California bungalow is a style of residential bungalow architecture, popular across the United States, to varying extents elsewhere, from around 1910 to 1939. Bungalows are one or one and a half story houses, with sloping roofs and eaves with unenclosed rafters, feature a dormer window over the main portion of the house. Ideally, bungalows are horizontal in massing, are integrated with the earth by use of local materials and transitional plantings; this helps create. Bungalows have wood shingle, horizontal siding or stucco exteriors, as well as brick or stone exterior chimneys and a partial-width front porch. Larger bungalows might have asymmetrical "L" shaped porches; the porches were enclosed at a date, in response to increased street noise. A "California" bungalow is not made of brick, but in other bungalows, most notably in the Chicago area, this is commonplace due in large part to the weather. A variation called the "Airplane Bungalow" has a much smaller area on its second floor, centered on the structure, is thought to look like the cockpit of an early airplane.
True bungalows do not include quarters for servants, have a simple living room, entered directly from the front door, in place of parlors and sitting rooms, as well as a smaller kitchen. The focal point of the living room is the fireplace, the living room has a broad opening into a separate dining room. All common areas are on the first floor with cozy atmospheres. Though the ceilings are lower than in homes of Victorian architecture, they feature redwood beams and are higher than in ranches and other homes built later. Attics are located under the sloping roof; the bungalow traces its origins to the Indian province of Bengal, the word itself derived from the Hindi bangla or house in Bengali style. The native thatched roof huts were adapted by the British, who built bungalows as houses for administrators and as summer retreats. Refined and popularized in California, many books list the first California house dubbed a bungalow as the one designed by the San Francisco architect A. Page Brown in the early 1890s.
However, Brown's close friend, Joseph Worcester, designed a bungalow for himself and erected it atop a hill in Piedmont, across the bay from San Francisco, in 1877-78. The bungalow influenced Bernard Maybeck, Willis Polk and other San Francisco architects, Jack London, who rented Worcester's house from 1902–03, called it a "bungalow with a capital'B'"; the bungalow became popular because it met the needs of changing times in which the lower middle class were moving from apartments to private houses in great numbers. Bungalows were modest and low-profile. Before World War I, a bungalow could be built for as little as $900 although the price rose to around $3,500 after the war. Bungalow designs were spread by the practice of building from mail-order plans available from illustrated catalogs, sometimes with alterations based on local practice or conditions. A variety of firms offered precut homes, which were assembled on site; these were most common in locations without a strong existing construction industry, or for company towns, to be built in a short time.
The majority of bungalows did include some elements of mass production. Bungalows can be found in the older neighborhoods of most American cities. In fact, they were so popular for a time that many cities have what is called a "Bungalow Belt" of homes built in the 1920s; these neighborhoods were clustered along streetcar lines as they extended into the suburbs. Bungalows were built in smaller groups than is typical today one to three at a time. Examples of neighborhoods in Southern California with a high concentration of California Bungalows include: Belmont Heights in Long Beach, the Wood Streets in Riverside, Bungalow Heaven, Highland Park in Los Angeles, North Park in San Diego. Separate from the main building, The Beverly Hills Hotel has 23 garden bungalows containing guests rooms and suites. Examples in other U. S. States include: the Avenues District in Salt Lake City. C.. The Californian bungalow style was popular in Australia from 1913 onwards; this period coincided with the rise of the Hollywood film industry, which popularised American clothes, furniture and houses, with the increased importation of U.
S. architectural magazines into Australia, a society, influenced by British domestic styles. "...the concept of the bungalow as a cheap and attractive form of permanent suburban housing for the masses was stimulated by a variety of economic and social factors." Timber versions of the bungalow were a low cost solution to shortages in housing and the California designs suited the growing suburbs of the larger cities in southern Australia. Having a similar climate to that of California the designs reflected the requirements of Australians who needed to cater for warm summers and mild winters; the bungalow in Australia underwent regional adaptations being built in th
Colonial Revival architecture
Colonial Revival architecture was and is a nationalistic design movement in the United States and Canada. Part of a broader Colonial Revival Movement embracing Georgian and Neoclassical styles, it seeks to revive elements of architectural style, garden design, interior design of American colonial architecture; the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 reawakened Americans to their colonial past. This movement gained momentum in the 1890s and was accelerated by the early 20th century due to the invention of the automobile, which expanded the ability of ordinary Americans to visit sites connected with their heritage. Successive waves of revivals of British colonial architecture have swept the United States since 1876. In the 19th century, Colonial Revival took a formal style. Public interest in the Colonial Revival style in the early 20th century helped popularize books and atmospheric photographs of Wallace Nutting showing scenes of New England. Historical attractions such as Colonial Williamsburg helped broaden exposure in the 1930s.
In the post-World War II era, Colonial design elements were merged with the popular ranch-style house design. In the early part of the 21st century, certain regions of the United States embraced aspects of Anglo-Caribbean and British Empire styles. Colonial Revival sought to follow American colonial architecture of the period around the Revolutionary War, which drew from Georgian architecture of Great Britain. Structures are two stories with the ridge pole running parallel to the street, have a symmetrical front facade with an accented doorway, evenly spaced windows on either side of it. Features borrowed from colonial period houses of the early 19th century include elaborate front doors with decorative crown pediments and sidelights, symmetrical windows flanking the front entrance in pairs or threes, columned porches. Colonial Revival garden Dutch Colonial Revival architecture Mission Revival Style architecture New Classical architecture Spanish Colonial Revival architecture Alan Axelrod, ed.
The Colonial Revival in America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1985. William Butler, Another City Upon a Hill: Litchfield and the Colonial Revival Karal Ann Marling, George Washington Slept Here: Colonial Revivals and American Culture, 1876–1986, 1988. Richard Guy Wilson and Noah Sheldon, The Colonial Revival House, 2004. Richard Guy Wilson, Shaun Eyring and Kenny Marotta, Re-creating the American Past: Essays on the Colonial Revival, 2006. Photo Gallery of Colonial Revival houses Examples of Colonial Revival in Buffalo, New York 1876 Centennial Information Colonial Style Homes Exude Tradition – Patriotic
American colonial architecture
American colonial architecture includes several building design styles associated with the colonial period of the United States, including First Period English, French Colonial, Spanish Colonial, Dutch Colonial, Georgian. These styles are associated with the houses and government buildings of the period from about 1600 through the 19th century. Several distinct regional styles of colonial architecture are recognized in the United States. Building styles in the 13 colonies were influenced by techniques and styles from England, as well as traditions brought by settlers from other parts of Europe. In New England, 17th-century colonial houses were built from wood, following styles found in the southeastern counties of England. Saltbox style homes and Cape Cod style homes were some of the simplest of homes constructed in the New England colonies; the Saltbox homes known for their steep roof among the back the house made for easy construction among colonists. The Cape Cod style homes were a common home in the early 17th of New England colonists, these homes featured a simple, rectangular shape used by colonists.
Dutch Colonial structures, built in the Hudson River Valley, Long Island, northern New Jersey, reflected construction styles from Holland and Flanders and used stone and brick more extensively than buildings in New England. In Maryland and the Carolinas, a style called "Southern Colonial" is recognized, characterized by the hall and parlor and central-passage house types, which had large chimneys projecting from the gable-ends of the house. In the Delaware Valley, Swedish colonial settlers introduced the log cabin to America. A style sometimes called Pennsylvania colonial appeared and incorporates Georgian architectural influences. A Pennsylvania Dutch style is recognized in parts of southeastern Pennsylvania that were settled by German immigrants in the 18th century. Early buildings in some other areas of the United States reflect the architectural traditions of the colonial powers that controlled these regions; the architectural style of Louisiana is identified as French colonial, while the Spanish colonial style evokes Renaissance and Baroque styles of Spain and Mexico.
First Period is a designation given to building styles used in the earliest English settlements at Jamestown and Plymouth, Massachusetts and in the other British colonies along the Eastern seaboard. These buildings included as steep roofs, small casement leaded glass windows, rich ornamentation and a massive central chimney. Developed in French-settled areas of North America beginning with the founding of Quebec in 1608 and New Orleans, Louisiana in 1718, as well as along the Mississippi River valley to Missouri; the early French Colonial house type of the Mississippi River Valley region was the poteaux-en-terre, constructed of heavy upright cedar logs set vertically into the ground. These basic houses featured double-pitched hipped roofs and were surrounded by porches to handle the hot summer climate. By 1770, the basic French Colonial house form evolved into the briquette-entre-poteaux style familiar in the historic areas of New Orleans and other areas; these homes featured double-louvred doors, flared hip roofs and shutters.
Developed with the earlier Spanish settlements in the Caribbean and Mexico, the Spanish Colonial style in the United States can be traced back to St. Augustine, the oldest established city in the country, founded in 1565; the early type of dwelling in Spanish Florida was the "board house", a small one-room cottage constructed of pit-sawn softwood boards with a thatched roof. During the 18th century, the "common houses" were whitewashed in lime mortar with an oyster shell aggregate. Two-story, the houses included cooling porches to accommodate the Florida climate; the style developed in the Southwest with Pueblo design influences from the indigenous Puebloan peoples architecture. In Alta California, present-day California, the style developed differently, being too far for imported building materials and without skilled builders, into a strong simple version for building the missions between 1769 and 1823. Ranchos were built of adobe. Developed from around 1630 with the arrival of Dutch colonists to New Amsterdam and the Hudson River Valley in what is now New York and in Bergen in what is now New Jersey.
The settlers built small, one room cottages with stone walls and steep roofs to allow a second floor loft. By 1670 or so, two-story gable-end homes were common in New Amsterdam. In the countryside of the Hudson Valley, the Dutch farmhouse evolved into a linear-plan home with straight-edged gables moved to the end walls. Around 1720, the distinctive gambrel roof was adopted from the English styles, with the addition of overhangs on the front and rear to protect the mud mortar used in the stone walls and foundations. Developed after about 1675, when the Delaware River Valley area was settled by immigrants from Sweden, Scotland, Ireland and several other northern European nations; the early colonists to this region adapted the "half-timber" style of construction popular in Europe, which used a frame of braced timbers filled-in with masonry. The "bank house" was a popular form of home during this period constructed into a hillside for protection during the cold winters and hot summers of the region.
The two-story "country townhouse" was common around Pennsylvania during this t
Traditionalist School (architecture)
Traditionalist architecture is an architectural movement in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century in the Netherlands, Germany et al. In the Netherlands Traditionalism was a reaction to the Neo-gothic and Neo-renaissance styles by Pierre Cuypers. One of the first influential buildings of Traditionalism was the Beurs van Berlage in Amsterdam, finished in 1903. Since the 1920s Traditionalist architecture is a parallel movement to Modern architecture. - In Dutch architecture, the Traditionalist School was a reaction against functionalism as well as the expressionism of the Amsterdam School, meant a revival of rural and national architectural styles and traditions, with tidy, visible brickwork, minimal decoration and "honest" materials. It occurred after the First World War and at its center was, as it was called after 1945, the Delft School, led by Marinus Jan Granpré Molière, professor at the Technical University in Delft from 1924 until 1953. Traditionalism can be seen in many ways as a direct successor to Berlage-type Rationalism.
It was influential on church design up after 1945 in catholic architecture but gaining influence as well on Protestant architecture just before World War Two on architects like Berend Tobia Boeyinga and Egbert Reitsma. During the reconstruction after the war, its influence on secular architecture reached a peak while its importance for church architecture vanished. Marinus Jan Granpré Molière Cornelis Hubertus de Bever Gijsbert Friedhoff Bernardus Joannes Koldewey Kees van Moorsel Alexander Kropholler Alphons Boosten Frits Peutz Hendrik Willem Valk Archimon
Ranch is a domestic architectural style originating in the United States. The ranch-style house is noted for its long, close-to-the-ground profile, wide open layout; the house style fused modernist ideas and styles with notions of the American Western period of wide open spaces to create a informal and casual living style. While the original style of the ranch was informal and basic in design, starting around the early 1960s, many ranch-style houses constructed in the United States were built with more dramatic features like varying roof lines, cathedral ceilings, sunken living rooms, extensive landscaping and grounds. First built in the 1920s, the ranch style was popular with the booming post-war middle class of the 1940s to the 1970s; the style is associated with tract housing built at this time in the southwest United States, which experienced a population explosion during this period, with a corresponding demand for housing. The style became popular worldwide. However, their popularity waned in the late 20th century as neo-eclectic house styles, a return to using historical and traditional decoration, became more popular.
Preservationist movements have begun in some ranch house neighborhoods, as well as renewed interest in the style from a younger generation who did not grow up in ranch-style houses. This renewed interest in the style has been compared to that which other house styles such as the bungalow and Queen Anne experienced in the 20th century, initial dominance of the market, replacement as the desired housing style and lack of interest coupled with many tear downs renewed interest and modernization of the surviving houses; the following features are considered key elements of the original ranch house style, although not all ranch houses contain all of them. Single story Long, low-pitch roofline Asymmetrical rectangular, L-shaped, or U-shaped design Simple, open floor plans Living areas separate from the bedroom area Attached garage Sliding glass doors opening onto a patio Windows with a large glass area, sometimes decorated with non-functional shutters Vaulted ceilings with exposed beams in combination with tongue and groove roof decking Mixed material exteriors of stucco and brick, wood or stone Deep overhanging eaves Cross-gabled, side-gabled or hip roof The raised ranch is a two-story house, in which a finished basement serves as an additional floor.
It may be built into a hill to some degree, such that the full size of the house is not evident from the curb. However, it does not become a raised ranch by having two floors. For a house to be classified as a raised ranch, there must be a flight of steps to get to the main living floor—if not, it is just a bi-level house. Among real estate agents, this term is misused; the ranch house style was adapted for commercial use during the time of the style's popularity. As the concept of a "drive in" shopping center was being created and popularized, the ranch style was a perfect style to fit into the large tracts of ranch homes being built. Commercial ranch buildings, such as supermarkets and strip malls follow the residential style with simple rustic trim, stucco or board and batten siding, exposed brick and shake roofs, large windows; the 20th century ranch house style has its roots in North American Spanish colonial architecture of the 17th to 19th century. These buildings used single story floor plans and native materials in a simple style to meet the needs of their inhabitants.
Walls were built of adobe brick and covered with plaster, or more used board and batten wood siding. Roofs were low and simple, had wide eaves to help shade the windows from the Southwestern heat. Buildings had interior courtyards which were surrounded by a U shaped floor plan. Large front porches were common; these low slung, thick-walled, rustic working ranches were common in the Southwestern states. By the 1950s, the California ranch house, by now called the ranch house or "rambler house", accounted for nine out of every ten new houses; the endless ability of the style to accommodate the individual needs of the owner/occupant, combined with the modern inclusion of the latest in building developments and simplicity of the design, satisfied the needs of the time. Ranch houses were built throughout America and were given regional facelifts to suit regional tastes; the "Colonial Ranch" of the Midwest and Northeast is one such noted variant, adding American Colonial features to the facade of the California ranch house.
Ranch houses of the 1940s and 1950s are more deliberately themed in nature than those of the 1960s and 1970s, with features such as dovecotes, Swiss board edging on trim, western and fantasy trim styling. From the mid-1960s onward, the ranch house echoed the national trend towards sleekness in design, with the homes becoming simpler and more generic as this trend continued. American tastes in architecture began to change in the late 1960s, a move away from Googie and Modernism and ranch houses towards more formal and traditional styles. Builders of ranch houses began to simplify and cheapen construction of the houses to cut costs reducing the style down to a bland and uninteresting house, with little of the charm and drama of the early versions. By the late 1970s, the ranch house was no longer the house of choice, had been eclipsed by the neo-eclectic styles of the late 20th century. Late custom ranch houses of the 1970s begin to exhibit features of the neo-eclectics, such as elevated rooflines, grand entryways, traditiona
The American Craftsman style, or the American Arts and Crafts movement, is an American domestic architectural, interior design, landscape design, applied arts, decorative arts style and lifestyle philosophy that began in the last years of the 19th century. As a comprehensive design and art movement, it remained popular into the 1930s. However, in decorative arts and architectural design, it has continued with numerous revivals and restoration projects through present times; the American Craftsman style was developed out of the British Arts and Crafts movement, which began as early as the 1860s. The British movement was reacting against the Industrial Revolution's perceived devaluation of the individual worker and resulting degradation of the dignity of human labor; the movement emphasized handwork over mass production, with the problem that expensive materials and costly skilled labor restricted acquisition of Arts and Crafts productions to a wealthy clientele ironically derided as "champagne socialists".
While the American movement reacted against the eclectic Victorian "over-decorated" aesthetic, the Arts and Crafts style's American arrival coincided with the decline of the Victorian era. The American Arts and Crafts movement shared the British movement's reform philosophy, encouraging originality, simplicity of form, local natural materials, the visibility of handicraft, but distinguished itself in the Craftsman Bungalow style, with a goal of ennobling modest homes for a expanding American middle class. In the 1890s, a group of Boston’s more influential architects and educators were determined to bring the design reforms of the British Arts and Crafts movement to America, its first meeting, to organize an exhibition of contemporary craft objects, was held in January 1897 at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Present at this meeting were local museum trustees, including General Charles Loring, William Sturgis Bigelow, Denman Ross, they succeeded in opening the first American Arts and Crafts Exhibition in April 1897 at Copley Hall, featuring over 400 objects made by over 100 designers and craftspeople, half of whom were women.
Some of the exhibit's supporters included: the founder of Harvard’s School of Architecture, Langford Warren. The exhibition's success led to the formation of the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts in June 1897 with Charles Eliot Norton as president; the society aimed to "develop and encourage higher standards in the handicrafts." The Society focused on the relationship of artists and designers to the world of commerce, on high-quality workmanship. The Society of Arts and Crafts mandate was soon expanded into a credo which read: This Society was incorporated for the purpose of promoting artistic work in all branches of handicraft, it hopes to bring Designers and Workmen into mutually helpful relations, to encourage workmen to execute designs of their own. It endeavors to stimulate in workmen an appreciation of the value of good design, it will insist upon the necessity of sobriety and restraint, of ordered arrangement, of due regard for the relation between the form of an object and its use, of harmony and fitness in the decoration put upon it.
The society held its first exhibition in 1899 at Copley Hall. In China the Arts and Crafts style incorporated locally handcrafted wood and metal work creating objects that were both simple and elegant. In architecture, reacting to both Victorian architectural opulence and common mass-produced housing, the style incorporated a visible sturdy structure, of clean lines and natural materials; the movement's name American Craftsman came from the popular magazine, The Craftsman, founded in October 1901 by philosopher, furniture maker, editor Gustav Stickley. The magazine featured original house and furniture designs by Harvey Ellis, the Greene and Greene company, others; the designs, while influenced by the ideals of the British movement, found inspiration in American antecedents such as Shaker furniture and the Mission Revival Style, the Anglo-Japanese style. Emphasis on the originality of the artist/craftsman led to the design concepts of the 1930s Art Deco movement. Several developments in the American domestic architecture of the period are traceable not only to changes in taste and style but to the shift from the upper- to middle-class patronage.
The American Victorian took the form of a two-story square house with a hip roof disguised behind a variety of two-storied bays, with an assortment of gables as well as octagonal or round turrets and wraparound porches presenting a complex facade. The basic square house was complemented by a back wing complete with its own entrances, a stairwell, that housed the kitchen and scullery on the first floor and the servants' quarters on the second. Fitted with inferior-quality woodwork and hardware, noticeably smaller bedrooms and lower ceiling heights, the Victorian kitchen-servants' wing embodied the aristocratic class distinctions of the Old World. With the large bays and rear wing removed, the front porch simplified, the ceilings lowered somewhat, it is not difficult to see how the American Foursquare developed from the common American Queen Anne; the middle-class housewife of t
Tudor Revival architecture
Tudor Revival architecture first manifested itself in domestic architecture beginning in the United Kingdom in the mid to late 19th century based on a revival of aspects of Tudor architecture or, more the style of English vernacular architecture of the Middle Ages that survived into the Tudor period. It became an influence in some other countries the British colonies. For example, in New Zealand, the architect Francis Petre adapted the style for the local climate. Elsewhere in Singapore a British colony, architects such as R. A. J. Bidwell pioneered what became known as the Black and White House; the earliest examples of the style originate with the works of such eminent architects as Norman Shaw and George Devey, in what at the time was thought of as a neo-Tudor design. Tudorbethan is a subset of Tudor Revival architecture which eliminated some of the more complex aspects of Jacobethan in favor of more domestic styles of "Merrie England", which were cosier and quaint, it was associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement.
The emphasis was on the simple and the less impressive aspects of Tudor architecture, imitating in this way medieval cottages or country houses. Although the style follows these more modest characteristics, items such as steeply pitched-roofs, half-timbering infilled with herringbone brickwork, tall mullioned windows, high chimneys, jettied first floors above pillared porches, dormer windows supported by consoles, at times thatched roofs, gave Tudor Revival its more striking effects, it is quite expensive. The Tudor Revival style was a reaction to the ornate Victorian Gothic Revival of the second half of the 19th century. Rejecting mass production, introduced by industry at that time, the Arts and Crafts movement related to Tudorbethan, drew on simple design inherent in aspects of its more ancient styles, Tudor and Jacobean; the Tudor style made one of its first appearances in Britain at Cragside, a hilltop mansion of eclectic architectural styles that incorporated certain Tudor features. However at the same time, Shaw designed Leyswood near Withyham in Sussex, a large mansion around a courtyard, complete with mock battlements, half-timbered upper facades and tall chimneys – all features quite associated with Tudor architecture.
Confusingly, it was promptly named "Queen Anne style", when in reality it combined a revival of Elizabethan and Jacobean design details including mullioned and oriel windows. The style began to incorporate the classic pre-Georgian features that are understood to represent "Queen Anne" in Britain; the term "Queen Anne" for this style of architecture tends to be more used in the USA than in Britain. In the USA it evolved into a form of architecture not recognisable as that constructed in either the Tudor or Queen Anne period. In Britain the style remained closer to its Tudor roots. Tudorbethan represents a subset of Tudor Revival architecture; this was modelled on the grand prodigy houses built by the courtiers of Elizabeth I and James VI. "Tudorbethan" took it a step further, eliminated the hexagonal or many-faceted towers and mock battlements of Jacobethan, applied the more domestic styles of "Merrie England", which were cosier and quaint. It was associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement. Outside North America, Tudorbethan is used synonymously with Tudor Revival and mock Tudor.
From the 1880s onwards, Tudor Revival concentrated more on the simple but quaintly picturesque Elizabethan cottage, rather than the brick and battlemented splendours of Hampton Court or Compton Wynyates. Large and small houses alike with half-timbering in their upper storeys and gables were completed with tall ornamental chimneys, in what was a simple cottage style, it was here that the influences of the crafts movement became apparent. However, Tudor Revival cannot be likened to the timber-framed structures of the originals, in which the frame supported the whole weight of the house, their modern counterparts consist of bricks or blocks of various materials, stucco, or simple studwall framing, with a lookalike "frame" of thin boards added on the outside to mimic the earlier functional and structural weight-bearing heavy timbers. An example of this is the "simple cottage" style of Ascott House in Buckinghamshire; this was designed by Devey for the Rothschild family, who were among the earliest patrons and promoters of this style.
Some more enlightened landlords at this time became more aware of the needs for proper sanitation and housing for their employees, some estate villages were rebuilt to resemble what was thought to be an idyllic Elizabethan village grouped around a village green and pond. The Tudor Revival, now concentrated on the picturesque. A well-known example of the idealised half-timbered style is Liberty & Co. department store in London, built in the style of a vast half-timbered Tudor mansion. The store specialised, among other goods, in fabrics and furnishings by the leading designers of the Arts and Crafts movement. In the early part of the century, one of the exponents who developed the style further was Edwin Lutyens. At The Deanery in Berkshire, 1899, where the client was the editor of the influential magazine Country Li