National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Backstroke is one of the four swimming styles used in competitive events regulated by FINA, the only one of these styles swum on the back. This swimming style has the advantage of easy breathing, but the disadvantage of swimmers not being able to see where they are going, it has a different start from the other three competition swimming styles. The swimming style is similar to an upside down front freestyle. Both backstroke and front crawl are long-axis strokes. In individual medley backstroke is the second style swum. Backstroke is an ancient style of swimming, popularized by Harry Hebner, it was the second stroke to be swum in competitions after the front crawl. The first Olympic backstroke competition was the 1900 Paris Olympics. In the initial position, the swimmer performing backstroke lies flat on the back. In backstroke, the arms contribute most of the forward movement; the arm stroke consists of two main parts: the recovery. The arms alternate. One complete arm turn is considered one cycle.
From the initial position, one arm sinks under water and turns the palm outward to start the catch phase. The hand enters downward pulling out at a 45 degree angle, catching the water. During the power phase the hand follows a semi-circular path from the catch to the side of the hip; the palm is always facing away from the swimming direction, while remaining straight as an extension of the arm, the elbow always points downward towards the bottom of the pool. This is done so that both the arms and the elbow can push the maximum amount of water back in order to push the body forward. At the height of the shoulders, the upper and lower arms should have their maximum angle of about 90 degrees; this is called the Mid-Pull of the power phase. The Mid-Pull phase consists of pushing the palm of the hand as far down as possible with the fingers pointing upward. Again, the goal is to push the body forward against the water. At the end of the Mid-Pull, the palm flaps down for a last push forward down to a depth of 45 cm, creating the finish of the power phase.
Besides pushing the body forward, this helps with the rolling back to the other side as part of the body movement. During the power phase, the fingers of the hand can be apart, as this will increase the resistance of the hand in the water due to turbulence. To prepare for the recovery phase, the hand is rotated so that the palms point towards the legs and the thumb side points upwards. At the beginning of the recovery phase of the one arm, the other arm begins its power phase; the recovering arm is moved in a semicircle straight over the shoulders to the front. During this recovery, the palm rotates so that the small finger enters the water first, allowing for the least amount of resistance, the palms point outward. After a short gliding phase, the cycle repeats with the preparation for the next power phase. A variant is to move both arms synchronized and not alternating, similar to an upside down breast stroke; this is easier to coordinate, the peak speed during the combined power phase is faster, yet the speed is much slower during the combined recovery.
The average speed will be less than the average speed of the alternating stroke. This stroke is called the elementary backstroke; this elementary backstroke swim was used in the 1908 Olympics. The backcrawl swim supplanted the elementary backstroke swim after 1908 as the competitive back swim and it is now the referred to as the backstroke. Another variant is the old style of swimming backstroke, where the arm movement formed a complete circle in a windmill type pattern. However, this style is not used for competitive swimming, as a lot of energy is spent on pushing the body up and down instead of forward. Furthermore, the added strain on the shoulder is considered less than ideal and can lead to injuries, it is possible to move only one arm at a time, where one arm moves through the power and recovery phases while the other arm rests. This is slow, but it is used to teach students the movement, as they have to concentrate on only one arm; this drill technique can work well with the swimmer holding a float, however it is important not to overuse this drill as a "paused stroke" can become habitual and can be challenging to unlearn.
The leg movement in backstroke is similar to the flutter kick in front crawl. The kick makes a large contribution to the forward speed, while stabilizing the body; the leg stroke alternates, with one leg sinking down straight to about 30 degrees. From this position, the leg makes a fast kick upward bending the knee at the beginning and stretching it again in the horizontal. However, there are frequent variants with four or only two kicks per cycle. Sprinters tend to use 6 kicks per cycle, whereas long distance swimmer may use fewer, it is possible to use a butterfly kick, although this is rare except after the initial start and after turns. The dolphin kick is essential for many top athletes, it may constitute the majority of the race. A great example of this is Olympic gold medallist Natalie Coughlin. Breaststroke kicks are most comfortable if the arms are used synchronized, as the breaststroke kick makes it more difficult to compensate for the rolling movement with alte
Sarah Frances "Fanny" Durack known by her married name Fanny Gately, was an Australian competition swimmer. From 1910 until 1918 she was the world's greatest female swimmer of all distances from freestyle sprints to the mile marathon. Durack learned to swim in Sydney's Coogee Baths using breaststroke, the only style for which there was a championship for women at that time. In 1906 she won her first title, over the next few years, dominated the Australian swimming scene. In the 1910-11 swimming season, Mina Wylie beat Durack in the 100-yard breaststroke and the 100- and 220-yard freestyle at the Australian Swimming Championships at Rose Bay; the two went on to become close friends. From late 1912 to 1920, Durack held the official women's Freestyle swimming world record for 100 metres, she held the 200M freestyle record from 1915 to 1921. Other world records held included 220 yards freestyle, 500M freestyle and 1 mile freestyle, she held many Australian and State records. The New South Wales Ladies Swimming Association was opposed to women participating in the Olympic Games.
The 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm was to be the first Olympics to have women's swimming. Durack and Wylie were refused permission by NSWLSA to compete, but they were allowed to go provided they bore their own expenses, they organised local fundraising to raise the funds for themselves as well as for the obligatory chaperones. Durack set a new world record in the heats of the 100-metre freestyle, she won the final, becoming the first Australian woman to win an Olympic gold medal in a swimming event. Until the 1932 Olympics she was the only such woman. A week before the Australian team left for the 1920 Antwerp Olympics, in May 1920, Durack suffered appendicitis and had an emergency appendectomy; this was followed by typhoid fever and pneumonia and she was unable to participate in the Olympic team. During World War I, the statue of Mary and the infant Jesus on top of the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Brebières in Albert, France, was hit by a shell on 15 January 1915, slumped to a near-horizontal position.
Australian troops nicknamed the leaning statue "Fanny", in honour of Fanny Durack as it resembled the swimmer diving off the blocks. Durack died in Sydney in 1956, she was interred in Waverley Cemetery, together with her late husband Bernard Martin Gately. Fanny Durack Aquatic Centre in Petersham, Sydney, is named in her honour, she was posthumously inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame as an "Honour Swimmer" in 1967. Sarah Durack Ave at Sydney Olympic Park in Sydney, Australia is named in honour of her. 1912 gold 100-yard freestyle 100-metre freestyle 220-yard freestyle 500-metre freestyle mile List of Olympic medalists in swimming World record progression 100 metres freestyle World record progression 200 metres freestyle FitzSimons, Peter. Great Australian Sports Champions. Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-7322-8517-8. David Wallechinsky, The Complete Book of the Summer Olympics, Little and Company
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Athletics at the 1912 Summer Olympics
These are the results of athletics competition at the 1912 Summer Olympics. 30 events were contested, all for men only. The athletics programme grew by 4 events since the 1908 Summer Olympics; the 5000 and 10000 metre races were introduced. The 400 metre hurdle event made a brief disappearance, making the 1912 Olympics the only time that event was not held since its introduction in 1900; the 4x100 and 4x400 relays replaced the medley relay while the team race was shortened from 3 miles to 3000 metres. The decathlon, held in 1904 but not in 1908, returned to the programme. Steeplechasing was eliminated, while racewalking was cut from 2 events to 1 with the 10 kilometre replacing the 10 mile and the 3500 metre eliminated; the pentathlon was introduced. The 1908 experiments of the Greek-style discus and the restricted javelin were replaced with two-handed throwing, for the shot put and javelin. Cross-country events, both for the individual and the team, were introduced; the competitions were held from Saturday, July 6, 1912 to Monday, July 15, 1912.
556 athletes from 27 nations competed. Egypt was the only nation not to compete in athletics. International Olympic Committee medal database
Australasia comprises Australia, New Zealand, some neighbouring islands. It is used in a number of different contexts including geopolitically, physiographically, ecologically where the term covers several different but related regions. Charles de Brosses coined the term in Histoire des navigations, he derived it from the Latin for "south of Asia" and differentiated the area from Polynesia and the southeast Pacific. In Australia "Australasia" is considered to be Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, the neighbouring islands of the Pacific, while in New Zealand it means Australia, New Zealand and former New Zealand dependencies. Richards, Kel. "Australasia". Wordwatch. ABC News Radio. Retrieved 2006-09-30. Media related to Australasia at Wikimedia Commons