Martha Williams Longenecker was an American artist, founder of the Mingei International Museum in San Diego. Longenecker was born in Oklahoma City and studied at University of California Los Angeles and the Claremont Graduate School, she undertook post-graduate research in Japan, studying under Shoji Hamada and Tatsuzo Shimaoka. Longenecker made her first visit to Japan in 1952. There she expanded her knowledge of the Japanese arts and crafts movement called "mingei". From 1955 to 1990, Longenecker was Professor of Art at San Diego State University. Longenecker died following a stroke, she was predeceased by both her children. Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette, 2003. Inducted into the San Diego Women's Hall of Fame, 2011
San Diego Art Institute
San Diego Art Institute is located in San Diego, California, US. The San Diego Art Institute was founded in 1941 as the San Diego Business Men's Art Club. In 1950 the name was changed to the San Diego Art Institute, three years women were allowed membership into the organization. SDAI became a nonprofit in 1963 and was dedicated to showcasing artists from the Southern California/Baja Norte region. In preparation for its 75th Anniversary, in 2014 under the leadership of Executive Director Ginger Shulick Porcella, the San Diego Art Institute shifted its focus; the San Diego Art Institute is now recognized as an experimental, bi-national contemporary art center with a focus on the artists of Southern California and Northern Baja. In 1941, a group of San Diego businessmen met in the office of Director of the Fine Arts Gallery in Balboa Park, Reginald Poland; these men were interested in forming a group, which would have as its chief objective the painting of local characteristic and historical scenes of San Diego and vicinity.
Following the organizational meeting, invitations were issued to painters known to be interested in preserving the memories of the fast disappearing early landmarks of San Diego County. In May, a re-organizational meeting was held, at which time the name "San Diego Business Men’s Art Club" was adopted; the first president was Walter W. Austin, former Mayor of San Diego; the first instructor of this group was Maurice Braun, well known in all of southern California for his mellow California landscapes as well as for his unusual teaching ability. Otto Schneider, Alfred R. Mitchell and many others acted as instructors of this enthusiastic outdoor painting group. Exhibitions of the work of club members were held at various places. In 1942 the San Diego Business Men’s Art Club negotiated with the City for studio quarters in the Spanish Village in Balboa Park. Before this arrangement could be consummated, World War II intervened. During the war the Club was inactive, except for a member exhibition in the La Jolla Art Center in June 1944.
After the end of the war, interest in the project was revived and the club was reorganized at a meeting held on April 4, 1947. During this year increasing activity was generated and many fine outdoor painting sessions resulted, including one at the Pine Hills ranch of Fred Heilbron, one of the original members. Several exhibitions of paintings by old and new members were held, one of, at the San Diego Club with an attendance of more than 140 people. During this year E. H. Pohl and Ben Vaganoff were added to the list of club instructors. During 1948, increased interest and enthusiasm was manifested by alternate Saturday painting trips by the membership to various sites in San Diego County; the all-county Art Mart held in November of that year at 6th and Laurel streets was under the chairmanship of one of their instructors, Alfred R. Mitchell. Most of the members of the San Diego Business Men’s Art Club participated in this activity, which increased the public interest in the organization. For a number of years following the 1948 Art Mart this activity was under the chairmanship of a member of the San Diego Business Men’s Art Club.
In 1949 the efforts of the club were expanded. Exhibitions were held in numerous business establishments and schools. In 1950 these exhibitions were extended to outlying locations such as the Hoberg Hotel in Borrego Springs and the Carlsbad Hotel in Carlsbad; the San Diego Business Men's Art Club had grown in activities and public relations to such an extent that a headquarters and gallery were sorely needed. During World War II the Fine Arts Society of San Diego was forced to evacuate its galleries in Balboa Park and move to 2324 Pine Street, to 2030 Sunset Boulevard, a fine old home, a gift of Mr. and Mrs. Frank E. Marcy to the Fine Arts Society for use as its wartime temporary headquarters. Following the return of the Fine Arts Society to its galleries in Balboa Park after the war, the Sunset Galleries were left vacant. E. T. Price, at that time president of the Fine Arts Society, offered the use of the gallery at 2030 Sunset Boulevard for its headquarters and gallery. Exhibitions of club's workwere held continuously, with the show changed at monthly intervals.
Visiting exhibitions were held, not only of photography and other arts and crafts. Field painting excursions continued e under the supervision and instruction of one of the faculty members. During this time Alfred E. R. Van de Veide, Carlos Verharen, J. Milford Ellison, J. Roland McNary and Earl Schrack were added to the faculty, while Elsey Taft became curator. In 1951 the membership voted to incorporate under the name of “The San Diego Men’s Art Institute" and to accept women as associate members; the membership promptly rose to more than fifty regular members and more than one hundred associate members. With the advent of women as associate members, activities increased markedly, with the Sunset galleries becoming available, increased quality of the work submitted for exhibitions was noted. San Diego Art Institute is a contemporary art center, focusing on the artists and audiences of Southern California/Baja Norte, their core programs include rotating, curated exhibitions of regional contemporary art, as well as a premier artist and curator residency program.
SDAI has a main exhibition space in Balboa Park, 8,000 square feet dedicated to contemporary exhibitions. As of November 2015, SDAI has a secondar
California Pacific International Exposition
The California Pacific International Exposition was an exposition held in San Diego, California during May 29, 1935–November 11, 1935 and February 12, 1936–September 9, 1936. The exposition was held in Balboa Park, San Diego's large central urban park, the site of the earlier Panama-California Exposition in 1915; the Exposition was held to promote San Diego and support its economy, which had slowed with the country's Great Depression. The first year was such a financial and attendance success; the exposition had hundreds of exhibits on history, the arts, ethnic cultures and industry. Some concessions and exhibits were unusual, such as the Gold Gulch, Lost Continent of Mu, Zoro Garden Nudist Colony, the "One Ton Mechanical Man." The idea for an exposition came from Frank Drugan, a newcomer to San Diego who arrived in 1933. He recognized the potential of the buildings in Balboa Park left over from the 1915–16 exposition. In addition, Chicago's "Century of Progress" fair was just ending, many of its exhibits could be transported for use in another fair.
That exposition had paid for itself, he was sure a San Diego exposition could do so as well. He promoted the idea of a new exposition, using the existing buildings and adding new ones, as a way of boosting San Diego's economy, he convinced local business people to support the idea. The Exposition incorporated in August 1934. Construction of new buildings began in January 1935; the project was rushed through for a May opening. The foundations of some structures, such as the Electric Building and the Ford Building, were laid before the final plans for the buildings had been drawn up. During March and April, 2,700 people worked around the clock on the Exposition. 65% of them were relief workers whose wages were paid by the federal government. The buildings from the 1915 fair were in Spanish Colonial Revival architecture style, designed by Bertram Goodhue and Carleton Winslow. Architect Richard Requa designed the new permanent buildings to be added for the 1935 fair, he wrote that his goal was to relate pre-Columbian Indian buildings and temples, like those found in the Southwest and Mexico, to the modern era.
Many of the new large buildings were in this style, including the California State Building, Palace of Electricity, Palace of Water and Transportation. Other new buildings included: The Old Globe Theatre, a copy of a theatre built for the Chicago fair, which in turn was a copy of the original Globe Theatre in London. During the Exposition it showed 50-minute adaptations of plays by William Shakespeare. After the fair it was remodeled and roofed over, continued to show theatrical productions; the building was rebuilt and is now the focus of a three-theater complex. The circular Ford Building regarded as the architectural wonder of the Exposition, now the home of the San Diego Air and Space Museum; the Ford Bowl, now called the Starlight Bowl, an amphitheater used for concerts and theatrical productions. The House of Pacific Relations, a collection of fifteen small tan red-tiled cottages which were dedicated to different foreign countries. Spanish Village, a group of six buildings used for shops, a children's theater.
While some of the extensive gardens from the 1915 Panama California Exposition remained, they were redesigned from formal gardens to gardens overflowing with lush abundance of exotic plants. Many were reimagined by renowned architect Richard Requa, influenced by the gardens he had seen traveling in Spain. Today's Alcazar garden, Zoro Garden, the garden at Cafe del Rey Moro are all Requa designs. In honor of the California Pacific International Exposition, the federal government released a commemorative silver half dollar. A three cent postage stamp was issued, it presents a view of the Exposition grounds, has the same wording as the reverse of the half dollar, plus the dates "1535 1935". Over 100 million were printed, making this a common issue; the Exposition took ten months to build. It attracted 7,220,000 visitors during its 377 days of operation. Visitors brought US$37.7 million to San Diego. The cost was US$20 million. Admission was 50 cents for adults and 25 cents for children 2–11. Four restaurants provided meals: Cafe of the World, Palisades Cafe, Spanish Kitchens, the Pioneer Days Restaurant.
Twenty-one nations participated: Argentina, British Empire, China, Denmark, Honduras, Irish Free State, Japan, Norway, Paraguay, Sweden, United States and Yugoslavia. Park improvements amounted to US$6 million; the exposition was so popular. Many buildings or reconstructed versions remain in use today, are used by several museums and theatres in Balboa Park. In the early 1960s destruction of a few of the buildings and their replacement by aesthetically clashing modern architecture style of the new buildings "created an uproar" in San Diego's community. A'Committee of One Hundred' was formed by citizens to protect the park buildings; the Committee convinced the City Council to enact resoluti
Zoro Garden is a 6-acre sunken garden within Balboa Park in San Diego, California. It is located between the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center and the Casa de Balboa; the name refers to the Persian mystic Zoroaster. The stone garden was built for the 1915-16 Panama-California Exposition. During the 1935-36 California Pacific International Exposition it was the site of the Zoro Garden Nudist Colony, which featured mostly-nude performers rather than practicing nudists. Zoro Garden is now planted as a butterfly garden, it can be reserved for special events. San Diego Park and Recreation Balboa Park
San Diego Hall of Champions
The San Diego Hall of Champions was an American multi-sport museum in San Diego, California. It was recognized as the largest multi-sport museum in the United States until its closure in June 2017. Located in the Federal Building in Balboa Park until 2017, the 70,000-square-foot facility recognized outstanding athletic accomplishments and traditions involving more than forty-two sports until June 2017; the Hall of Champions was founded in 1959 and includes the Breitbard Hall of Fame, being relocated to be displayed at Petco Park. The Breitbard Hall of Fame was established in 1953 by Robert Breitbard, it honors athletes who either have excelled in sports in San Diego or are native San Diegans who have excelled in sports elsewhere. As of 2008, 117 athletes have been inducted. New members are inducted in February at the Salute to the Champions dinner. To be eligible for enshrinement, the candidate must meet these criteria: An athlete, coach or special contributor native to San Diego county or who represented a San Diego high school, sports organization or professional team Professional athletes not native to San Diego county must have spent at least 4 years of their career in San Diego Athletes must be retired for at least 2 years or be at least 50 years old Coaches and contributors do not need to be retired, but must have spent at least 7 years working in their field For each inductee's San Diego connection, see footnote San Diego Chargers Hall of Fame, local American football team's hall of fame San Diego Padres Hall of Fame, local baseball team's hall of fame California Sports Hall of Fame San Diego Hall of Champions official website Breitbard Hall of Fame webpage.
San Diego Hall of Champions website
Spreckels Organ Pavilion
Spreckels Organ Pavilion houses the open-air Spreckels Organ in Balboa Park, San Diego, California. The Spreckels Organ is the world's largest pipe organ in a outdoor venue. Constructed for the 1915 Panama-California Exposition, it is located at the corner of President's Way and Pan American Road East in the park. John D. Spreckels, son of sugar magnate Claus Spreckels, was one of the wealthiest residents in San Diego County, he supported the Panama-California Exposition, during its construction, he and his brother Adolph B. Spreckels gave the organ pavilion as a gift to "the people of San Diego" and "the people of all the world" on December 31, 1914, they donated $33,500 for $66,500 for the pavilion. After Spreckels' announcement, a local orchestra performed Jacques Offenbach's Orpheus in the Underworld, followed by a 250-person chorus that sang pieces from Joseph Haydn's oratorio, The Creation. On July 27, 1915, former president Theodore Roosevelt gave a speech at the organ pavilion in front of nearly 19,000 people.
He touched on topics about world peace and his desire for the United States to maintain a minimum of 200,000 military members. He requested that San Diegans permanently keep the temporary buildings set up for the exposition. Former president William Howard Taft spoke at the pavilion to over 7,000 people on September 16, 1915. Taft commended the city on the architecture used for the exposition buildings. John D. Spreckels donated the services of renowned organist Humphrey John Stewart for the two-year run of the exposition. After the exposition, Spreckels extended Stewart's contract; when Spreckels died in 1926, the pavilion was used for his memorial service. The U. S. Navy borrowed Balboa Park during World War II, no organ concerts were played during 1942–1948. During the 1970s and 1980s, the pavilion risked being demolished. Around $1.1 million was raised for repairs by the early 1980s from the city and a local non-profit. Bertram Goodhue's plans for Balboa Park for the Panama-California Exposition included a music pavilion that would be located north of Plaza de Panama.
After Brazil decided not to participate with a building in the exposition, the pavilion was built at its site instead. Spreckels chose Harrison Albright to design the organ pavilion. Albright was a self-taught Los Angeles architect, who designed the U. S. Grant Hotel in downtown San Diego; the semi-circular pavilion was built by the F. Wurster Construction Company in an ornate Italian-Renaissance design; the organ was built by Austin Organs, Inc. as their Opus #453. It faces north to protect the pipes from the sunlight; the audience therefore faces south. Commercial airplane landings at San Diego International Airport compete with the organ's sound. During the 1935 California Pacific International Exposition, the stage size was doubled and a fountain added; the fountain is modeled after one in Chapultepec Park in Mexico City. In 1981 the pavilion was restored, in 2002 the organ was expanded from 3,400 to 4,518 pipes. In 2015, the organ was expanded to 5,017 pipes. San Diego's Spreckels Organ is now the world's largest pipe organ in a outdoor venue, although western New York has the larger Massey Memorial Organ in an open-air auditorium with a roof.
Free organ concerts are given at 2:00 p.m. each Sunday afternoon, sponsored by San Diego Parks and Recreation Department, the Spreckels Organ Society and private donations. On Monday evenings in the summer, The Spreckels Summer International Organ Festival is presented by the Spreckels Organ Society. During the summer on Tuesdays and Thursdays, "Twilight in the Park" provides mixed popular concerts; the annual December Nights celebration is performed on the Spreckels stage. On August 31, 2014, Drive Like Jehu reunited for a performance at the pavilion, accompanied by Civic Organist Carol Williams; the collaboration was facilitated by the Spreckels Organ Society board of directors. The novelty of playing with the accompaniment of the organ was a key factor in bringing the band back together. Humphrey John Stewart 1914–1932 Royal Albert Brown 1932–1954 Charles Rollins Shatto 1954–1957 Douglas Ian Duncan 1957–1978 Jared Jacobsen 1978–1984 Robert Plimpton 1984–2001 Carol Williams 2001–2016 Raúl Prieto Ramírez 2018– Edward Crome 1914 Anton Rokos 1914–1916 Roy W. Tolchard 1916–1932 Edwin A.
Spencer 1932–1947 Leonard L. Dowling 1947–1974 Lyle Blackinton 1974–present Citations BibliographyAmero, Richard W.. Balboa Park and the 1915 Exposition. Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press. ISBN 1-626193-45-2. Christman, Florence; the Romance of Balboa Park. San Diego: San Diego Historical Society. ISBN 0-91874-003-7. Pourade, Richard F.. Gold in the Sun. San Diego: The Union-Tribune Publishing Company. ISBN 0-913938-04-1. "Spreckels Organ Society" Contains concert schedule information "Spreckels Organ Pavilion" The Spreckels Pipe Organ specifications