The World League of American Football renamed the NFL Europe League and NFL Europa, was a professional American football league which operated between 1991 and 2007. It was backed by the largest league in the United States; each season culminated with the World Bowl. The World League of American Football was founded in 1989 to serve as a type of spring league. Seven of the ten teams were based in North America, the other three in Europe; this format lasted for two seasons, with no league in 1993–94. The WLAF returned in 1995 with six teams, all in Europe, in 1998 the league was rebranded as the NFL Europe League or NFL Europe, until 2006. For the league's last season, 2007, it changed its name to NFL Europa; the league's squads were predominantly assigned by NFL teams, who wanted these younger, developmental players to get additional game experience and coaching. The NFL assumed the expenses of coaches living in Europe; the European six-team format was maintained for 12 seasons, from 1995 to 2008, but by 2008 five teams were based in Germany.
Making a reported $30 million loss per season, with teams such as the inaugural league champion London Monarchs having gone defunct, on 29 June 2008, the NFL announced the end of NFL Europa. A previous proposed league in the 1970s, the Intercontinental Football League, had contained many elements of the eventual all-European league. West German entrepreneur Adalbert Wetzel and sports coach Bob Kap secured the release of several NFL players to the IFL for a planned 1975 season; the IFL would have involved teams in Barcelona, West Berlin, Munich and Istanbul, but was cancelled due to economic and political problems. The World League of American Football was formed in 1989, by a unanimous vote of NFL owners, as a spring developmental league, the "brainchild" of commissioner Paul Tagliabue; this came after the NFL had played popular American Bowls in London's Wembley Stadium and elsewhere since 1986. Of the 28 NFL teams, 26 paid $50,000 each in start-up costs for the WLAF. Team payrolls and budgets were controlled by the WLAF office but not all teams were owned by the league.
The WLAF was set up as a professional American football league for North America and Europe: six teams from the United States, three European teams, one Canadian team. In 1991 parties in Moscow and Japan expressed an interest in additional franchises. Teams were aligned in three divisions: North American West: Birmingham Fire, Sacramento Surge, San Antonio Riders North American East: Montreal Machine, New York/New Jersey Knights, Orlando Thunder, Raleigh–Durham Skyhawks European: Barcelona Dragons, Frankfurt Galaxy, London MonarchsThe WLAF played two seasons in the spring of 1991 and 1992, with 10 teams playing a 10-game regular season with the World Bowl championship game. Rules unique to WLAF included assigning increasing point value to field goals based on distance, a requirement that at least one player of non-US nationality participate in at least every other series of downs. New ideas were tested, like using the two-point conversion rule on the professional field before adopting it in the NFL in 1994.
Other minor tweaks in gameplay, such as a shorter kickoff tee, were first used in the WLAF. Several technical innovations, such as helmet mounted cameras and one-way radios, enabling coaches to tell plays directly to quarterbacks, were developed; the average game attendance for the first season was 25,361, 24,216 in the second season. The original WLAF was noticed in the United States, having a "minor-league or developmental image" and low TV ratings. In the non-U. S. Cities of London, Barcelona and Montreal, crowds surpassed early expectations; the Monarchs' home attendance led the league, the 1991 World Bowl played at Wembley Stadium was attended by 61,108. In May 1991, the Los Angeles Times's Chris Dufresne said American fans were less than Europeans to "shell out hard-earned dollars for games featuring roster-cut leftovers" and suggested there was a post-USFL backlash in Orlando and San Antonio; the WLAF lost $7 million in 1991. The playoff format consisted of four teams: the three divisional champions, plus a wild card with the best overall non-division winning record.
The two teams emerging from the WLAF semi-final playoffs met at the end of the season in the World Bowl. The first two World Bowl locations were predetermined before the season; the average WLAF salary for 10 games plus playoffs was $40,000, but some of the top players made close to $100,000. Operations of the WLAF were suspended after the 1992 season as the league lost money and the involved NFL owners were not willing to invest more. However, the NFL still needed another pro football league to help their cause in the antitrust and free agency lawsuit with the National Football League Players' Association; the three Europe-based teams dominated in 1991, with a combined 24–6 record, while no North American team managed better than 5–5. The London Monarchs won the World Bowl; the Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks lost all 10 games and their franchise, moved to Ohio for 1992. The WLAF's second season was confirmed to go ahead on 23 October 1991, six months before it kicked off. In 1992, fortunes changed and none of the European teams had winning seasons.
Despite this, the European fans remained loyal, but the NFL owners suspended the WLAF after the season. Paul Tagliabue mentioned plans to bring it back with only European teams in 1994. British sports writer Matt Tench cited "an amb
FC Barcelona B
Futbol Club Barcelona B is a Spanish football team based in Barcelona, in the autonomous community of Catalonia. Founded in 1970 as FC Barcelona Atlètic, it is the reserve team of FC Barcelona, plays in Segunda División B, holding home matches at the Mini Estadi. Reserve teams in Spain play in the same league system as the senior team, rather than in a reserve team league, they must play at least one level below their main side, thus Barcelona B are ineligible for promotion to La Liga. They cannot play in the Copa del Rey. Founded on 1 August 1934 as Societat Esportiva Industrial Espanya, the club was the sports team of the factory with the same name, its shirt featured blue and white vertical stripes; the company was owned by the family of Josep Antoni de Albert, president of FC Barcelona in 1943. Industrial played in the local regional leagues but, in 1950, it was promoted to Tercera División, reaching Segunda División two years later. In 1953 the club finished as runners-up in both the league and the promotion play-off but, being a nursery club of Barcelona, it was unable to move up a division.
After winning another promotion play-off in 1956, Espanya Industrial became independent of FC Barcelona and was renamed Club Deportivo Condal. The club wore blue shirts with two white diagonals stripes. Condal competed once in the 1956 -- 57 season, being relegated as 16th and last. In 1968 the club rejoined the Barcelona family as its reserve team, adopted the blaugrana colours. In 1970, Barcelona president Agustí Montal decided to merge Condal with another junior club, Atlètic Catalunya, formed Barcelona Atlètic. Atlètic was founded in 1965 as a result of the merger of two other teams: UE Catalunya de Les Corts and CD Fabra Coats. Under the new denomination the B-team played a total of ten seasons in the second level. At the end of 1988–89 the side returned to Segunda División B – the new third level created in 1977 – after ranking 17th. In 1990 the team was renamed Barcelona B, but club president Joan Laporta changed the name back to Barcelona Atlètic in 2008. Two years his successor Sandro Rosell returned to the previous denomination.
Former club player Luis Enrique succeeded Pep Guardiola as team manager in the summer of 2008, as the latter was appointed main squad coach. In 2009–10 the club finished second in Group III and returned to division two after an absence of 11 years. 23 seasons in Segunda División 20 seasons in Segunda División B 4 seasons in Tercera División 1 season in Categorías Regionales Segunda División BWinners: 1981–82, 1990–91, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2016-17Tercera DivisiónWinners: 1973–74, 2007-08 As of 24 March 2018Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. On 23 September 1982 the Mini Estadi was inaugurated by Barcelona president Josep Lluís Núñez. Next to the ground there are two training pitches, pitch 3 and 4, which have artificial turf – the latter has a regulation size of 100 x 70 metres and has seating for 1,000 spectators.
Mini Estadi has hosted games for the Andorra national football team, the Barcelona Dragons of American football. As part of the Espai Barça project, a new 6,000 capacity stadium will replace the Mini Estadi this year in 2018; as part of this project the Camp Nou will undergo renovation. Inaugurated on 26 September 1966, La Masia is the name given to Barcelona's training facilities located near the Camp Nou in the Les Corts district of Barcelona, it is an ancient country residence built in 1702 and once Camp Nou was inaugurated in 1957, the building was remodelled and extended for use as the club's social headquarters. In 1979, La Masia became the residence of young players from outside of the city. In the following decades the academy forged several players that would appear for both the main squad and the Spanish national team, Guillermo Amor, Albert Ferrer, Iván de la Peña, Carles Puyol, Gerard López, Xavi, Víctor Valdés, Andrés Iniesta being amongst the most prominent. Team profile at official website Futbolme team profile BDFutbol team profile
Casa de les Punxes
The Casa de les Punxes or Casa Terradas is a building designed by the modernist architect Josep Puig i Cadafalch. Located in the intersection between the streets of Rosselló, Bruc and the Avinguda Diagonal in the Barcelona Eixample area. Designed by modernist architect Josep Puig i Cadafalch, la Casa de les Punxes is located in the intersection of the three surrounding streets Avinguda Diagonal, Carrer Rosselló and Carrer Bruc, in the Eixample of Barcelona. In 1905, Bartomeu Terradas Brutau commissioned Josep Puig i Cadafalch to design a house for each of his three sisters, Angela and Rosa; the result was a building reminiscent of old medieval castles, with elements of different architectural trends and various technical innovations, with six pointed towers, one of its distinctive features which gave the popular name of Casa de les Punxes. This spectacular building is one of the most emblematic of Barcelona, as well as being key to understanding the movement of Catalan Modernism. Declared a historical monument of National Interest in 1976, Casa de les Punxes is one of the most emblematic buildings in Barcelona.
It is now owned, with space for different offices. La Casa de les Punxes known as Casa Terradas, underwent rehabilitation work in 2016 inside one of the buildings; these renovations were executed under the guidance of architect Jaume Falguera. It has always been a tourist attraction thanks to its façade and its location among other tourist spots of the city such as La Pedrera or La Sagrada Familia. Bartomeu Terradas i Mont, born in Figueres in 1846 and died in Barcelona on December 17, 1901, was a recognized textile industrialist married to sabadellense Àngela Brutau, daughter of Bonaventura Brutau Estop, one of the first Catalan textile entrepreneurs, with whom he had four children: Rosa, Josefa and Àngela. Bartomeu Terradas i Mont, despite leaving his son as heir, did not forget the welfare of the women in the family and left a small monetary fortune divided between the three daughters and his wife. Thanks to part of this heritage, the construction of a building for the three sisters was financed.
In late 1903, Josep Puig i Cadafalch came across the commission to design a house for each of the sisters Terradas Brutau on the terrain located between the Carrer Rosselló Avinguda Diagonal and Carrer Bruc. It was an atypical solar, irregularly shaped fruit of the recent urbanized Eixample; the architect created an interesting project with a medieval feel, seamlessly blending the three buildings to look like a single house, a single building block. The building was to be built on a triangular site, which meant the architect could not follow Cerdàs' urban plan; the new design was inspired by the Wagner-inspired fashion in northern Europe, a block with 6 corners, coinciding with the intersection of the three surrounding streets Avinguda Diagonal, Carrer Rosselló and Carrer Bruc of Barcelona. The will of the architect was to structurally and architecturally appear like a detached building. For example, on the façade of the corner of Carrer Rosselló with Avinguda Diagonal, which belongs to number 420 in Diagonal street, there is an interesting sculptural panel of Enric Monserdà––work in which an angel is depicted, figure that refers to the owner of this building, the sister Àngela Terradas.
The preparatory drawing by Monserdà is in the archives of the Royal Catalan Academy of Fine Arts of Sant Jordi in Barcelona. In the phylactery deploying the angel, we read in Gothic letters: «This work was completed in MCMV». Other decorative details that reminds us of this property, found in anagrams, distributed as if they were a frieze, around the base of the main tower of the house. In the anagram ATB letters are repeated. Although the floral decoration is a recurring element in this house, the choice of the clover is emphasized both in some of the stone reliefs that decorate the façade as well as in the drawings of stained glass leaded balconies. At number 418 of Avinguda Diagonal, there is a ceramic panel —work from Monserdà also— in which there is a representation of a sundial and a calendar. Moreover, in the representations of the Roman Numerals the four signs of the zodiac associated with the four seasons are added: Capricorn, with horns that symbolize the hunt. In a phylactery on top of the clock, we read: «Numquam te crastina fallet hora», a phrase taken from the «Libro I» of The Georgics, by Virgilio, which means, ‘tomorrow will never fail you’.
This property belonged to Josefa Terradas, that of who we find references in decorative artificial stone pinnacles, where a florid rod is represented, with a Gothic letter engraved in stone. Josefa’s property went from Avinguda Diagonal to Carrer Rosselló, in whose rear façade we find another ceramic panel drawn by the same Monserdà, where it represents Sant Jordi slaying the dragon and reads: «Patron Saint of Catalonia give us back our freedom». Just under this panel, in a strategic position due to the meaning that the figure of Sant Jordi represented, we encounter a sculpted face that results familiar; the male figure, with round glasses, important hair entries and pouty lips, represents the great author of the project, the architect Josep Puig i Cadafalch. In the facades of Avinguda Diagonal and Carrer Bruc, there are two additional ceramic panels. In one there is a vase full of r
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Casa Lleó Morera
The Casa Lleó Morera is a building designed by noted modernisme architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner, located at Passeig de Gràcia 35 in the Eixample district of Barcelona. In 1902 Francesca Morera assigned Lluís Domènech i Montaner to remodel ancient "casa Rocamora", built in 1864, she died in 1904, the building was named after her son, Albert Lleó i Morera. The building is located on the corner of Carrer del Consell de Cent, is one of the three important buildings of Barcelona's Illa de la Discòrdia, it is the only building of the block awarded Barcelona's town council's Arts Building Annual Award, obtained in 1906; the building lost some of its most representative elements, such as the tempietto on its top and the ground floor and mezzanine's architectural sculpture. The building is known as the residence of Cuban-Catalan photographer Pau Audouard; the building was not only the result of an architectural project, but —common practice in Catalan modernism architecture—, several artists collaborated with Domènech i Montaner so as to make a complete artwork, inspired in natural and organic motifs: Lluís Bru and Mario Maragliano were responsible of the mosaic work, Eusebi Arnau made the sculptures, Antoni Serra i Fiter elaborated the ceramics, Gaspar Homar designed the decoration and the furniture.
It has been considered that Morera's family wanted to leave trace of their lineage with the continuous references to their family name in the decoration. Some examples are the mulberry tree found in the patio, the mulberry motifs of the door handles or the portraits made by Antoni Serra in the second floor; the façade and ground floor of the building were decorated with big and varied modernist ornaments, with some outstanding sculptures by Eusebi Arnau surrounding the entrance, which represented two couples of feminine figures holding vases. Those sculptures were installed on double pairs of columns made of pink marble, under the gallery of the first floor, other feminine heads could be found. On the first floor, aside the windows, two couples of feminine figures can be found, showing several objects related to the technological improvements made in that period, such as the phonograph, electricity and photography. Barcelona's official chronicler Lluís Permanyer stated that this building is like "a scaled Palau de la Música Catalana."The building has been considered one of the best examples of modernisme architecture, but Noucentisme supporters performed several modifications to the original structure.
In 1943, Raimon Duran i Reynals signed a refurbishing project for the ground floor, designed by Francisco Ferrer Bartolomé according to an assignment by Loewe so as to open a store. This project included the disappearance of the modernist windows and the ground floor feminine modernist plant boxes made by Eusebi Arnau, which were destroyed on the sidewalk using picks; the building caretaker recovered the feminine heads, which were sold to Salvador Dalí, who installed them in Figuere's Teatre-Museu Dalí's patio. In the mid-1980s, architect Òscar Tusquets was commissioned to restore the building; the pinnacles and the tempietto at the top of the structure damaged by machine guns during the Spanish civil war were restored, the ground floor damage was recovered. The building underwent another restoration process in 1992, was bought by Grupo Núñez y Navarro in 2006, responsible for another restoration operation. In 2007 the building was put on the Art Nouveau European Route. In April 2012 the most recent restoration project was focused on the ground floor.
Several elements such as the carriage entrance, several columns and some mosaics were recovered. List of Modernisme buildings in Barcelona Barcelona Tourist Guide: Casa Lleó-Morera Gaudí and Art Nouveau in Catalonia / Architecture / Domènech i Montaner / Barcelona / Casa Lleó Morera
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
Arc de Triomf
The Arc de Triomf or Arco de Triunfo in Spanish, is a triumphal arch in the city of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain. It was built by architect Josep Vilaseca i Casanovas as the main access gate for the 1888 Barcelona World Fair; the arch crosses over the wide central promenade of the Passeig de Lluís Companys, leading to the Ciutadella Park that now occupies the site of the world fair. It is located at the northern end of the promenade; the arch is built in reddish brickwork in the Neo-Mudéjar style. The front frieze contains; the opposite frieze contains a stone carving entitled Recompensa, a work from Josep Llimona's earliest period, representing the granting of awards to the participants in the World Exposition. The friezes along the sides of the arch include allegories of agriculture and industry by Antoni Vilanova and of trade and art by Torquat Tassó; the two pillars of the arch feature bats carved in stone, which were the emblem of King Jaume I, who ruled over a period of prosperity in Barcelona.
Similar structures can be found in many other cities, most notably including the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, the Wellington Arch in London, the Soldiers' and Sailors' Arch in New York City, the Arcul de Triumf in Bucharest, however this arch is non-military. It does not celebrate the country's military victories, but rather was built as the gateway to the 1888 World Fair and was thus intended to welcome people. Arc de Triomf metro station Arc de Triomf railway station Brief description and history of Barcelona's Arc de Triomf on the official Barcelona Tourism site; the Arc de Triomf on Google Maps