawn Levy, Dan Cohen serve as executive producers; the first season stars Winona Ryder, David Harbour, Finn Wolfhard, Millie Bobby Brown, Gaten Matarazzo, Caleb McLaughlin, Natalia Dyer, Charlie Heaton, Cara Buono, Matthew Modine, with Noah Schnapp and Joe Keery in recurring roles. For the second season and Keery were made series regulars, along with the additions of Sadie Sink, Dacre Montgomery, Sean Astin, Paul Reiser. Set in the fictional town of Hawkins, Indiana, in the 1980s, the first season focuses on the investigation into the disappearance of a young boy amid supernatural events occurring around the town, including the appearance of a girl with psychokinetic abilities who helps the missing boy's friends in their own search; the second season, titled Stranger Things 2, is set one year and deals with attempts of the characters to return to normality and consequences that linger from the first season.
The third season, titled Stranger Things 3, is set in mid-1985. The Duffer Brothers developed the series as a mix of investigative drama alongside supernatural elements portrayed with childlike sensibilities, they created a homage to the pop culture of that decade. Several themes and directorial aspects were inspired and aesthetically informed by the works of Steven Spielberg, John Carpenter, Stephen King, among others, including several films and video games; the first season of eight episodes premiered on Netflix on July 15, 2016. It received critical acclaim for its characterization, atmosphere, soundtrack, directing and homages to 1980s genre films; the second season, consisting of nine episodes, was released on October 27, 2017. In December 2017, Netflix ordered a third season, which began production in April 2018 and will consist of eight episodes, is set to be released on July 4, 2019; the Duffer Brothers have said that Stranger Things is to end after its fourth or fifth season. The series has received 31 Emmy Award nominations, including for Outstanding Drama Series, four Golden Globe Award nominations, won the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Drama Series in 2016.
Stranger Things is set in the fictional rural town of Hawkins, during the early 1980s. The nearby Hawkins National Laboratory ostensibly performs scientific research for the United States Department of Energy, but secretly does experiments into the paranormal and supernatural, including those that involve human test subjects. Inadvertently, they have created a portal to an alternate dimension called "the Upside Down"; the influence of the Upside Down starts to affect the unknowing residents of Hawkins in calamitous ways. The first season begins in November 1983, when Will Byers is abducted by a creature from the Upside Down, his mother and the town's police chief, Jim Hopper, search for Will. At the same time, a young psychokinetic girl called Eleven escapes from the laboratory and assists Will's friends, Mike and Lucas, in their own efforts to find Will; the second season is set a year starting in October 1984. Will has been rescued; when it is discovered that Will is still being influenced by entities from the Upside Down, his friends and family learn there is a larger threat to their universe from the Upside Down.
The third season is set a year in mid-1985, in the midst of the popularity of the film Back to the Future. Mike and Eleven have developed a relationship, as have Lucas. Winona Ryder as Joyce Byers, the mother of Will and Jonathan Byers, she is divorced from Lonnie Byers. In season two, she is dating her old high school classmate, until his death in the season, she and Hopper are suggested to have feelings for each other. David Harbour as Jim Hopper, chief of Hawkins Police Department. After his young daughter died of cancer, Hopper lapsed into alcoholism, he grows to be more responsible, saving Joyce's son as well as taking Eleven as his adopted daughter. It is suggested he and Joyce have feelings for each other. Finn Wolfhard as Mike Wheeler, son of Karen and Ted, younger brother of Nancy, one of three friends of Will Byers, he is committed to his friends. He develops romantic feelings for Eleven. Millie Bobby Brown as Eleven, a young girl with psychokinetic abilities and a limited vocabulary, her real name is Jane, she is the biological daughter of Terry Ives.
After escaping from Hawkins Laboratory, where experiments were being performed on her, she befriends Mike and Lucas. She develops romantic feelings for Mike. Gaten Matarazzo as Dustin Henderson, one of Will's friends, his cleidocranial dysplasia causes him to lisp. In the second season, he is attracted to Max. Caleb McLaughlin as Lucas Sinclair, one of Will's friends, he is wary of Eleven but befriends her. In season two, he is one of Max's love interests. Natalia Dyer as Nancy Wheeler, daughter of Karen and Ted and older sister of Mike. Studious and rule-abiding, Nancy finds another side of herself while investigating the Hawkins Lab and the death of her friend Barbara. Charlie Heaton as Jonathan Byers, the older brother of Will Byers and the son of Joyce Byers, he is a quiet teenager, an outsider at school, an aspiring photographer. He is close with his mother and brother, he becomes the boyfriend of Nancy Wheeler. Cara Buono as Karen Wheeler, mother of teenaged Nancy, middle schooler Mike, toddler Holly.
Warren Leight is an American playwright, film director and television producer. He is best known for his work on Law & Order: Criminal Intent, Lights Out and the showrunner for In Treatment and Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, his play Side Man was a finalist for the 1999 Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Warren Leight was born to jazz trumpeter Don Leight, his wife, the second of two children. Both Warren and his older sister, grew up with financial trouble and around clubs. In the 1950s, his father played with jazz musicians such as Claude Thornhill, Woody Herman and Buddy Rich. Leight's grandfather and paternal great-grandfather, Harry Gurovitch, were trumpet players of Russian descent, he was raised in the Sunnyside section of the borough of Queens and the Upper West Side of Manhattan. Leight received a B. S. degree in communication from Stanford University in 1977, planning a career as a journalist. Leight began his writing career with the 1980 horror film Mother's Day followed by the documentary Before the Nickelodeon: The Cinema of Edwin S. Porter the indie Stuck on You!, the Miramax filmThe Night We Never Met, which he directed, starring Matthew Broderick, which earned him a nomination at the Deauville Film Festival.
He wrote the screenplay for the 1996 Greg Kinnear comedy Dear God. In the 1980s, he was the creative director/writer for a quartet of "witty" female comics known as the "High Heeled Women," which included actress Arleen Sorkin, who performed in cabarets in New York City, he is married to Karen Hauser, who created the Internet Broadway Database and serves as Research Director for the Broadway League. They live in New York City. For his first stage project, Leight teamed with composer-lyricist Charles Strouse on the musical "Mayor", inspired by Ed Koch and his dealings with Leona Helmsley and Bess Myerson, it ran for 185 performances at the Top of the Gate in Greenwich Village starting on May 13, 1985. The musical transferred uptown to the Latin Quarter on October 23, 1985, running to January 5, 1986 for another 70 performances, he received a 1986 Drama Desk Award nomination for Outstanding Book. Stray Cats is a "collection of musically influenced monologues" about men, called "cats". Stray Cats was presented by All Season Theatre Group on May 1998, directed by Kevin Confoy.
The first production was at Naked Angels with the collaboration of others. Leight's 1998 play Side Man won him the 1999 Tony Award for Best Play and nominations for both the 1998 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Play and the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, it starred Frank Wood. In 2001, his play Glimmer, Glimmer & Shine was produced by the Mark Taper Forum in Los Angeles, it was produced Off-Broadway by the Manhattan Theatre Club from May 24, 2001 to July 8, 2001. John Spencer appeared in both productions, directed by Evan Yionoulis, he contributed works to The 24 Hour Plays, a unique theatrical event in which several short plays are written, rehearsed and performed within 24 hours, in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2009. No Foreigners Beyond This Point had its world premiere at Center Stage in Baltimore, Maryland in November 2002, directed by Tim Vasen; the play opened Off-Broadway, produced by the Ma-Yi Theater Company at The Culture Project 45 Bleecker Theatre, on September 17, 1995 in previews. Directed by Loy Arcenas, the cast included Laura Kai Chen, Ron Domingo, Wai Ching Ho, Francis Jue, Karen Tsen Lee, Abby Royle, Ean Sheehy and Henry Yuk.
The play was inspired by Leight's experiences teaching English in China. He received a nomination for the 2006 Drama Desk Award, for the Off-Broadway production, his play James and Annie premiered at the Ensemble Theatre of Cincinnati in March 2003. The play involves an "interracial love affair". Leight ventured into television as a freelance writer for 100 Centre Street in 2002. On a suggestion from playwright Theresa Rebeck, Law & Order: Criminal Intent executive producer René Balcer hired Leight to join the staff of the series in its second season as a writer/producer, his colleagues included a reference to Leight's play "Side Man". Upon a recommendation from Balcer, Leight was named the show's executive producer and head writer in 2006 when Balcer left the show at the end of the fifth season. In 2008, he left Criminal Intent after its seventh season to be the showrunner for HBO's series In Treatment, a year after CI moved to cable. In July 2009, it was announced. On April 11, 2011, Variety reported that Leight would serve as showrunner for Law & Order: Special Victims Unit starting with the thirteenth season.
Prior to Leight joining SVU, he wrote one of the final episodes of Law & Order: Criminal Intent, the 10th season episode "Trophy Wine", the only episode of the season not to be inspired by a real life, true event. Before production on the 13th season of Law & Order: SVU, NBC President, Bob Greenblatt sought Leight to "reset the tone" of the show from its prior seasons, while having the storylines "still be compelling but a little more grounded". Greenblatt and Leight, along with other SVU cast and crew members, began calling the "revamped" series, "SVU 2.0". Mariska Hargitay took over the series as lead, due to Chris Meloni's abrupt departure. In an interview with TV Guide Leight noted "I'm aware of how well-liked this show is. I'm just trying to figure out how you rejuvenate it after 12 years." Leight joined SVU over choosing
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices, bodies or inanimate objects to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts, when artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects. Performing arts include a range of disciplines. Theatre, music and object manipulation, other kinds of performances are present in all human cultures; the history of music and dance date to pre-historic times whereas circus skills date to at least Ancient Egypt. Many performing arts are performed professionally. Performance can be in purpose built buildings, such as theatres and opera houses, on open air stages at festivals, on stages in tents such as circuses and on the street. Live performances before an audience are a form of entertainment; the development of audio and video recording has allowed for private consumption of the performing arts. The performing arts aim to express one's emotions and feelings. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers.
Examples of these include actors, dancers, circus artists and singers. Performing arts are supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. A performer who excels in acting and dancing is referred to as a triple threat. Well-known examples of historical triple threat artists include Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, Judy Garland. Performers adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, stage lighting, sound. Performing arts may include dance, opera and musical theatre, illusion, spoken word, circus arts, performance art. There is a specialized form of fine art, in which the artists perform their work live to an audience; this is called performance art. Most performance art involves some form of plastic art in the creation of props. Dance was referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era. Theatre is the branch of performing arts. Any one or more of these elements is performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays. Theater takes such forms as plays, opera, illusion, classical Indian dance, mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up comedy and non-conventional or contemporary forms like postmodern theatre, postdramatic theatre, or performance art.
In the context of performing arts, dance refers to human movement rhythmic and to music, used as a form of audience entertainment in a performance setting. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. There is one another modern form of dance that emerged in 19th- 20th century with the name of Free-Dance style; this form of dance was structured to create a harmonious personality which included features such as physical and spiritual freedom. Isadora Duncan was the first female dancer who argued about “woman of future” and developed novel vector of choreography using Nietzsche’s idea of “supreme mind in free mind”. Dance is a powerful impulse, but the art of dance is that impulse channeled by skillful performers into something that becomes intensely expressive and that may delight spectators who feel no wish to dance themselves; these two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced by a professional few—are the two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject.
In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, neither can exist without the other. Choreography is the art of making dances, the person who practices this art is called a choreographer. Music is an art form which combines pitch and dynamic in order to create sound, it can be performed using a variety of instruments and styles and is divided into genres such as folk, hip hop and rock, etc. As an art form, music can occur in live or recorded formats, can be planned or improvised; as music is a protean art, it co-ordinates with words for songs as physical movements do in dance. Moreover, it has a capability of shaping human behaviors. Starting in the 6th century BC, the Classical period of performing art began in Greece, ushered in by the tragic poets such as Sophocles; these poets wrote plays. The Hellenistic period began the widespread use of comedy. However, by the 6th century AD, Western performing arts had been ended, as the Dark Ages began. Between the 9th century and 14th century, performing art in the West was limited to religious historical enactments and morality plays, organized by the Church in celebration of holy days and other important events.
In the 15th century performing arts, along with the arts in general, saw a revival as the Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe plays, some of which incorporated dance, which were performed and Domenico da Piacenza credited with the first use of the term ballo instead of danza for his baletti or balli. The term became Ballet; the first Ballet per se is thought to be Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx's Ballet Comique de la Reine. By the mid-16th century Commedia Dell'arte became popular in Europe, introducing the use of improvisation; this period introduced the Elizabethan