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Mince pie

A mince pie is a sweet pie of English origin, filled with a mixture of dried fruits and spices called "mincemeat", traditionally served during the Christmas season in much of the English-speaking world. Its ingredients are traceable to the 13th century, when returning European crusaders brought with them Middle Eastern recipes containing meats and spices. Mince pies, at Christmastide, were traditionally shaped in an oblong shape, to resemble a manger and were topped with a depiction of the Christ Child; the early mince pie was known by several names, including "mutton pie", "shrid pie" and "Christmas pie". Its ingredients were a mixture of minced meat, suet, a range of fruits, spices such as cinnamon and nutmeg. Served around Christmas, the savoury Christmas pie was associated with supposed Catholic "idolatry" and during the English Civil War was frowned on by the Puritan authorities; the tradition of eating Christmas pie in December continued through to the Victorian era, although by its recipe had become sweeter and its size markedly reduced from the large oblong shape once observed.

Today the mince pie made without meat, remains a popular seasonal treat enjoyed by many across the United Kingdom and Ireland. The ingredients for the modern mince pie can be traced to the return of European crusaders from the Holy Land. Middle Eastern methods of cooking, which sometimes combined meats and spices, were popular at the time. Pies were created from such mixtures of savoury foods; the addition of spices such as cinnamon and nutmeg was, according to the English antiquary John Timbs, "in token of the offerings of the Eastern Magi." Several authors, including Timbs, viewed the pie as being derived from an old Roman custom practised during Saturnalia, where Roman fathers in the Vatican were presented with sweetmeats. Early pies were much larger than those consumed today, oblong shaped; the modern mince pie's precursor was known by several names. The antiquary John Brand claimed that in Elizabethan and Jacobean-era England they were known as minched pies, but other names include mutton pie, starting in the following century, Christmas pie.

Gervase Markham's 1615 recipe recommends taking "a leg of mutton", cutting "the best of the flesh from the bone", before adding mutton suet, salt, mace, raisins, prunes and orange peel. He suggested that beef or veal might be used in place of mutton. In the north of England, goose was used in the pie's filling, but more neat's tongue was used. During the English Civil War, along with the censure of other Catholic customs, they were banned: "Nay, the poor rosemary and bays, Christmas pie, is made an abomination." Puritans were opposed on account of its connection with Catholicism. In his History of the Rebellion, Marchamont Needham wrote "All Plums the Prophets Sons defy, And Spice-broths are too hot; some considered them unfit to occupy the plate of a clergyman, causing Philo-Clericus to comment: The Christmas-pie is, in its own nature, a kind of consecrated cake, a badge of distinction. Strange that a sirloin of beef, whether boiled or roasted, when entire is exposed to the utmost depredeations and invasions.

In his essay The Life of Samuel Butler, Samuel Johnson wrote of "an old Puritan, alive in my childhood... would have none of his superstitious meats and drinks." Another essay, published in the December 1733 issue of The Gentleman's Magazine, explained the popularity of "Christmas Pye" as "owing to the Barrenness of the Season, the Scarcity of Fruit and Milk, to make Tarts and other Desserts", but possibly bearing "a religious kind of Relation to the Festivity from which it takes its Name." The author mentions the Quakers' objection to the treat, "who distinguish their Feasts by an heretical Sort of Pudding, known by their Names, inveigh against Christmas Pye, as an Invention of the Scarlet Whore of Babylon, an Hodge-Podge of Superstition, the Devil and all his Works." The Christmas pie remained a popular treat at Christmas, although smaller and sweeter, lacking in post-Reformation England any sign of supposed Catholic idolatry. People began to prepare the fruit and spice filling months before it was required, storing it in jars, as Britain entered the Victorian age, the addition of meat had, for many, become an afterthought.

Its taste was broadly similar to that experienced today, although some 20th-century writers continued to advocate the inclusion of meat. Although the modern recipe is no longer the same list of 13 ingredients once used (represent

Lars Klareskog

Lars Klareskog is a Swedish physician and rheumatologist, known for research into the genetics of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Klareskog received his medical degree from the University of Uppsala in 1974 and received his doctorate in 1978 with thesis On the structure and tissue distribution of HLA-DR and Ia antigens. From 1990 to 1993, he held the chair of clinical immunology at Uppsala University, he held the chair of rheumatology at the Karolinska Institute and the Karolinska Clinic until 2012 and was head of the Rheumatology Clinic and Research Group. Since 2008 he is director of the Center for Molecular Medicine. In the mid-2000s, he and his research team found that, in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis, previous smoking was dose-dependently associated with the occurrence of antibodies to the α-amino acid citrulline; the presence of HLA-DR shared epitope genes was a risk factor for RA with the presence of anticitrulline antibodies but not not for RA without the presence of anticitrulline antibodies.

For smokers there was a large interaction between smoking and HLA-DR SE genes for anticitrulline-positive RA but not for anticitrulline-negative RA. He has been a visiting professor and visiting scholar at Harvard Medical School, Imperial College London, Cornell University Hospital of Special Surgery, Seattle and Denver. In 2013 he received the Crafoord Prize with Robert J. Winchester and Peter K. Gregersen for polyarthritis research. From 1995 to 2012 he was a member of the Nobel Committee. With H. Källberg et al.: Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions involving HLA-DRB1, PTPN22, smoking in two subsets of rheumatoid arthritis, American J. Hum. Genetics, Vol. 80, 2007, pp. 867-875 doi:10.1086/516736 with E. F. Remmers et al.: STAT4 and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 357, 2007, pp. 977-986. Doi:10.1056/NEJMoa073003 with J. Rönnelid, K. Lundberg et al.: Immunity to citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid arthritis. In: Annual Review of Immunology, Vol. 26, 2008, pp. 651-675.

Doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.26.021607.090244 with A. C. Catrina & S. Paget: Rheumatoid arthritis. In: The Lancet, Volume 373, 2009 pp. 659-672 doi:10.1016/S0140-673660008-8 with H. Mahdi et al.: Specific Interaction between genotype and autoimmunity to citrullinated alpha-enolase in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis. In: Nature Genetics, Vol. 41, 2009, pp. 1319-1324 doi:10.1038/ng.480 with S. Saevarsdottir et al.: Patients with early rheumatoid arthritis who smoke are less to respond to methotrexate and TNF inhibitors. Observations from the EIRA cohort and the Swedish Rheumatology Register. In: Arthritis & Rheumatism, January 2011. Doi:10.1002/art.27758 with L Mathsson, M Mullazehi, MC Wick, O Sjöberg, et al.: Antibodies against citrullinated vimentin in rheumatoid arthritis: Higher sensitivity and extended prognostic value concerning future radiographic progression as compared with cyclic citrullinated peptides. In: Arthritis Rheum, 2007, 58, pp. 36-45 doi:10.1002/art.23188 Homepage at Karolinska Institute "Lars Klareskog Group".

Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet. Lars Klareskog M. D. Ph. D.: Executive Summary & Biography - Bloomberg

Erica Awano

Erica Awano, is a Japanese Brazilian comics artist. She is the daughter of Japanese immigrants. Although her style is influenced by Japanese manga and she has been called The best Brazilian manga artist, her works are different from traditional manga because of their format. After graduating from the University of São Paulo in Literature, Awano started her career in 1996 with illustrating Novas Aventuras de Megaman, a digest size comic book based on the Mega Man franchise, she worked on a limited series based on Street Fighter Zero 3, written by Marcelo Cassaro and columns on how-to draw for magazines Anime Ex and Animax. She was the co-creator of the mascot of the magazine Anime Do, she has illustrated role-playing games books among others. Her most successful and recognized work is the comic series Holy Avenger, which lasted for 42 issues and spawned a handful of other projects, including other comics, an audio CD with professional actors playing the characters and an animated series. Interview at Street Fighter RPG Brazil Example of Awano´s work Another example of her work Review of Holy Avenger Official Holy Avenger site

Green Mind

Green Mind is the fourth studio album by alternative rock band Dinosaur Jr. released in 1991. It was the band's first release after bassist Lou Barlow's departure, as well as the first released by a major label; the record is close to being a J Mascis solo album: he played most of the instruments, with founding drummer Murph only featuring on three tracks. The cover photograph, Priscilla, 1969, is by Joseph Szabo and taken from his book of photographs Almost Grown. "Turnip Farm" is featured in the film Reality Bites. In a contemporary review, Select gave the album a four out of five rating, describing the album as a "relief...not a bolt from a sky" and that "we're still waiting for Dinosaur Jr.'s masterpiece" Writing for Drowned in Sound Chris Power called the album expansive. All songs written except where noted. J Mascis - vocals, bass, producer Murph - drums Joe Harvard - guitar, tape Jay Spiegel - drums, tom-tom Don Fleming - guitar, backing vocals, acoustic bass Sean Slade - engineer, mellotron Tom Walters - assistant engineer Matt Dillon - backing vocals Album - Billboard Singles - Billboard

Ted Henry

Theodore "Ted" C. Henry is a retired television news anchor whose career spanned 44 years in the Northeast Ohio area, most notably as the primary news anchor on Cleveland ABC affiliate WEWS channel 5. Henry was born during the baby boom generation in 1945 in Canton, the son of a local hardware store owner and his wife; as a student at Central Catholic High School, Henry got his first job in broadcasting - recording a commercial for his father's hardware store. Following graduating high school in 1963, Henry attended Walsh University and a year transferred to Kent State University, studying telecommunications, he would graduate from KSU in 1968. After graduating college, Henry was in graduate school at Kent State University, at Cleveland State University. At one point in his early twenties Ted entered the Peace Corps, serving overseas for over two years in a tiny third world country village, Caazapa, in Paraguay. Shortly after college, Henry worked as a reporter and weather forecaster for Akron, Ohio TV station WAKR-TV 23, upon returning home from his Peace Corps service, Henry worked at sister stations WKBN AM 570 and WKBN-TV 27 in Youngstown, Ohio as a government reporter.

In 1972, Henry came to Cleveland and began work at WEWS. First he served as the weekend weatherman, he would work his way up the ranks to reporter, 11 pm news show producer weekend news anchor, in 1975 became the weeknight news anchor, serving in that post for 34 years until his retirement in 2009, working with 13 different co-anchors over that time frame. Henry would make numerous international trips during his WEWS career to cover stories, including to Germany to cover the fall of the Berlin Wall, to Rome to cover the death of Pope John Paul II, six trips to Israel. Henry announced his retirement on April 23, 2009, his final newscast was on May 20. In his retirement and his wife Jody have traveled abroad, filming freelance interviews with religious and spiritual leaders like Sathya Sai Baba. 1991 inductee - Ohio Broadcasters Hall of Fame 1997 Sliver Circle Award 2000 Society of Professional Journalists Distinguished Service Award recipient 2002 inductee - Cleveland Association of Broadcasters Hall of Fame 2003 Lower Great Lakes Emmy Award recipient - Outstanding Daily Newscast 2004 inductee - Cleveland Press Club Journalism Hall of Fame 2006 Lower Great Lakes Emmy Award recipient - Outstanding Daily Newscast 2007 inductee - Ohio Associated Press Broadcasters Hall of Fame Henry's video blog

King T. Leatherbury

King T. Leatherbury is an American Thoroughbred racehorse trainer who ranks fifth all-time in wins among U. S. trainers. Called a Maryland racing legend by Churchill Downs, King T. Leatherbury, along with John J. Tammaro, Jr. Richard E. Dutrow, Sr. and Hall of Fame inductee Bud Delp, were known as Maryland racing's "Big Four". They dominated racing in that state during the 1960s and 1970s and helped modernize flat racing training. Born on a farm there, where his father raised horses, King Leatherbury graduated from the University of Maryland with a degree in business administration chose a career in thoroughbred racing; as a trainer, he won his first race in 1959 at Florida's Sunshine Park but made his reputation at racetracks in his native Maryland. He was the leading trainer at Delaware Park Racetrack on four occasions, won twenty titles at Laurel Park Racecourse and another twenty-five at Pimlico Race Course, he led all Maryland trainers in wins for four straight years between 1993 through 1996 and has won five races in one day four times and on another occasion won six races on one card.

On April 20, 2015, Leatherbury's induction into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame was announced. His formal induction took place in ceremonies on August 7, 2015 in Saratoga Springs, NY. 2005 Washington Post article on King T. Leatherbury 2003 Baltimore Sun newspaper article profile and interview with King T. Leatherbury titled Leatherbury: A breed apart