Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Sioux City Air National Guard Base
Sioux City Air National Guard Base is a United States Air Force base, located at Sioux Gateway Airport It is located 7.2 miles south-southeast of Sioux City, Iowa. On 25 May 2002, the airport was named "Colonel Bud Day Field" in honor of United States Air Force Colonel George Everette "Bud" Day, a Sioux City, Iowa native and is the only person awarded both the Medal of Honor and the Air Force Cross. Sioux Gateway Regional Airport is home for the Iowa Air National Guard's 185th Air Refueling Wing; the wings main mission is to provide mid-air refueling and mobility sustainment in direct support of the global mission of the Air Force. As a community-based organization the wing and its subordinate units are tasked to support the state of Iowa in the event of a state emergency; the station was established in March 1942 as Sioux City Army Air Base and was a major training center during World War II under II Bomber Command for crew members of B-24 Liberators and B-17 Flying Fortresses. During the 1950s, the airfield was an Air Defense Command fighter-interceptor base.
Beginning in 1956, the ADC flying activity was reduced and Sioux City became an ADC command and control station for Ground Control Intercept Radar Stations in the Midwest becoming a Direction Center for the ADC Sioux City Air Defense Sector and the 30th Air Division. In 1968 ADC closed its facilities, with the Iowa Air National Guard becoming the host unit at the base; the construction of Sioux City AAB began in March 1942, about three months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Opened on 5 July 1942, it became a major training center during World War II for B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator groups; the base performed Phase III advanced group training, once completed, the groups were deployed overseas to either the Eighth Air Force, or Fifteenth Air Force for combat operations. The host unit at the base was the 354th Army Air Force Base Unit, the major training organization was the 393d Combat Training School. At its peak, there were 5,183 enlisted men either assigned or attached to the base.
The major training activities at Sioux City included aerial gunnery, navigation, formation flying, other related courses. Training at the field was intended to prepare an entire bomb group for overseas combat. After July 1943, sufficient Bomb Groups had been formed and trained, the base switched to training individual crews as replacements or additions to various bomb groups. Hollywood actor and Army Air Force Captain James Stewart was posted to Sioux City with his squadron in 1943, where he and his crew completed their initial B-24 Liberator qualification prior to deployment overseas; the training of B-17 crews continued until May 1945. Around that time, the field received a new mission which required the conversion of the facilities for B-29 Superfortress training; the base was transferred to the 17th Bombardment Operational Training Wing and began the transition to start B-29 training. By early June, there were ten B-29's on the field; the new training program was short lived. With the end of World War II, the former training base switched to becoming a processing center to discharge personnel out of the service and back into civilian life.
With its mission completed, Sioux City Army Air Base closed in December 1945. However, the facility would not remain closed for long, as in September 1946 the airfield was opened by the Air Force Reserve. Sioux City Air Base was one of the first Air Force Reserve bases established after the war, in December 1946 the 185th Iowa Air National Guard unit was established at Sioux City. Assigned to the new Air Defense Command upon reactivation, the 140th Army Air Force base unit was activated as its host unit; the mission of the 140th AFBU was to offer flight and ground training to all commissioned and enlisted members of the Air Force Reserve residing in Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota and Wyoming. During the 1950s, ADC based the 521st Air Defense Group at Sioux City beginning on 15 February 1953 as part of the Central Air Defense Force; the 521st had the 14th, 87th and 519th Fighter-Interceptor Squadrons, equipped with F-86 Sabres, F-84 Thunderstreaks, F-102 Delta Daggers. In 1955, the 521st was reassigned and replaced by the 13th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, which flew with the 14th FIS from the base until 1960.
Beginning in 1959, the ADC flying activity was reduced and Sioux City became an ADC command and control base. The Sioux City Air Defense Sector was established on 1 October 1959 assuming control of former ADC Central Air Defense Force units in western Iowa, most of Nebraska along with southern South Dakota. In 1959 a Semi Automatic Ground Environment Data Center was established at Sioux City AFS; the SAGE system was a network linking Air Force General Surveillance Radar stations into a centralized center for Air Defense, intended to provide early warning and response for a Soviet nuclear attack. The operation of DC-22 with its AN/FSQ-7 computer was the primary mission of SCADS, as well as providing air defense over parts of Minnesota and Wyoming The Sector was disestablished on 1 April 1966 as part of an ADC consolidation and reorganization; the 30th AD administered and trained subordinate units, participated in numerous air defense training exercises. In addition, it supervised training of Air National Guard units with a pertinent
Fort Ridgely was a United States Army outpost near the Dakota reservation in southwestern Minnesota. Built between 1853–1854, it was named for three officers named Ridgely who were killed in the Mexican–American War; the fort played an important role in the Dakota War of 1862. The Battle of Fort Ridgely was fought there in two engagements over August 20–22, 1862 between Army volunteers and refugees from the Minnesota River valley, Dakota forces; the Army moved westward. Civilians occupied the remaining buildings and dismantled the structures for their own use. Today the building foundations are preserved by the Nicollet County Historical Society and owned by the Minnesota Historical Society within the boundaries of Fort Ridgely State Park; the old commissary building now houses the museum. The fort was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, while much of the park was added in 1989. Barnes, Jeff. Forts of the Northern Plains: Guide to Historic Military Posts of the Plains Indian Wars.
Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2008. Media related to Fort Ridgely at Wikimedia Commons Fort Ridgely State Park from the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Minnesota Historical Society: Fort Ridgely Nicollet County Historical Society
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad
The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad; the company went through several official names and faced bankruptcy on multiple occasions throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In 1980, it abandoned its Pacific Extension as a cost-cutting measure following a 1977 bankruptcy. What remained of the system operated for another six years until it merged into the Soo Line Railroad, a subsidiary of Canadian Pacific Railway, on January 1, 1986. Although the "Milwaukee Road" as such ceased to exist, much of its trackage continues to be used by multiple railroads, it is commemorated in buildings like the historic Milwaukee Road Depot in Minneapolis and in railroad hardware still maintained by rail fans, such as the Milwaukee Road 261 steam locomotive. The railroad that became the Milwaukee Road began as the Milwaukee and Waukesha Railroad in Wisconsin, whose goal was to link the developing Lake Michigan port city of Milwaukee with the Mississippi River; the company incorporated in 1847, but changed its name to the Milwaukee and Mississippi Railroad in 1850 before construction began.
Its first line, all of 5 miles, opened between Milwaukee and Wauwatosa, on November 20, 1850. Extensions followed to Waukesha in February 1851, the Mississippi River at Prairie du Chien in 1857; as a result of the financial panic of 1857, the M&M went into receivership in 1859, was purchased by the Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien in 1861. In 1867, Alexander Mitchell combined the M&PdC with the Milwaukee and St. Paul under the name Milwaukee and St. Paul. Critical to the development and financing of the railroad was the acquisition of significant land grants. Prominent individual investors in the line included Alexander Mitchell, Russell Sage, Jeremiah Milbank and William Rockefeller. In 1874, the name was changed to Chicago, St. Paul after absorbing the Chicago & Pacific Railroad Company, the railroad that built the Bloomingdale Line as part of the 36-mile Elgin Subdivision from Halsted Street to the suburb of Elgin, Illinois. By 1887, the railroad had lines running through Wisconsin, Iowa, South Dakota, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.
The corporate headquarters were moved from Milwaukee to the Rand McNally Building in Chicago, America's first all-steel framed skyscraper, in 1889 and 1890, with the car and locomotive shops staying in Milwaukee. The company General Offices were located in Chicago's Railway Exchange building until 1924, at which time they moved to Chicago Union Station. In the 1890s the Milwaukee's directors felt they had to extend the railroad to the Pacific in order to remain competitive with other roads. A survey in 1901 estimated costs to build to the Pacific Northwest as $45 million. In 1905 the board approved the Pacific Extension, now estimated at $60 million, equal to $1.67 billion today. The contract for the western part of the route was awarded to Horace Chapin Henry of Seattle. Construction began in 1906 and was completed in 1909; the route chosen was 18 miles shorter than the next shortest competitor's, as well as better grades than some, but it was an expensive route, since the Milwaukee received few land grants and had to buy most of the land or acquire smaller railroads.
The two main mountain ranges that had to be crossed required major civil engineering works and additional locomotive power. The completion of 2,300 miles of railroad through some of the most varied topography in the nation in only three years was a major feat; some historians question the choice of route, since it bypassed some population centers and passed through areas with limited local traffic potential. Much of the line paralleled the Northern Pacific Railway. Trains magazine called the building of the extension a long-haul route, "egregious" and a "disaster." George H. Drury listed the Pacific Extension as one of several "wrong decisions" made by the Milwaukee's management which contributed to the company's eventual failure. Beginning in 1909, several smaller railroads were acquired and expanded to form branch lines along the Pacific Extension; the Montana Railroad formed the mainline route through Sixteenmile Canyon as well as the North Montana Line which extended North from Harlowton to Lewistown.
This branch led to the settlement of the Judith Basin and, by the 1970s, accounted for 30% of the Milwaukee Road's total traffic. The Gallatin Valley Electric Railway built as an interurban line, was extended from Bozeman to the mainline at Three Forks. In 1927 the railroad built the Gallatin Gateway Inn, where passengers travelling to Yellowstone National Park transferred to buses for the remainder of their journey; the White Sulphur Springs & Yellowstone Park Railway built by Lew Penwell and John Ringling carried lumber and agricultural products. Operating conditions in the mountain regions of the Pacific Extension proved difficult. Winter temperatures of −40 °F in Montana made it challenging for steam locomotives to generate sufficient steam; the line snaked through mountainous areas, resulting in "long steep grades and sharp curves." Elect
Fort Thompson, South Dakota
Fort Thompson is a census-designated place in Buffalo County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 1,282 at the 2010 census, making it the largest settlement on the Crow Creek Reservation. Fort Thompson was named in honor of Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Fort Thompson is located at 44°3′39″N 99°25′45″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 12.6 square miles, of which 10.3 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. Big Bend Dam is located just south of impounds Lake Sharpe; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,375 people, 325 households, 265 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 133.5 people per square mile. There were 355 housing units at an average density of 34.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 2.62% White, 0.07% African American, 96.36% Native American, 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.51% of the population. There were 325 households out of which 52.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.0% were married couples living together, 39.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.2% were non-families.
13.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.18 and the average family size was 4.54. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 45.0% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 14.0% from 45 to 64, 4.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 20 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $9,191, the median income for a family was $9,191. Males had a median income of $19,375 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $4,030. About 64.0% of families and 64.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 70.1% of those under age 18 and 58.1% of those age 65 or over. With such high rates of poverty and other negative social indicators, the situations found in the town and county are compared to a third world nation.
Accounts of the town report rundown neighborhoods with old newspapers, tin foil or old sheets covering windows of some homes. The latest census figures show that 21 % of houses do not have a plumbing; the housing stock is overcrowded, with cases of 15 to 20 people living in a modest house. 2000 census figures show. Another problem facing the residents of the town is that a quarter of the residents do not have an automobile and have to walk or bicycle long distances in the low density area
Public Works Administration
Public Works Administration, part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, it was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges and schools, its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, help revive the economy. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, again in 1938. Called the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, it was renamed the Public Works Administration in 1935 and shut down in 1944; the PWA spent over $7 billion in contracts to private construction firms. It created an infrastructure that generated national and local pride in the 1930s and remains vital eight decades later; the PWA was much less controversial than its rival agency with a confusingly similar name, the Works Progress Administration, headed by Harry Hopkins, which focused on smaller projects and hired unemployed unskilled workers.
Frances Perkins had first suggested a federally financed public works program, the idea received considerable support from Harold L. Ickes, James Farley, Henry Wallace. After having scaled back the initial cost of the PWA, Franklin Delano Roosevelt agreed to include the PWA as part of his New Deal proposals in the "Hundred Days" of spring 1933; the PWA headquarters in Washington planned projects, which were built by private construction companies hiring workers on the open market. Unlike the WPA, it did not hire the unemployed directly. More than any other New Deal program, the PWA epitomized the progressive notion of "priming the pump" to encourage economic recovery. Between July 1933 and March 1939 the PWA funded and administered the construction of more than 34,000 projects including airports, large electricity-generating dams, major warships for the Navy, bridges, as well as 70% of the new schools and one-third of the hospitals built in 1933–1939. Streets and highways were the most common PWA projects, as 11,428 road projects, or 33% of all PWA projects, accounted for over 15% of its total budget.
School buildings, 7,488 in all, came in second at 14% of spending. PWA functioned chiefly by making allotments to the various Federal agencies. For example, it provided funds for the Indian Division of the CCC to build roads and other public works on and near Indian reservations; the PWA became, with its "multiplier-effect" and first two-year budget of $3.3 billion, the driving force of America’s biggest construction effort up to that date. By June 1934, the agency had distributed its entire fund to 13,266 federal projects and 2,407 non-federal projects. For every worker on a PWA project two additional workers were employed indirectly; the PWA accomplished the electrification of rural America, the building of canals, bridges, streets, sewage systems, housing areas, as well as hospitals and universities. The PWA electrified the Pennsylvania Railroad between New York and Washington, DC. At the local level it built courthouses, schools and other public facilities that remain in use in the 21st century.
Lincoln Tunnel in New York City Overseas Highway connecting Key West, Florida, to the mainland Triborough Bridge Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge Bourne Bridge Sagamore Bridge Hoover Dam Fort Peck Dam Grand Coulee Dam in Washington state Pensacola Dam Mansfield Dam Tom Miller Dam Upper Mississippi River lock & dams List of New Deal airports The PWA created three Greenbelt communities based on the ideas of Ebenezer Howard which are now the municipalities of Greenbelt, Greenhills and Greendale, Wisconsin. The PWA was the centerpiece of the New Deal program for building public housing for the poor people in cities; however it did not create as much affordable housing as supporters would have hoped, building only 29,000 units in 4 1⁄2 years. The PWA spent over $6 billion, but did not succeed in returning the level of industrial activity to pre-depression levels. Though successful in many aspects, it has been acknowledged that the PWA's objective of constructing a substantial number of quality, affordable housing units was a major failure.
Some have argued that because Roosevelt was opposed to deficit spending, there was not enough money spent to help the PWA achieve its housing goals. Reeves argues that the competitive theory of administration used by Roosevelt proved to be inefficient and produced delays; the competition over the size of expenditure, the selection of the administrator, the appointment of staff at the state level, led to delays and to the ultimate failure of PWA as a recovery instrument. As director of the budget, Lewis Douglas overrode the views of leading senators in reducing appropriations to $3.5 billion and in transferring much of that money to other agencies in lieu of their own specific appropriations. The cautious and penurious Ickes won out over the more imaginative Hugh S. Johnson as chief of public works administration. Political competition between rival Democratic state organizations and between Democrats and Progressive Republicans led to delays in implementing PWA efforts on the local level. Ickes instituted quotas for hiring skilled and unskilled black people in construction financed through the Public Works Administration.
Resistance from employers and unions was overcome by negotiations and implied
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress
The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps. Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing entry outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing lost the contract because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances, becoming the third-most produced bomber of all time, behind the four-engined B-24 and the multirole, twin-engined Ju 88; the B-17 was employed by the USAAF in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force, based at many airfields in central and southern England, the Fifteenth Air Force, based in Italy, complemented the RAF Bomber Command's nighttime area bombing in the Combined Bomber Offensive to help secure air superiority over the cities and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for the invasion of France in 1944.
The B-17 participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II, where it conducted raids against Japanese shipping and airfields. From its prewar inception, the USAAC promoted the aircraft as a strategic weapon, it developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base. The B-17 dropped more bombs than any other U. S. aircraft in World War II. Of the 1.5 million tonnes of bombs dropped on Nazi Germany and its occupied territories by U. S. aircraft, 640,000 tonnes were dropped from B-17s. In addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, search-and-rescue aircraft; as of May 2015, 10 aircraft remain airworthy, though none of them were flown in combat. Dozens more are on static display; the oldest of these is a D-series flown in combat in the Caribbean. On 8 August 1934, the USAAC tendered a proposal for a multiengine bomber to replace the Martin B-10.
The Air Corps was looking for a bomber capable of reinforcing the air forces in Hawaii and Alaska. Requirements were for it to carry a "useful bombload" at an altitude of 10,000 ft for 10 hours with a top speed of at least 200 mph, they desired, but did not require, a range of 2,000 mi and a speed of 250 mph. The competition for the air corps contract was to be decided by a "fly-off" between Boeing's design, the Douglas DB-1, the Martin Model 146 at Wilbur Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio; the prototype B-17, with the Boeing factory designation of Model 299, was designed by a team of engineers led by E. Gifford Emery and Edward Curtis Wells, was built at Boeing's own expense, it combined features of 247 transport. The B-17's armament consisted of five.30 caliber machine guns, with a payload up to 4,800 lb of bombs on two racks in the bomb bay behind the cockpit. The aircraft was powered by four Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial engines, each producing 750 hp at 7,000 ft; the first flight of the Model 299 was on 28 July 1935 with Boeing chief test pilot Leslie Tower at the controls.
The day before, Richard Williams, a reporter for The Seattle Times, coined the name "Flying Fortress" when – observing the large number of machine guns sticking out from the new airplane – he described it as a "15-ton flying fortress" in a picture caption. The most unusual mount was in the nose, which allowed the single machine gun to be fired toward any frontal angle. Boeing had it trademarked for use. Boeing claimed in some of the early press releases that Model 299 was the first combat aircraft that could continue its mission if one of its four engines failed. On 20 August 1935, the prototype flew from Seattle to Wright Field in nine hours and three minutes with an average cruising speed of 252 miles per hour, much faster than the competition. At the fly-off, the four-engined Boeing's performance was superior to those of the twin-engined DB-1 and Model 146. Major General Frank Maxwell Andrews of the GHQ Air Force believed that the capabilities of large four-engined aircraft exceeded those of shorter-ranged, twin-engined aircraft, that the B-17 was better suited to new, emerging USAAC doctrine.
His opinions were shared by the air corps procurement officers, before the competition had finished, they suggested buying 65 B-17s. Development continued on the Boeing Model 299, on 30 October 1935, Army Air Corps test pilot Major Ployer Peter Hill and Boeing employee Les Tower took the Model 299 on a second evaluation flight; the crew forgot to disengage the "gust locks", which locked control surfaces in place while the aircraft was parked on the ground, after takeoff, the aircraft entered a steep climb, nosed over, crashed, killing Hill and Tower. The crashed Model 299 could not finish the evaluation. While the air corps was still enthusiastic about the aircraft's potential, army officials were daunted by its cost. Army Chief of Staff Malin Craig cancelled the order for 65 YB-17s, ordered 133 of the twin-engined Douglas B-18 Bol