A game is a structured form of play undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, carried out for remuneration, from art, more an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, many games are considered to be work or art. Games are sometimes played purely sometimes for achievement or reward as well, they can be played alone, in online. The players may have an audience of non-players, such as when people are entertained by watching a chess championship. On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play. Part of the entertainment for children playing a game is deciding, part of their audience and, a player. Key components of games are goals, rules and interaction. Games involve mental or physical stimulation, both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational, or psychological role.
Attested as early as 2600 BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Mancala are some of the oldest known games. Ludwig Wittgenstein was the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein argued that the elements of games, such as play and competition, all fail to adequately define what games are. From this, Wittgenstein concluded that people apply the term game to a range of disparate human activities that bear to one another only what one might call family resemblances; as the following game definitions show, this conclusion was not a final one and today many philosophers, like Thomas Hurka, think that Wittgenstein was wrong and that Bernard Suits' definition is a good answer to the problem. French sociologist Roger Caillois, in his book Les jeux et les hommes, defined a game as an activity that must have the following characteristics: fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character separate: it is circumscribed in time and place uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality Computer game designer Chris Crawford, founder of The Journal of Computer Game Design, has attempted to define the term game using a series of dichotomies: Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, entertainment if made for money.
A piece of entertainment is a plaything. Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge. If a challenge has no "active agent against whom you compete", it is a puzzle. If the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them to interfere with their performance, the conflict is a competition. However, if attacks are allowed the conflict qualifies as a game. Crawford's definition may thus be rendered as: an interactive, goal-oriented activity made for money, with active agents to play against, in which players can interfere with each other. "A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome." "A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal." According to this definition, some "games" that do not involve choices, such as Chutes and Ladders, Candy Land, War are not technically games any more than a slot machine is.
"A game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context." "At its most elementary level we can define game as an exercise of voluntary control systems in which there is an opposition between forces, confined by a procedure and rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome." "A game is a form of play with goals and structure." "to play a game is to engage in activity directed toward bringing about a specific state of affairs, using only means permitted by specific rules, where the means permitted by the rules are more limited in scope than they would be in the absence of the rules, where the sole reason for accepting such limitation is to make possible such activity." "When you strip away the genre differences and the technological complexities, all games share four defining traits: a goal, rules, a feedback system, voluntary participation." Games can be characterized by "what the player does". This is referred to as gameplay.
Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules that define the overall context of game. Games are classified by the com
Mattel, Inc. is an American multinational toy manufacturing company founded in 1945 with headquarters in El Segundo, California. The products and brands it produces include Fisher-Price, Monster High, Ever After High, Polly Pocket, Hot Wheels and Matchbox, Masters of the Universe, American Girl, board games, WWE. In the early 1980s, Mattel produced video game systems, under its own brands and under license from Nintendo; the company has presence in 40 countries and territories and sells products in more than 150 countries. The company operates through three business segments: North America and American Girl, it is the world's second largest toy maker in terms of revenue, after The Lego Group. In 2014, it ranked #403 on the Fortune 500 list. On January 17, 2017, Mattel named former Google executive Margo Georgiadis as CEO. Georgiadis stepped down as CEO of Mattel on April 19, 2018, her last day was on April 26, 2018. Ynon Kreiz is now the new CEO of Mattel; the name Mattel is a portmanteau of Elliot Handler, the company's founders.
Harold "Matt" Matson and Elliot Handler founded Mattel in 1945. The company sold picture frames, dollhouse furniture. Matson sold his share to Handler due to poor health, Handler's wife Ruth took Matson's role. In 1947, the company had its first hit toy, a ukulele called "Uke-A-Doodle"; the company incorporated the next year in California. Mattel became the first year-round sponsor of the Mickey Mouse Club TV series in 1955; the Barbie doll debuted in 1959. In 1960, Mattel introduced Chatty Cathy, a talking doll revolutionizing the toy industry, which led to pull-string talking dolls and toys flooding the market throughout the 1960s and 1970s; the company went public in 1960, the New York Stock Exchange listed them in 1963. Mattel acquired a number of companies during the 1960s. In 1965, the company built on its success with the Chatty Cathy doll to introduce the See'n Say talking toy, spawning a line of products, they released Hot Wheels to the market on May 18, 1968. In May 1970, Mattel formed a joint venture film production company Radnitz/Mattel Productions with producer Robert B.
Radnitz, entered a multimillion-dollar partnership with Mehra Entertainment, whose CEO, Dr. Nishpeksh Padmamohan Mehra, is one of Mattel's Inc.'s main directors for Barbie. Mattel purchased The Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus in 1971 for $40 million from the Feld family, whom Mattel kept as management. Mattel sold the circus corporation by December 1973, despite its profit contributions, as Mattel showed a $29.9 million loss in 1972. In 1974, an investigation found Mattel guilty of issuing false and misleading financial reports, banishing Elliot and Ruth Handler from their own company. Arthur S. Spear, a Mattel vice president, took control of the company in 1975, who returned the company to profitability in 1977. Ruth Handler sold her stock in 1980; the Mattel Electronics line debuted in 1977 with an all-electronic handheld game. The success of the handheld led to the expansion of the line with game console the line becoming its own corporation in 1982. Mattel Electronics forced Mattel to take a $394 million loss in 1983 and filed for bankruptcy.
In 1979, through Feld Productions, Mattel purchased the Holiday on Ice and Ice Follies for $12 million. Acquired that year was Western Publishing for $120 million in cash and stock; the Felds bought the circus in 1982 for $22.8 million. New York venture capital firms E. M. Warburg, Pincus & Co. and Drexel Burnham Lambert invested a couple hundred million in Mattel in 1984 to help the company survive. However, the Master of the Universe action figure line sales dropped, causing a $115 million loss in 1987. Chairman John W. Amerman improved the company's financial performance in 1987 by focusing on core brands. Mattel returned to working with the Disney company in 1988. In 1991, Mattel moved its headquarters from California to El Segundo, California. Mattel entered the game business in 1992 with the purchase of International Games, maker of Uno and Skip-Bo. Mattel purchased Fisher-Price, Inc. in 1993, Tyco Toys, Inc. in 1997, Pleasant Company in 1998. Mattel sold it in 2000 at a loss; the company had a $430.9 million net loss that year.
Mattel earned the first grant for Disney Princess doll licenses in 2000. In December 2000, Mattel sued the band Aqua, saying their song "Barbie Girl" violated the Barbie trademark and turned Barbie into a sex object, referring to her as a "blonde bimbo." The lawsuit was rejected in 2002. In 2000, Mattel signed a deal with Warner Bros to became the master licensee for Harry Potter-branded toys. In 2002, the companies extended their partnership, with Mattel becoming master licensee for Batman, Justice League and the Looney Tunes toys for all markets except Asia. In 2002, Mattel closed its last factory in the United States part of the Fisher-Price division, outsourcing production to China, which began a chain of events that led to a lead contamination scandal. On August 14, 2007, Mattel recalled over 18 million products; the New York Times covered Mattel's multiple recalls. Many of the products had exceeded the US limits set on surface coatings. Surface coatings cannot exceed.06% lead by weight. Additional recalls were because it was possible that some toys could pose a danger to children due to the use of strong magnets that could detach.
Mattel re-wrote its policy on magnets issuing a recall in August 2007. The recall included 7.1 million Polly Pocket toys produced before November 2006, 600,0
A logic puzzle is a puzzle deriving from the mathematics field of deduction. The logic puzzle was first produced by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known under his pen name Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. In his book The Game of Logic he introduced a game to solve problems such as confirming the conclusion "Some greyhounds are not fat" from the statements "No fat creatures run well" and "Some greyhounds run well". Puzzles like this, where we are given a list of premises and asked what can be deduced from them, are known as syllogisms. Dodgson goes on to construct much more complex puzzles consisting of up to 8 premises. In the second half of the 20th century mathematician Raymond M. Smullyan has continued and expanded the branch of logic puzzles with books such as The Lady or the Tiger?, To Mock a Mockingbird and Alice in Puzzle-Land. He popularized the "knights and knaves" puzzles, which involve knights, who always tell the truth, knaves, who always lie. There are logic puzzles that are non-verbal in nature.
Some popular forms include Sudoku, which involves using deduction to place numbers in a grid. Another form of logic puzzle, popular among puzzle enthusiasts and available in magazines dedicated to the subject, is a format in which the set-up to a scenario is given, as well as the object, certain clues are given, the reader fills out a matrix with the clues and attempts to deduce the solution; these are referred to as "logic grid" puzzles. The most famous example may be the so-called Zebra Puzzle, which asks the question Who Owned the Zebra?. Common in logic puzzle magazines are derivatives of the logic grid puzzle called "table puzzles" that are deduced in the same manner as grid puzzles, but lack the grid either because a grid would be too large, or because some other visual aid is provided. For example, a map of a town might be present in lieu of a grid in a puzzle about the location of different shops. Category:Logic puzzles, a list of different logic puzzles List of puzzle video games Logic programming Mechanical puzzle Recreational mathematics Logic Test by Colin Beckley: http://think-logically.co.uk/lt.htm
A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity or knowledge. In a puzzle, the solver is expected to put pieces together in a logical way, in order to arrive at the correct or fun solution of the puzzle. There are different genres of puzzles, such as crossword puzzles, word-search puzzles, number puzzles, relational puzzles, or logic puzzles. Puzzles are created to be a form of entertainment but they can arise from serious mathematical or logistical problems. In such cases, their solution may be a significant contribution to mathematical research; the 1989 edition of the Oxford English Dictionary dates the word puzzle to the end of the 16th century. Its first documented use was in a book titled The Voyage of Robert Dudley...to the West Indies, 1594–95, narrated by Capt. Wyatt, by himself, by Abram Kendall, master; the word came to be used as a noun. The word puzzle comes from pusle, meaning "bewilder, confound", a frequentive of the obsolete verb pose in the sense of "perplex".
The use of the word to mean "a toy contrived to test one's ingenuity" is recent. Puzzles can be divided into categories. For example, a maze is a type of tour puzzle; some other categories are construction puzzles, stick puzzles, tiling puzzles, disentanglement puzzles, lock puzzles, folding puzzles, combination puzzles, mechanical puzzles. A chess problem is a puzzle. Examples are the eight queens puzzle. Jigsaw puzzles. Lateral thinking puzzles called "situation puzzles" Mathematical puzzles include the missing square puzzle and many impossible puzzles — puzzles which have no solution, such as the Seven Bridges of Königsberg, the three cups problem, three utilities problem Mechanical puzzles such as the Rubik's Cube and Soma cube Metapuzzles are puzzles which unite elements of other puzzles. Paper-and-pencil puzzles such as Uncle Art's Funland, connect the dots, nonograms Also the logic puzzles published by Nikoli: Sudoku, Kakuro, Hashiwokakero, Hitori, Light Up, Number Link, Ripple Effect and Kuromasu.
Peg solitaire. Rubik's Cube and other combination puzzles can be stimulating toys for children or recreational activities for adults. Sangaku Sliding puzzles such as the 15 Puzzle. Puzz-3D is a three-dimensional variant of this type. Sokoban Spot the difference Tangram Word puzzles, including anagrams, crossword puzzles and word search puzzles. Tabletop and digital word puzzles include Bananagrams, Bonza, Letterpress, Puzzlage, Ruzzle, Upwords, WordSpot, Words with Friends. Wheel of Fortune is a game show centered on a word puzzle. Solutions of puzzles require the recognition of patterns and the adherence to a particular kind of ordering. People with a high level of inductive reasoning aptitude may be better at solving such puzzles than others, but puzzles based upon inquiry and discovery may be solved more by those with good deduction skills. Deductive reasoning improves with practice. Mathematical puzzles involves BODMAS. BODMAS is an acronym and it stands for Bracket, Of, Multiplication and Subtraction.
In certain regions, PEDMAS is the synonym of BODMAS. It explains the order of operations to solve an expression; some mathematical puzzle requires Top to Bottom convention to avoid the ambiguity in the order of operations. It is an elegantly simple idea that relies, as sudoku does, on the requirement that numbers appear only once starting from top to bottom as coming along. Puzzle makers are people; some notable creators of puzzles are: Ernő Rubik Sam Loyd Henry Dudeney Boris Kordemsky David J. Bodycombe Will Shortz Lloyd King Martin Gardner Raymond Smullyan Jigsaw puzzles are the most popular form of puzzle. Jigsaw puzzles were invented around 1760, when John Spilsbury, a British engraver and cartographer, mounted a map on a sheet of wood, which he sawed around the outline of each individual country on the map, he used the resulting pieces as an aid for the teaching of geography. After becoming popular among the public, this kind of teaching aid remained the primary use of jigsaw puzzles until about 1820.
The largest puzzle is made by German game company Ravensburger. The smallest puzzle made was created at LaserZentrum Hannover, it is the size of a sand grain. By the early 20th century and newspapers had found that they could increase their readership by publishing puzzle contests, beginning with crosswords and in modern days sudoku. There are organizations and events that cater to puzzle enthusiasts, such as: Nob Yoshigahara Puzzle Design Competition World Puzzle Championship National Puzzlers' League Puzzlehunts such as the Maze of Games List of impossible puzzles List of Nikoli puzzle types Riddle Puzzles at DMOZ
Pressman Toy Corporation
Pressman Toy Corporation is a toy manufacturer based in Plano, Texas, founded in 1922 by Jack Pressman. It focuses on family games and licensed products; the company was founded in 1922 by Jack Pressman, who brought in Max Eibitz as a partner in 1925, with Pressman doing sales and Eibitz managing the firm's Brooklyn factory. One of the company's first hits was Chinese checkers, a game that Pressman acquired the rights to in 1928 after spotting the game on a trip to Colorado, first marketed as "Hop Ching Checkers"; the company was an innovator in licensing games and toys from popular media, such as the Little Orphan Annie and Dick Tracy comic strips. After the release of Walt Disney's first full-length animated feature Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937, Pressman released a series of Snow White toys based on the film. Pressman ended his partnership in 1947, he reincorporated that year as Pressman Toy Company and brought in his wife, Lynn Pressman, who had held senior positions in New York City department stores, as the new company's executive vice president.
As Jack Pressman's health deteriorated, she took a greater role in the operation of the firm, served as its president following his death in 1959. The 1950s brought the Doctor Bag, designed to help children feel more comfortable with visits to the doctor, followed by a Nurse Bag and corresponding Ken and Barbie versions licensed in 1962. A series of items were licensed from Walt Disney Productions, starting after the debut of The Mickey Mouse Club television series in 1955. Lynn Pressman oversaw the signing of baseball star Roger Maris to promote the company's Big League Action Baseball, signed Tom Seaver of the New York Mets and Carl Yastrzemski of the Boston Red Sox to represent the product. Inspired by a letter from the anti-war Westchester Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Raymond oversaw the creation of a series of Pen Pal Dolls, each approved by UNICEF, which included a pen and information about the doll's country including a simple dictionary, with the name and address of a girl in one of 20 countries around the world.
James Pressman, son of Jack and Lynn, took over as president in 1977. Since that time, Pressman Toy Company has marketed a series of family games including the code-breaking game Mastermind, the tile-based game Rummikub and the dominoes variant Tri-Ominos; the company has created licensed products for game shows such as Deal or No Deal, Jeopardy!, Wheel of Fortune and Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? and markets games based on such popular TV series and movies as Scooby-Doo, Hello Kitty, Dinosaur Train, Happy Feet Two, The Smurfs, Modern Family, Diary of a Wimpy Kid. In July, 2014, the Pressman Toy Corporation was bought by a Dutch game manufacturer. Official website IBM Global Services – Case study – Pressman Toys raises its games and cuts costs with SAP business solutions by IBM and SAP
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000