Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Queijo coalho or queijo-de-coalho is a firm but lightweight cheese produced in Northeastern Brazil, with an "squeaky" texture when bitten into. It is a popular and cheap snack for beach-goers in Brazil or in homemade churrasco, where the cheese is cooked over a charcoal grill with a sprinkling of oregano or garlic-flavored sauce, it is eaten off a stick, much like a kebab. It gets a golden surface when grilled, does not melt much. List of Brazilian dishes Brazilian cuisine Halloumi FAO document describing various cheeses
Colony cheese is a type of cheese made in the highlands of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. It is one of the icons of southern Brazilian cuisine being produced in Santa Catarina; this cheese is made by artisan production in rural areas of the highlands in regions settled by German and Italian immigrants who starting two hundred years ago brought with them their cheese-making traditions. It has low production cost, due to its simple manufacturing process, consisting of milk and milk enzymes, it goes through a maturation process that can take several months. The aging gives the cheese its most striking feature: a soft spicy inside, complex flavor and surrounded by a solid yellow crust; the older the cheese gets and harder its crust get, making the taste of this product more pungent and striking. There can be a formation of small white mold in its external part, but that does not affect the quality of the product; this problem can be solved by storing it in environments of low relative humidity.
This cheese is consumed accompanied by red wines, or it can be used for cooking in pizzas and other pastas. Description: mildly spicy, lactic-tasting, close dough, pale yellow colour. Produced without the use of dyes or preservatives. Consistency: hard or semi-hard outside. Soft creamy inside, showing good elasticity. Sliced and well melted when subjected to heat. Shape: cylindrical and flat, weighing from 800 g to 4 kg. German-Brazilian List of Brazilian dishes Riograndenser Hunsrückisch
Soy sauce is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds. Soy sauce in its current form was created about 2,200 years ago during the Western Han dynasty of ancient China, spread throughout East and Southeast Asia where it is used in cooking and as a condiment. Soy sauce is considered as old as soy paste—a type of fermented paste obtained from soybeans—which had appeared during the Western Han dynasty and was listed in the bamboo slips found in the archaeological site Mawangdui. There are several precursors of soy sauce. Among them the earliest one is Qingjiang, listed in Simin Yueling. Others are Jiangqing and Chiqing which are recorded in Qimin Yaoshu in AD 540. By the time of the Song dynasty, the term soy sauce had become the accepted name for the liquid condiment, which are documented in two books: Shanjia Qinggong and Pujiang Wushi Zhongkuilu during the Song dynasty. Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was a way to stretch salt an expensive commodity.
During the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, fermented fish with salt was used as a condiment in which soybeans were included during the fermentation process. By the time of the Han dynasty, this had been replaced with the recipe for soy paste and its by-product soy sauce, by using soybeans as the principal ingredient, with fermented fish-based sauces developing separately into fish sauce; the 19th century Sinologist Samuel Wells Williams wrote that in China, the best soy sauce is "made by boiling beans soft, adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley, leaving the mass to ferment. The earliest soy sauce brewing in Korea seems to have begun prior to the era of the Three Kingdoms c. 57 BC. The Records of the Three Kingdoms, a Chinese historical text written and published in the 3rd century, mentions that "Goguryeo people are good at brewing fermented soy beans." In the section named Dongyi, in the Book of Wei. Jangdoks used for soy sauce brewing are found in the mural paintings of Anak Tomb No.3 from the 4th century Goguryeo.
In Samguk Sagi, a historical record of the Three Kingdoms era, it is written that ganjang and doenjang along with meju and jeotgal were prepared for the wedding ceremony of the King Sinmun in February 683. Sikhwaji, a section from Goryeosa, recorded that ganjang and doenjang were included in the relief supplies in 1018, after a Khitan invasion, in 1052, when a famine occurred. Joseon texts such as Guhwangchwaryo and Jeungbo sallim gyeongje contain the detailed procedures on how to brew good quality ganjang and doenjang. Gyuhap chongseo explains how to pick a date for brewing, what to forbear, how to keep and preserve ganjang and doenjang. Chinese Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century, where it is known as shōyu. Records of the Dutch East India Company list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737, when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima, Japan, to Batavia on the island of Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were shipped to the Netherlands. In the 18th century and scholar Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce.
Although earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West, his was among the earliest to focus on the brewing of the Japanese version. By the mid-19th century, Japanese soy sauce disappeared from the European market, the condiment became synonymous with the Chinese product. Europeans were unable to make soy sauce because they did not understand the function of Aspergillus oryzae, the fungus used in its brewing. Soy sauce made from ingredients such as Portobello mushrooms were disseminated in European cookbooks during the late 18th century. A Swedish recipe for "Soija" was published in the 1770 edition of Cajsa Warg's Hjelpreda i Hushållningen för Unga Fruentimber and was flavored with allspice and mace. Soy sauce is made either by hydrolysis; some commercial sauces have both chemical sauces. Flavor and aroma developments during production are attributed to non-enzymatic Maillard browning. Variation is achieved as the result of different methods and durations of fermentation, different ratios of water and fermented soy, or through the addition of other ingredients.
Traditional soy sauces are made by mixing soybeans and grain with mold cultures such as Aspergillus oryzae and other related microorganisms and yeasts. The mixture was fermented in large urns and under the sun, believed to contribute extra flavors. Today, the mixture is placed in a humidity controlled incubation chamber. Traditional soy sauces take months to make: Soaking and cooking: The soybeans are soaked in water and boiled until cooked. Wheat is roasted, crushed. Koji culturing: An equal amount of boiled soybeans and roasted wheat are mixed to form a grain mixture. A culture of Aspergillus spore is added to the grain mixture and mixed or the mixture is allowed to gather spores from the environment itself; the cultures include: Aspergillus: a genus of fungus, used for f
Requeijão is a milk-derived product, produced in Portugal and Brazil. It is sometimes called requesón in English-speaking countries, it is a ricotta-like cheese used to make cheese spreads. A mild, unsalty ricotta can be substituted; this variety is most sold in the markets wrapped in fresh corn husks. In El Salvador, cheeses such as requesón can sometimes be transported wrapped in banana leaves instead of corn husks; the Portuguese product is white to yellowish-white and having a characteristic strong taste. The Brazilian product is a type of cream cheese white in color, it has a mild taste and its consistency can vary from creamy solid, like the Catupiry, to liquid. Traditionally associated with the state of Minas Gerais, the mineiro presence in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo from the start of the 20th century on popularized it and nowadays it is produced all over the country, its most common variant is requeijão cremoso, with a consistency similar to that of condensed milk. The sweet called romeu-e-julieta is a combination of white guava paste.
It calls for queijo minas, requeijão or ricotta, with requeijão being the one used in Brazilian-adapted pizzas, crêpes, pancake rolls and spring rolls. Skim milk coagulate its proteins; the curdled milk is stirred and heated to a temperature as high as 80 °C the whey is drained off and the curd is gathered in bags and pressed. The curd is placed in flat pans, broken up, washed with warm skim milk, to form a mixture consisting of two parts milk to one part curd; this mixture is stirred and heated, as before, until the casein in the milk curdles and adheres to the mass of curd. The steps of draining, adding more skim milk, heating are repeated once more; the curd is drained again and kneaded on a table for about 15 minutes. Hot butterfat or rich cream is added, about one part of butterfat for every five parts of curd, the mixture is once again heated and stirred; the cheese is molded in parchment-lined boxes. About 11 kg of cheese is obtained from 3.4 kg of cream. Composition varies, but a typical cheese can contain 55–70% water, 8–20% fat, 16–20.5% protein.
The requeijão made in the Serra da Estrela region of Portugal, Requeijão da Serra da Estrela, has a PDO status since 2005. Catupiry List of Brazilian dishes Portuguese cuisine List of Portugal food and drink products with protected status Text in this article was incorporated from the following public domain U. S. Government publication: Doane, C. F.. W.. J.. P. Cheese Descriptions. U. S. Department of Agriculture. P. 105
Arugula or rocket is an edible annual plant in the family Brassicaceae used as a leaf vegetable for its fresh, tart and peppery flavor. Other common names include garden rocket, eruca; some additional names are "rocket salad", "rucola", "rucoli", "rugula", "colewort", "roquette". Eruca sativa, popular as a salad vegetable, is a species of Eruca native to the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal in the west to Syria and Turkey in the east. Eruca sativa grows 20–100 centimetres in height; the pinnate leaves have four to ten small, lateral lobes and a large terminal lobe. The flowers are 2–4 cm in diameter, arranged in a corymb in typical Brassicaceae fashion, with creamy white petals veined in purple, having yellow stamens; the fruit is a siliqua 12–35 millimetres long with an apical beak, containing several seeds. The species has a chromosome number of 2n = 22; the Latin adjective sativa in the plant's binomial name is derived from satum, the supine of the verb sero, meaning "to sow", indicating that the seeds of the plant were sown in gardens.
Eruca sativa differs from E. vesicaria in having early deciduous sepals. Some botanists consider it a subspecies of Eruca vesicaria: E. vesicaria subsp. Sativa. Still others do not differentiate between the two; the English common name rocket derives from the French roquette, a diminutive of the Latin word eruca, which once designated a particular plant in the family Brassicaceae. Arugula, the common name now widespread in the United States and Canada, entered American English from a non-standard dialect of Italian; the standard Italian word is rucola, a diminutive of the Latin "eruca". The Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of "arugula" in American English to a 1960 article in The New York Times by food editor and prolific cookbook writer Craig Claiborne, it is sometimes conflated with Diplotaxis tenuifolia, known as "perennial wall rocket", another plant of the family Brassicaceae, used in the same manner. Eruca sativa grows on dry, disturbed ground and is used as a food by the larvae of some moth species, including the garden carpet moth.
Eruca sativa roots are susceptible to nematode infestation. A pungent, leafy green vegetable resembling a longer-leaved and open lettuce, Eruca sativa is rich in vitamin C and potassium. In addition to the leaves, the flowers, young seed pods and mature seeds are all edible. Grown as an edible herb in the Mediterranean area since Roman times, it was mentioned by various classical authors as an aphrodisiac, most famously in a poem long ascribed to Virgil, which contains the line: "et Venerem revocans eruca morantem"; some writers assert that for this reason during the Middle Ages it was forbidden to grow rocket in monasteries. It was listed, however, in a decree by Charlemagne of 802 as one of the pot herbs suitable for growing in gardens. Gillian Riley, author of the Oxford Companion to Italian Food, states that because of its reputation as a sexual stimulant, it was "prudently mixed with lettuce, the opposite". Riley continues that "nowadays rocket is enjoyed innocently in mixed salads, to which it adds a pleasing pungency".
Rocket was traditionally collected in the wild or grown in home gardens along with such herbs as parsley and basil. It is now grown commercially in many places, is available for purchase in supermarkets and farmers' markets throughout the world, it is naturalised as a wild plant away from its native range in temperate regions around the world, including northern Europe and North America. In India, the mature seeds are known as Gargeer; this is the same name in جرجير, but used in Arab countries for the fresh leaves. Mild frost conditions turn the green leaves red. In Italy, raw rocket is added to a pizza at the end of or just after baking, it is used cooked in Apulia, in southern Italy, to make the pasta dish cavatiéddi, "in which large amounts of coarsely chopped rocket are added to pasta seasoned with a homemade reduced tomato sauce and pecorino", as well as in "many unpretentious recipes in which it is added, chopped, to sauces and cooked dishes" or in a sauce used as a condiment for cold meats and fish.
In the Slovenian Littoral, it is combined with boiled potatoes, used in a soup, or served with the cheese burek in the town of Koper. It is used with salad and mozzarella cheese. In Rome rucola is used with special meat dish called straccietti that are thin slices of beef with raw rocket and Parmesan cheese. A sweet, peppery digestive alcohol called rucolino is made from rocket on the island of Ischia in the Gulf of Naples; this liqueur is a local specialty enjoyed in small quantities following a meal in the same way as a limoncello or grappa. In Brazil and Argentina, where its use is widespread, rocket is eaten raw in salads. A popular combination is rocket mixed with sun-dried tomatoes. In Cyprus, the plant is used in omelettes. An omelette with rocket is common in Cypriot restaurants. In the Gulf Countries the plant is used raw in the salads mixed with other vegetables or alone. In Eastern Saudi Arabia it is believed the plant has a lot of health benefits and recommended for newlywed couples.
In Egypt, the pl
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by gross domestic product, the fourth largest by area in the country; the state's capital and largest city, Belo Horizonte, is a major urban and finance center in Latin America, the sixth largest municipality in Brazil, after the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Fortaleza, but its metropolitan area is the third largest in Brazil with just over 5,500,000 inhabitants, after those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Nine Brazilian presidents were born in the most of any state. With an area of 586,528 square kilometres —larger than Metropolitan France—it is the fourth most extensive state in Brazil; the main producer of coffee and milk in the country, Minas Gerais is known for its heritage of architecture and colonial art in historical cities such as São João del Rei, Ouro Preto, Diamantina and Mariana. In the south, the tourist points are the hydro mineral spas, such as Caxambu, Lambari, São Lourenço, Poços de Caldas, São Thomé das Letras, Monte Verde and the national parks of Caparaó and Canastra.
The landscape of the State is marked by mountains and large areas of fertile lands. In the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls are the attractions; some of Brazil's most famous caverns are located there. In recent years, the state has emerged as one of the largest economic forces of Brazil, exploring its great economic potential. Two interpretations are given for the origin of the name Minas Gerais, it comes from "Minas dos Matos Gerais", the former name of the colonial province. So a first and more common understanding affirms that the name means "General Mines", with the word Gerais serving as an adjective to the mines, which were themselves spread in several spots around a larger region. Another explanation is that this ignores the two large geographical spaces which conformed the state in its history: the region of the mines, the region of the Gerais; these corresponded to the areas of Sertão which were farther and hard to access from the mining spots. The confusion comes from the fact that the term "Gerais" is taken as an adjective to "Minas" in the first version, although according to this point of view it refers to the region called Gerais.
A further complication is that this is not a well-defined area on the map of the state, but rather a designation to these parts outside the mining spots, more related to the geography of Sertão, more isolated from the state's nucleus. Minas Gerais is in the north of the southeastern subdivision of Brazil, which contains the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, it borders on Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and the state of Espírito Santo. It shares a short boundary with the Distrito Federal. Minas Gerais is situated between 14°13'58" and 22°54'00" S latitude and between 39°51'32" and 51°02'35" W longitude, it is larger in area than Metropolitan Spain. Minas Gerais features some of the longest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, the Paraná and to a lesser extent, the Rio Doce; the state holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas. Some of the highest peaks in Brazil are in the mountain ranges in the southern part of the state, such as Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Cervo, that mark the border between Minas and its neighbors São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
The most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, standing on the border with Espírito Santo state. The state has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald and aquamarine mines. Emeralds found in this location are comparable to the best Colombia-origin emeralds, are most a bluish-green color; each region of the state has a distinct character, geographically and to a certain extent culturally. The central and eastern area of the state is hilly and rocky, with little vegetation on the mountains. Around Lagoa Santa and Sete Lagoas a typical Karst topography with caves and lakes is found; some of the mountains are entirely iron ore, which led to extensive mining. Recent advances in environmental policy helped to put limits to mining. About 200 kilometres to the east of Belo Horizonte is the second Metropolitan Region of the state, Vale do Aço, which has iron and steel processing companies along the course of the Rio Doce and its tributaries.
Vale do Aço's largest cities are Coronel Fabriciano and Timóteo. Now that mining is restricted large areas of forest are being removed for timber, charcoal and to clear land for cattle ranching; the original forest cover of these inland hills is much fragmented. The city of Governador Valadares is in the limit of this region with the poorer North; the south of Minas Gerais is green, with coffee and milk production. This region is notably cooler than the rest of the state, some locations are subject to temperatures just below the freezing point during the winter; the region is famed for its mineral-water resorts, including the cities of Poços de Caldas, Lambari, São Lourenço and Caxambu. Many industries are located at Pouso Alegre; the southeast of the state, called Zona da Mata was the richest region unti