The Nue is a legendary Japanese yōkai or mononoke. In the Heike Monogatari, it is described as having the face of a monkey, the legs of a tiger, the body of a tanuki and the front half of a snake for a tail. In other writings nothing is stated about its torso, so it is sometimes depicted to have the torso of a tiger; the Genpei Jōsuiki describes it as having the back of a tiger, the legs of a tanuki, the tail of a fox, the head of a cat, the torso of a chicken. Due to its appearance, it is sometimes referred to as a Japanese chimera, it is said to make eerie bird cry "hyoo hyoo" noises that resemble that of the scaly thrush. In the movie Akuryōtō, the catchphrase "nights where the nue cry are dreadful" refers to this fact; the Nue is said to have the ability of shape-shifting times into the form of a black cloud that can fly. The yokai is thought to be nocturnal as most of its spottings happen at night, its name written in kanji translates to bird. The nue is thought to have started appearing in the late Heian period.
For a more precise dating, different sources claim different periods, like the Emperor Nijō period, the Emperor Konoe period, the Emperor Go-Shirakawa period, or the Emperor Toba period. The visual appearance may be a combination of the animals in the Sexagenary cycle, with a northeast Tiger, a southeast Snake, a southwest Monkey, a northwest Qian; the nue were stated to be a bird that resembles the green pheasant, but their precise identity is unknown. The 夜 within the 鵺 character is phonetic component and thus does not carry a meaning with it; the character 鵼 is determined to be a kind of strange bird. Due to the use of Man'yōgana, the historical spelling is known to have been nuye. At this early time, although, it had a different semantic meaning, it referred to a bird known as White's thrush. In Japan, they are considered a bird that makes cries at night, the word can be seen in the Kojiki and the Man'yōshū; the owner of this crying voice was traditionally described as a yellow-red bird as big as a Columbidae, but nowadays there is the accepted theory that it is the scaly thrush.
Since the people of the Heian Period regarded the sorrowful sounding voices of this bird as an ill omen, they were considered to be a wicked bird, it is said that when the emperor or nobles heard its crying voice, they would make prayers that nothing disastrous would happen. The monster in the Heike Monogatari, in the end, was "something that cries with the voice of a nue, its true nature unknown", was not given a name, but nowadays, this famous monster is identified as a "nue". In a derived sense the word "nue" is used to refer to entities of unknown true form; the noh play Nue, based on the setsuwa, the Heike Monogatari. They are a regular feature of the Kiri-noh. Nue-harai Matsuri – a festival performed every year on January 28 at the Izunagaoka Onsen in Izunokuni, Shizuoka Prefecture. Among other things the nue-odori and the mochi-maki are performed. At Osaka Harbor, the Nue is used as a motif in its emblem design. From the legend of Nuezuka, it was selected for its relation to Osaka bay; the Heike Monogatari and the Settsu Meisho Zue from the Settsu Province, tell the following tale of the killing of the Nue: In the closing years of the Heian period, at the place where the emperor lived, the Seiryō-den, there appeared a cloud of black smoke along with an eerie resounding crying voice, making Emperor Nijō quite afraid.
Subsequently, the emperor fell into illness, neither medicine nor prayers had any effect. A close associate remembered Minamoto no Yoshiie using an arrow to put a stop to the mystery case of some bird's cry, he gave the order to a master of arrows, Minamoto no Yorimasa, to slay the monster. One night, Yorimasa went out to slay the monster with his servant Ino Hayata, an arrow made from an arrowhead he had inherited from his ancestor Minamoto no Yorimitsu and the tailfeathers of a mountain bird. An uncanny black smoke started to cover the Seiryō-den. Yorimasa shot his arrow into it, there was a shriek, a nue fell down around the northern parts of Nijō Castle. Ino Hayata seized it and finished it off. In the skies above the imperial court, two or three cries of the common cuckoo could be heard, it is thus said that peace had returned. After this, the emperor's health recovered, Yorimasa was given the sword Shishiō as a reward. There are several accounts of. According to some legends, like the Heike Monogatari, as the people in Kyoto were fearful of the curse of the nue, they put its corpse in a boat and floated it down the Kamo River.
After the boat floated down the Yodo River and temporarily drifted upon the shore of Higashinari County, Osaka, it floated into the sea and washed up on the shore between Ashiya River and Sumiyoshi River. It is said that the people in Ashiya courteously gave the corpse a burial service, built a commemorating mound over its tomb, the Nuezuka; the Settsu Meisho Zue states that "the Nuezuka is between Ashiya River and Sumiyoshi River."According to the Ashiwake bune, a geography book from the Edo period, a nue drifted down and washed ashore on the Yodo River, when the villagers, fearful of a curse, notified the head priest of Boon-ji about it, it was courteously mourned over and had a mound built for it. It is further said that as the mound was torn down at the beginning of the Meiji period, the vengeful spirit of the nue started tormenting the people who lived nearby, so the mound was hastily rebuilt. A
Mii-dera, formally called Onjō-ji, is a Buddhist temple in Japan located at the foot of Mount Hiei, in the city of Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture. It is only a short distance from both Kyoto, Lake Biwa, Japan's largest lake; the head temple of the Jimon sect of Tendai, it is something of a sister temple to Enryaku-ji, at the top of the mountain, is one of the four largest temples in Japan. Altogether, there are 40 named buildings in the Mii-dera complex. Mii-dera is temple 14 in the Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage. Onjō-ji was founded in the Nara period; the temple was founded in 672 following a dispute over Imperial succession. Emperor Tenji had died, his son was killed by Tenchi's brother, enthroned as Emperor Tenmu. Temmu founded Onjō-ji in memory of his brother; the name Mii-dera came about nearly two centuries later. It was given this name by one of the earliest abbots of the Tendai Sect; the name comes from the springs at the temple which were used for the ritual bathing of newborns, in honor of Emperors Emperor Tenji and Emperor Tenmu, Empress Jitō, who contributed to the founding of the temple.
Today, Main Hall, houses a spring of sacred water. Under Enchin's guidance, from 859 to his death in 891, Mii-dera gained power and importance becoming one of the four chief temples charged with the spiritual guidance and protection of the capital, it was during this time that Enryaku-ji & Mii-dera split away from one another, developing two branches of the Tendai sect, called Jimon and Sanmon. For the most part, this was more a geographic rivalry than an ideological schism, but it was an intense one nonetheless, only grew more severe after Enchin's death; the rivalry turned violent in the second half of the 10th century, over a series of official appointments to other temples, similar slights. The zasu of Enryaku-ji in 970 formed the first permanent standing army to be recruited by a religious body. Mii-dera can be assumed to have established one soon afterwards. In 989, a former abbot of Mii-dera by the name of Yokei was to become abbot of Enryaku-ji, he soon resigned. But in 993, the monks of Mii-dera took revenge, destroying a temple where Ennin, founder of Enryaku-ji's Sanmon sect, had once lived.
The monks from Enryaku-ji retaliated. In the end, over 1,000 monks of Enchin's Jimon sect fled permanently to Mii-dera, cementing the split between the two Sects. Over the course of the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, there continued to be similar incidents, over the appointment of abbots, involving many sōhei, or warrior monks. Mii-dera was burned to the ground by the sōhei of Enryaku-ji four times in the 11th century alone. There were, times that the two united against a common enemy, including an attack on the Kōfuku-ji in Nara in 1081, a united attack on Nara once more in 1117. At the end of the 12th century, the attentions of the monks of Mount Hiei were turned towards a greater conflict: the Genpei War; the Taira and Minamoto families supported different claimants to the Chrysanthemum Throne, in June 1180, the Minamoto brought their claimant, Prince Mochihito, to the Mii-dera, fleeing from Taira samurai. Mii-dera was denied; the monks of the Mii-dera joined the Minamoto army, fled to the Byōdō-in, a Fujiwara clan villa, converted to a monastery by Mii-dera monks.
Angered at the Mii-dera/Minamoto alliance, Taira no Kiyomori ordered the destruction of Mii-dera, of many of the temples of Nara. The monks of Mii-dera figured once more in the Genpei War, fighting alongside Taira sympathisers against Minamoto no Yoshinaka, who invaded Kyoto in 1184, setting fire to the Hōjūjidono Palace and kidnapping the retired emperor, Shirakawa II. Following the Genpei War, there was a long period of relative peace, as the temples of Kyoto and Nara, including the Mii-dera, were rebuilt; as the temples regained strength, rivalries reappeared, though little to no violence erupted between Mii-dera and Enryaku-ji. In 1367, when a novice from Mii-dera was killed at a toll barrier established by the temple of Nanzen-ji, warrior monks from Mii-dera set out to attack Nanzen-ji. A year another battle erupted, over comments made by the abbot of Nanzen-ji. In the late 16th century, Mii-dera, along with many of the other nearby temples, sought alliances, for military strength, as well as military power.
The territories of the Asai and Asakura families were closest to Mount Hiei, but these families, as well as others the temples had allied with, were rivals of Oda Nobunaga. These two families suffered heavy defeats at the hands of Nobunaga and his chief general Hideyoshi Toyotomi, so in 1571 they sought a stronger alliance with the temples; that same year, Nobunaga set to destroying everything on Mount Hiei, starting with the town of Sakamoto at the foot of the mountain, setting his sights on Enryaku-ji at the summit. Much of Mii-dera was destroyed, as the warrior monks failed against Nobunaga's large and trained samurai army. Following these attacks, the monks of Mount Hiei were granted a reprieve, rebuilt their temples once more. Mii-dera has never been destroyed since then. Within the Kondō and Hondo (the Main Ha
For the Arena in Debrecen, Hungary see Fonix Hall. For the replica temple in Hawaii, see Byodo-In Temple. Byōdō-in is a Buddhist temple in the city of Uji in Kyoto Prefecture, built in late Heian period, it is jointly a temple of the Tendai-shū sects. This temple was built in 998 in the Heian period as a rural villa of high-ranking courtier Minamoto no Shigenobu, Minister of the Left. After he died, one of the most powerful members of the Fujiwara clan, Fujiwara no Michinaga, purchased the property from the courtier's widow; the villa was made into a Buddhist temple by Fujiwara no Yorimichi in 1052. The most famous building in the temple is the Phoenix Hall or the Amida Hall, constructed in 1053, it is the only remaining original building, surrounded by a scenic pond. The main building in Byōdō-in, the Phoenix Hall consists of a central hall, flanked by twin wing corridors on both sides of the central hall, a tail corridor; the central hall houses an image of Amida Buddha. The roof of the hall displays statues of called hōō in Japanese.
The Phoenix Hall, completed in 1053, is the exemplar of Fujiwara Amida halls. It consists of a main rectangular structure flanked by two L-shaped wing corridors and a tail corridor, set at the edge of a large artificial pond. Though its official name is Amida-dō, it began to be called Hōō-dō, or Phoenix Hall, in the beginning of the Edo period; this name is considered to derive both from the building's likeness to a phoenix with outstretched wings and a tail, the pair of phoenixes adorning the roof. Inside the Phoenix Hall, a single image of Amida is installed on a high platform; the Amida sculpture is covered with gold leaf. It was executed by Jōchō, who used a new canon of proportions and a new technique, yosegi, in which multiple pieces of wood are carved out like shells and joined from the inside; the statue measures about three meters high from its face to its knees, is seated. Applied to the walls of the hall are small relief carvings of celestials, the host believed to have accompanied Amida when he descended from the Western Paradise to gather the souls of believers at the moment of death and transport them in lotus blossoms to Paradise.
Raigō paintings on the wooden doors of the Phoenix Hall, depicting the Descent of the Amida Buddha, are an early example of Yamato-e, Japanese-style painting, contain representations of the scenery around Kyoto. There is a Jōdo-shiki garden with a pond in front of the building, which in 1997 was dredged as part of an archeological dig; the gardens are Place of Scenic Beauty. The Byōdō-in museum stores and displays most of Byōdō-in's national treasures, including 52 wooden Bodhisattvas, the temple bell, the south end Phoenix, other noteworthy items. Japan commemorates the building's longevity and cultural significance by displaying its image on the 10 yen coin, the 10,000 yen note features the phoenix image. In December 1994, UNESCO listed the building as a World Heritage Site as part of the "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto"; the Phoenix Hall, the great statue of Amida inside it, several other items at Byōdō-in are national treasures. A half-size replica of the temple was completed on June 1968 in the Valley of the Temples.
The Japanese post has issued three definitive postage stamps showing the phoenix hall, each prepaying the postal rate for a surface mail foreign letter: 1950, 24 yen 1957 and 30 yen 1959. Stamps were produced by the costly engraving method, showing the appreciation of the hall. Entry to the complex grounds costs 600 yen for adults, includes access to the gardens and the museum. An entry pass to the Phoenix Hall, newly restored in March 2014, costs an additional 300 yen and can be purchased near the gate. Battle of Uji List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan For an explanation of terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, Japanese Buddhist temple architecture, see the Glossary of Japanese Buddhism. Shinden-zukuri Official homepage Official homepage Japan National Tourism Organization: Byodo-in Temple Byodo-in - Ancient History Encyclopedia
Sōhei were Buddhist warrior monks of both medieval and feudal Japan. At certain points in history, they held considerable power, obliging the imperial and military governments to collaborate; the prominence of the sōhei rose in parallel with the ascendancy of the Tendai school's influence between the 10th and 17th centuries. The warriors protected land and intimidated rival schools of Buddhism, becoming a significant factor in the spread of Buddhism and the development of different schools during the Kamakura period; the sōhei shared many similarities with the European lay brothers, members of a monastic order who might not have been ordained. Much like the Teutonic Order, the warrior monks of Germany, the crusading orders, sōhei did not operate as individuals, or as members of small, individual temples, but rather as warriors in a large extended brotherhood or monastic order; the home temple of a sōhei monastic order might have had several, if not dozens or a hundred, smaller monasteries, training halls, subordinate temples connected to it.
A famous sōhei monastery is the Enryaku-ji on Mount Hiei, just outside Kyoto. Warrior monks first appeared during the Heian period, when bitter political feuds began between different temples, different subsects of Buddhism, over imperial appointments to the top temple positions. Much of the fighting over the next four centuries was over these sorts of political feuds, centered around the temples of Kyoto, Ōmi, namely the Tōdai-ji, Kōfuku-ji, Enryaku-ji, Mii-dera, the four largest temples in the country; the first armed conflict broke out in 949, when 56 monks from Tōdai-ji staged a protest at the residence of a Kyoto official, over an appointment that displeased them. Protests of this sort continued through the 10th century breaking out into brawls in which some participants would be killed. In 970, following a dispute between Enryaku-ji and the Yasaka Shrine of Kyoto, the former established the first standing army of warrior monks, it is not clear whether or not this standing army consisted of monks from Enryaku-ji, or were more like mercenaries, since Ryōgen, the abbot who established this army established a code of monastic conduct that prevented monks from leaving Mount Hiei during their twelve-year training, from covering their faces, from carrying weapons.
Beginning in 981, there were a number of armed conflicts between Enryaku-ji and Mii-dera, each the head temple of a different sub-sect of Tendai. These disputes were, as before, over political appointments, dishonorable etiquette. More than not, these were cases of members of one faction being chosen as the abbot of the other faction's temple, the monks would protest; this continued, on and off, once stopping for as long as 40 years, through the eleventh and into the 12th century. The armies became larger, the violence increased, until in 1121 and 1141 Mii-dera was burned to the ground by monks from Enryaku-ji. Other temples became embroiled in the conflicts as well, Enryaku-ji and Mii-dera united against Kōfuku-ji, another time, against Kiyomizu-dera. At the end of the 12th century, Japan was plunged into the Genpei War and, while the feuds between the temples did not end, they became subsumed by larger events; the warring Minamoto and Taira clans both tried to obtain the aid of the warrior monks of Nara and Kyoto, adding the temples' forces to the clans' mighty armies of samurai.
Taira no Kiyomori sent generous gifts of rice and silk to Enryakuji, ensuring they would not help his enemies, the Minamoto, who had allied themselves with the monks of Mii-dera. In the Battle of Uji in 1180, one of the more famous battles in which sōhei participated, the monks of Mii-dera, along with a force of Minamoto samurai, tried to defend the bridge over the Uji River, the Byōdō-in, a temple behind it, from an attacking Taira force; the monks pulled up the planks of the bridge to impair the ability of the horse mounted samurai to cross. The warrior monks stood their ground with bow and arrow, naginata and dagger, but were defeated. Following his victory, Taira no Kiyomori ordered that revenge be taken upon the monks that opposed him. Mii-dera was burned to the ground once again. Only the Enryaku-ji escaped unscathed. Three years when Minamoto no Yoshinaka betrayed his clan by storming into Kyoto, setting the Hōjōji Palace aflame and kidnapping Emperor Go-Shirakawa, he was opposed by many of the monks of Kyoto, including those from Mount Hiei.
Following the Genpei War, the monasteries, to a large extent, turned their attention to rebuilding, first physically, politically. Their political influence grew stronger through peaceful means, the warrior monks played only minor roles in the wars of the 13th and 14th centuries. Violent conflict between the temples still occurred on occasion, once again over political and spiritual appointments, related matters. During the wars of the Nanboku-chō period, Mount Hiei took in the rebel Emperor Go-Daigo, offered him sanctuary. Emperor Go-Daigo, along with his son, the help of the sōhei of Mount Hiei, launched a brief rebellion against the Kamakura shogunate; the Ashikaga shogunate took power shortly afterwards, supported Zen over the other Buddhist sects, drawing the ire of the warrior monks. Over the course of the 1340s–1360s a number of conflicts erupted between the Tendai sect temples, those of Zen Nanzen-ji; the Ōnin War, starting in 1467, was the prelude to over a century of civil war in Japan, the stimulus for a reorganization of the warrior monks.
Unlike the Jōkyū War and Mongol invasions of the 13th century, the Ōnin War was fought in Kyoto, thus the warrior monks could no longer remain
The Yodo River called the Seta River and the Uji River at portions of its route, is the principal river in Osaka Prefecture on Honshū, Japan. The source of the river is Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture to the north; the Yodo River called the Seta River in Shiga Prefecture, begins at the southern outlet of the lake in Ōtsu. There is a dam. Further downstream, the Seta flows into Kyoto Prefecture and changes its name to the Uji River, merges with two other rivers, namely the Katsura River and the Kizu River in Kyoto Prefecture; the Katsura has its headwaters in the mountains of Kyoto Prefecture, while the Kizu comes from Mie Prefecture. From the three-river confluence, the river is called the Yodo River, which flows south, through Osaka, on into Osaka Bay. In Osaka, part of the river has been diverted into an artificial channel, it serves as a source of water for irrigation and powers hydroelectric generators. The Uji River, or the Yodo River in Kyoto Prefecture, is a popular fishing spot during the summer and fall months.
The Uji River has a prominent place in the so-called "Uji chapters" of the Tale of Genji, a novel written by the Japanese noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu in the early eleventh century. 34°40′59″N 135°25′11″E 34°58′55″N 135°54′22″E