Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
DeLorme is a producer of personal satellite tracking and navigation technology. The company's main product, inReach, integrates satellite technologies. InReach provides the ability to send and receive text messages anywhere in the world by using the Iridium satellite constellation. By pairing with a smart phone, navigation is possible with access to free downloadable topographic maps and NOAA charts. On February 11, 2016, the company announced that it had been purchased by Garmin, a multinational producer of GPS products and services. DeLorme produces printed atlas and topographic software products; the company combines digital technologies with human editors to verify travel information and map details. DeLorme Atlas & Gazetteer is a complement to a vehicle’s GPS or online mapping site, allowing a traveler to browse and highlight the anticipated route and the possible activities or excursions along the way or at the destination. DeLorme’s Topo software is one of the sources of North American trail, logging road and terrain data for outdoor enthusiasts.
Topo 10 has US and Canada topographic maps and elevation data with more than four million places of interest. Topo includes comprehensive park, lake and stream data for all 50 states. DeLorme continues to sell paper atlases, with more than 20 million copies sold to date. Founded in 1976, DeLorme is headquartered in Yarmouth, is home to Eartha, the world's largest revolving globe; the company was founded in 1976 by David DeLorme, being frustrated over obsolete back-country maps of the Moosehead Lake region of Maine, vowed to create a better map of Maine. DeLorme combined state highway and town maps as well as federal surveys to produce the Maine Atlas and Gazetteer, printed in a large-format book with an initial printing of 10,000, which he marketed out of his car; the Gazetteer, which listed bicycle trails and kayaking trips, museum and historic sites, proved quite successful. The company expanded to 75 employees in 1986, working from a Quonset hut in Freeport, producing maps for New England and upstate New York.
In 1987, the company produced a CD with detailed topographic map data of the entire world. In 1991, DeLorme began vending Street Atlas USA on a single CD-ROM, becoming the most popular street-map CD in the United States, as well as one of the first mass consumer CD-ROM software products of any kind. By 1995, DeLorme had 44 percent of the market share for CD maps; the same year the company partnered with the American Automobile Association to produce the AAA Map'n Go, the first mapping product to generate automatic routing. They introduced the DeLorme GPS receiver to work with its maps. In 1996, it introduced its maps into the PDA environment via Palm. In 1997, the company relocated to a new corporate campus in Yarmouth, that features a giant model of the world, named Eartha, the largest rotating globe in the world; the company has provided complimentary geographic educational sessions for thousands of school children over the years and the public is welcome to visit and see Eartha from the three-story balconies.
In 1999, DeLorme introduced 3D TopoQuad DVD and CD products, which include digitized U. S. topographic maps. In 2001, XMap professional GIS map program was produced on CD, an expanded XMap was released in 2002, modified to provide GPS functionality to Palm OS and Pocket PC. In 2005, DeLorme became the first company to sell a USB GPS device, the Earthmate GPS LT-20. At the same time, it began offering downloadable satellite and USGS 7.5-minute quads that could be overlaid on its maps using a new NetLink feature. Earlier models of Earthmate were among the first GPS receivers tethered to laptops. In 2006/2007, the firm introduced its first full-featured GPS standalone receiver, the Earthmate GPS PN-20. During 2008, the company continued expanding its handheld GPS line with the Earthmate GPS PN-40 model. DeLorme began selling OEM GPS modules allowing other manufacturers to add GPS to their products. In addition, the company began selling data to businesses. In 2009, DeLorme released D. A. E.. It is the first worldwide GPS accurate topographical map with a scale of 1 to 50,000.
D. A. E. is the official world map for the Australian militaries. It is a virtual globe of the earth, 1,000 feet in diameter. In 2011, DeLorme launched "InReach," a worldwide satellite communication and SOS device that fits in your pocket, it works in the middle of the ocean, at the north pole, through triple canopy jungles, has been proven on the summit of Mt. Everest. Through the SOS feature, 3 rescues a day occur around the world. On February 11, 2016, GPS products and services company Garmin announced it had agreed to purchase DeLorme; the announcement stated. Another announcement confirmed. Maps of the United States Geospatial Trail maps DeLorme website LaptopGPSworld.com: Review of DeLorme Street Atlas 2008 inReach website Facebook: DeLormeGPS Twitter: DeLormeGPS
Ottawa National Forest
The Ottawa National Forest is a national forest that covers 993,010 acres in the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. It includes much of Gogebic and Ontonagon counties, as well as slices of Iron, Houghton and Marquette counties; the forest is under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Forest Service; the headquarters are in Ironwood, Michigan, on the Wisconsin border, the principal visitor center is located in Watersmeet, Michigan, in the southern section of the Forest. These and other towns within and adjacent to the Forest are served by U. S. Highway 2, one of the principal highways of the Western Upper Peninsula. There are local ranger district offices in Bessemer, Iron River, Kenton and Watersmeet. Wooded slopes mark the south shore of Lake Superior within the Ottawa National Forest within the Black River country between Little Girl's Point and the Presque Isle River; as the Black River, a National Wild and Scenic River, falls from near Copper Peak down towards the lake, it tumbles over seven separate mapped and named waterfalls.
The Presque Isle river and its major tributary, Copper Creek, have eleven waterfalls, although four of the Presque Isle falls are outside the national forest and are located within the boundaries of the adjacent Porcupine Mountains Wilderness State Park. Underwood Hill, at 1,867 feet in altitude is the highest elevation in the Presque Isle River drainage area. However, this is not the highest point in the national forest; that honor belongs to an unnamed 1,900-foot hill north of Lac Vieux Desert in southeastern Gogebic County. Rain or snow that falls on the north side of this hill flows through the Ontonagon River towards Lake Superior; the Ottawa National Forest is an area of high precipitation in both winter and summer. Sections of the Forest receive more than 200 inches of snow annually. In winter, Lake Superior, which does not freeze over, is itself the source of much of the water vapor that falls in the area. In many of the summer months, moist air carried by southerly winds from the faraway Gulf does not fall below the dew point in temperature until it enters the Lake Superior basin.
The forested area is poor in topsoil. The glaciers of various Ice Ages, including the most recent Wisconsonian glaciation, scraped much of the forested area down to bare rock or sand; the result is a characteristic boreal forest ecosystem. The Ottawa National Forest is home to several clans of the Ojibwa people who coexisted with the Forest's numerous rocky wetlands, they harvested many of the region's mammals beaver, for their pelts, sold them to traders from Canada and the eastern United States, such as the traders of the American Fur Company. After the fur trade declined, the nation sold most of the forest in the 1854 Treaty of La Pointe. A part of the nation used some of the proceeds from their fur trapping to purchase lands around Lac Vieux Desert, where their descendants remain today as the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa; as a result of the construction of the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway in 1892-1894, the forest was opened to logging. A few parcels of old-growth white pine and red pine remain.
After the logging era ended, the heavily-exploited forest was abandoned. The U. S. federal government established the Ottawa National Forest in 1931, but the forest did not reach its full size until after two large land purchases in 1933 and 1935. In 1935 the national forest reached its maximum size of 1,026,329 acres. After some privatizations, the Forest reached its current 1.0 million acre extent. During the years after World War II, growing automobile tourism made it possible for a wider variety of people to visit the forest. Ottawa National Forest is used for fishing and lake kayaking. In winter, the Forest welcomes cross-country snowmobilers; the Ottawa National Forest contains three designated U. S. wilderness areas, managed as such by the Forest Service. They are McCormick Wilderness and the Sturgeon River Gorge Wilderness near Kenton and the Sylvania Wilderness near Watersmeet, Michigan; as of 2006, the Ottawa National Forest operates under a Resource Management Plan promulgated in 1986.
Opened in 1971, the Ottawa Visitor Center offers interpretive programs and exhibits about the natural history and resources of the Forest. The center's mission is to guide visitors to safe and caring use of the Forest. Media related to Ottawa National Forest at Wikimedia Commons U. S. Forest Service - Ottawa National Forest Ottawa Visitor Center Lac Vieux Desert Band
Lake Superior, the largest of the Great Lakes of North America, is the world's largest freshwater lake by surface area, the third largest freshwater lake by volume. The lake is shared by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north, the U. S. state of Minnesota to the west, Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to the south. The farthest north and west of the Great Lakes chain, Superior has the highest elevation of all five great lakes and drains into the St. Mary's River; the Ojibwe name for the lake is gichi-gami, meaning "great sea." Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the name as "Gitche Gumee" in The Song of Hiawatha, as did Gordon Lightfoot in his song, "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald". According to other sources, the actual Ojibwe name is Anishinaabe Gichigami; the 1878 dictionary by Father Frederic Baraga, the first one written for the Ojibway language, gives the Ojibwe name as Otchipwe-kitchi-gami. The first French explorers approaching the great inland sea by way of the Ottawa River and Lake Huron during the 17th century referred to their discovery as le lac supérieur.
Properly translated, the expression means "Upper Lake,". The lake was called Lac Tracy by 17th century Jesuit missionaries; the British, upon taking control of the region from the French in the 1760s following the French and Indian War, anglicized the lake's name to Superior, "on account of its being superior in magnitude to any of the lakes on that vast continent." Lake Superior empties into Lake Huron via the Soo Locks. Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world in area, the third largest in volume, behind Lake Baikal in Siberia and Lake Tanganyika in East Africa; the Caspian Sea, while larger than Lake Superior in both surface volume, is brackish. Lake Superior has a surface area of 31,700 square miles, the size of South Carolina or Austria, it has maximum breadth of 160 statute miles. Its average depth is 80.5 fathoms with a maximum depth of 222.17 fathoms. Lake Superior contains 2,900 cubic miles of water. There is enough water in Lake Superior to cover the entire land mass of North and South America to a depth of 30 centimetres.
The shoreline of the lake stretches 2,726 miles. American limnologist J. Val Klump was the first person to reach the lowest depth of Lake Superior on July 30, 1985, as part of a scientific expedition, which at 122 fathoms 1 foot below sea level is the second-lowest spot in the continental interior of the United States and the third-lowest spot in the interior of the North American continent after Iliamna Lake in Alaska and Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada at. While the temperature of the surface of Lake Superior varies seasonally, the temperature below 110 fathoms is an constant 39 °F; this variation in temperature makes the lake seasonally stratigraphic. Twice per year, the water column reaches a uniform temperature of 39 °F from top to bottom, the lake waters mix; this feature makes the lake dimictic. Because of its volume, Lake Superior has a retention time of 191 years. Annual storms on Lake Superior feature wave heights of over 20 feet. Waves well over 30 feet have been recorded.
The lake is fed by over 200 rivers. The largest include the Nipigon River, the St. Louis River, the Pigeon River, the Pic River, the White River, the Michipicoten River, the Bois Brule River and the Kaministiquia River. Lake Superior drains into Lake Huron via the St. Marys River. There are rapids at the river's upper end where the river bed has a steep gradient; the Soo Locks were built to enable ships to bypass the rapids and to overcome the 25-foot height difference between Lakes Superior and Huron. The lake's average surface elevation is 600 feet above sea level; until 1887, the natural hydraulic conveyance through the St. Marys River rapids determined the outflow from Lake Superior. By 1921, development in support of transportation and hydroelectric power resulted in gates, power canals and other control structures spanning St. Marys rapids; the regulating structure is known as the Compensating Works and is operated according to a regulation plan known as Plan 1977-A. Water levels, including diversions of water from the Hudson Bay watershed, are regulated by the International Lake Superior Board of Control, established in 1914 by the International Joint Commission.
Lake Superior's water level was at a new record low in September 2007 less than the previous record low in 1926. However, the water levels returned within a few days. Historic high water The lake's water level fluctuates from month to month, with the highest lake levels in October and November; the normal high-water mark is 1.17 feet above datum (601.1 ft
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ontonagon is a village in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,494 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Ontonagon County. The village is located within Ontonagon Township, at the mouth of the Ontonagon River on Lake Superior. Industry was centered on the Smurfit-Stone Container production facility at the river mouth until the plant closed in 2010. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 3.86 square miles, of which, 3.71 square miles of it is land and 0.15 square miles is water. Ontonagon is the westernmost incorporated community in the United States in the designated Eastern Time Zone as determined by the United States Department of Transportation. In the summer the sun sets over Lake Superior at 10 p.m. local time with dusk lasting until 11 p.m. By contrast in the winter the sun does not rise until just before 9 a.m. and it is still pitch black at 8 a.m. Ontonagon is within one degree of longitude to the east of the 90th meridian west, the meridian for the Central Time Zone.
Therefore, Ontonagon is geographically situated in the Central Time Zone, not the Eastern Time Zone. As a result of this idiosyncrasy, Ontonagon has its solar noon occur either at or near 1 p.m. during the winter when standard time is being observed and 2 p.m. when daylight saving time is being observed. The same is true for solar midnight, which occurs at or near 1 a.m. while on standard time and 2 a.m. while on daylight saving time. US 45 M-38 M-64 The village is served by the Ontonagon County Airport; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,494 people, 717 households, 390 families residing in the village. The population density was 402.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 910 housing units at an average density of 245.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.3% White, 0.1% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. There were 717 households of which 19.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.6% were non-families.
41.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.99 and the average family size was 2.66. The median age in the village was 51.1 years. 17.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. At the census of 2000 there were 1,769 people, 768 households, 450 families living in the village; the population density was 182.1/square kilometre. There were 891 housing units at an average density of 91.7/square kilometre. The racial makeup of the village was 97.68% White, 0.00% African American, 0.73% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. 0.85 % of the population were Latino of any race. 25.9 % were of 6.4 % French. 5.8% English and 5.6% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 768 households, of which 24.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families.
37.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.76. In the village, the population was spread out with 20.5% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 27.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 88.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $28,300, the median income for a family was $35,804. Males had a median income of $36,964 versus $20,815 for females; the per capita income for the village was $16,293. 11.8% of the population and 6.5% of families were below the poverty line. 15.1% of those under the age of 18 and 10.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Ontonagon has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. Village of Ontonagon Official Website
Upper Peninsula of Michigan
The Upper Peninsula known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U. S. state of Michigan. The peninsula is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by the St. Marys River, on the southeast by Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. Geographically, the Upper Peninsula has a land boundary with Wisconsin, over-water boundaries with Minnesota and Ontario. Upper Peninsula counties include nearby islands such as Grand, Drummond and Bois Blanc, more distant Isle Royale; the Upper Peninsula contains 29% of the land area of Michigan but just 3% of its total population. Residents are called Yoopers and have a strong regional identity. Large numbers of French Canadian, Swedish and Italian immigrants came to the Upper Peninsula the Keweenaw Peninsula, to work in the area's mines and lumber industry; the peninsula includes the only counties in the United States where a plurality of residents claim Finnish ancestry. The peninsula's largest cities are Marquette, Sault Ste.
Marie, Menominee and Iron Mountain. The forested land and long, harsh winters make it poorly suited for agriculture; the economy is based on logging and tourism. The first known inhabitants of the Upper Peninsula were tribes speaking Algonquian languages, they arrived around A. D. subsisted chiefly from fishing. Early tribes included the Menominee and the Mishinimaki. Étienne Brûlé of France was the first European to visit the peninsula, crossing the St. Marys River around 1620 in search of a route to the Far East. French colonists laid claim to the land in the 17th century, establishing missions and fur trading posts such as Sault Ste. Marie and St. Ignace. Following the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the territory was ceded to Great Britain. Sault Ste Marie, Michigan is the oldest European settlement in Michigan and the site of Native American settlements for centuries. American Indian tribes allied with the French were dissatisfied with the British occupation, which brought new territorial policies.
Whereas the French cultivated alliances among the Indians, the British postwar approach was to treat the tribes as conquered peoples. In 1763, tribes united in Pontiac's Rebellion to try to drive the British from the area. American Indians captured Fort Michilimackinac, at present-day Mackinaw City, Michigan the principal fort of the British in the Michilimackinac region, as well as others and killed hundreds of British. In 1764, they began negotiations with the British which resulted in temporary peace and changes in objectionable British policies. Although the Upper Peninsula nominally became United States territory with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British did not give up control until 1797 under terms of the Jay Treaty; as an American territory, the Upper Peninsula was still dominated by the fur trade. John Jacob Astor founded the American Fur Company on Mackinac Island in 1808; when the Michigan Territory was first established in 1805, it included only the Lower Peninsula and the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula.
In 1819, the territory was expanded to include the remainder of the Upper Peninsula, all of what became Wisconsin, part of Minnesota. When Michigan applied for statehood in the 1830s, the proposal corresponded to the original territorial boundaries. However, there was an armed conflict known as the Toledo War with the state of Ohio over the location of their mutual border. Meanwhile, the people of Michigan approved a constitution in May 1835 and elected state officials in late autumn 1835. Although the state government was not yet recognized by the United States Congress, the territorial government ceased to exist. President Andrew Jackson's government offered the remainder of the Upper Peninsula to Michigan, if it would cede the Toledo Strip to Ohio. A constitutional convention of the state legislature refused, but a second convention, hastily convened by Governor Stevens Thomson Mason, consisting of his supporters, agreed in December 1836 to the deal. In January 1837, the U. S. Congress admitted Michigan as a state of the Union.
At the time, Michigan was considered the losing party in the compromise. The land in the Upper Peninsula was described in a federal report as a "sterile region on the shores of Lake Superior destined by soil and climate to remain forever a wilderness." This belief changed. The Upper Peninsula's mines produced more mineral wealth than the California Gold Rush after shipping was improved by the opening of the Soo Locks in 1855, docks in Marquette in 1859; the Upper Peninsula supplied 90% of America's copper by the 1860s. It was the largest supplier of iron ore by the 1890s, production continued to a peak in the 1920s, but declined shortly afterward; the last copper mine closed in 1995. Some iron mining continues near Marquette; the Eagle Mine, a nickel-copper mine, opened in 2014. Thousands of Americans and immigrants moved to the area during the mining boom, prompting the federal government to create Fort Wilkins near Copper Harbor to maintain order; the first wave were the Cornish from England, with centuries of mining experience.
During the 1890s, Finnish immigrants began settling there in large numbers, forming the population plurality in the n