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Minimax is a decision rule used in artificial intelligence, decision theory, game theory and philosophy for minimizing the possible loss for a worst case scenario. When dealing with gains, it is referred to as "maximin"—to maximize the minimum gain. Formulated for two-player zero-sum game theory, covering both the cases where players take alternate moves and those where they make simultaneous moves, it has been extended to more complex games and to general decision-making in the presence of uncertainty; the maximin value of a player is the highest value that the player can be sure to get without knowing the actions of the other players. Its formal definition is: v i _ = max a i min a − i v i Where: i is the index of the player of interest. − i denotes all other players except player i. a i is the action taken by player i. a − i denotes the actions taken by all other players. V i is the value function of player i. Calculating the maximin value of a player is done in a worst-case approach: for each possible action of the player, we check all possible actions of the other players and determine the worst possible combination of actions—the one that gives player i the smallest value.

We determine which action player i can take in order to make sure that this smallest value is the highest possible. For example, consider the following game for two players, where the first player may choose any of three moves, labelled T, M, or B, the second player may choose either of two moves, L or R; the result of the combination of both moves is expressed in a payoff table:. For the sake of example, we consider only pure strategies. Check each player in turn: The row player can play T, which guarantees them a payoff of at least 2. Hence: v r o w _ = 2; the column player can play L and secure a payoff of at least 0. Hence: v c o l _ = 0. If both players play their respective maximin strategies, the payoff vector is; the minimax value of a player is the smallest value that the other players can force the player to receive, without knowing the player's actions. Its formal definition is: v i ¯ = min a − i max a i v i The definition is similar to that of the maximin value—only the order of the maximum and minimum operators is inverse.

In the above example: The row player can get a maximum value of 4 or 5, so: v r o w ¯ = 4. The column player can get a maximum value of 1, 1 or 4. Hence: v c o l ¯ = 1. For every player i, the maximin is at most the minimax: v i _ ≤ v i ¯ Intuitively, in maximin the maximization comes before the minimization, so player i tries to maximize their value before knowing what the others will do. Another way to understand the notation is by reading from right to left: when we write v i ¯ = min a − i max a i v i = min a − i ( max a i v i

The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt

The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt is a biography of United States President Theodore Roosevelt by Edmund Morris and published by Coward, McCann & Geoghegan when the author was forty years old. It is the first in a trilogy continued more than twenty and thirty years by Theodore Rex and Colonel Roosevelt, it won the 1980 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography and the 1980 National Book Award in Biography. The Rise covers the time from Roosevelt's birth through his ascendancy to the Presidency, it includes the Roosevelt family history starting with his parents influence, his turbulent childhood illnesses, involvement in politics and accomplishments in politics that prepared him to be one of the most influential presidents of the modern era. Specific topics include the philosophy of Roosevelt's father and his family, his passion for learning despite severe illness is well documented. Morris reports that Roosevelt read the equivalent of one book per day during his life. Morris examines his life as a young politician driven by a sense of public duty and stewardship, captures multiple aspects of the events that shaped the character and performance of Roosevelt.

The book provides insight into the world of influence from a master of corporate power as opposed to leaders who practice personal power. Topics include early childhood and hobbies, travels in Europe and Africa, New York legislature, frontier life, civil service commissioner, New York police commissioner, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, the Rough Riders and victory in Cuba, governor of New York, short term as vice-president. A planned film adaptation by director Martin Scorsese and starring Leonardo DiCaprio was scheduled to be released in 2013. However, that project has been abandoned. CitationThe Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan. 1979. ISBN 0-375-75678-7. C-SPAN Q&A interview with Morris on his Roosevelt trilogy, November 21, 2010


A baleada is a traditional Honduran dish composed of a flour tortilla quite thick, folded in half and filled with mashed fried red beans. It originates from the north coast of the country; the most common types of baleadas are the baleadas sencillas which has crumbled cheese and mantequilla. Other common variety of baleada is the baleada mixta which has the same as the baleada simple but with an addition of scrambled eggs. Many other people add sausage, hot sauce, chicken and chismol, diced tomato and bell pepper; the big Honduran towns have more than one restaurant that sells baleadas. There are different kinds of baleada according to the ingredients chosen by the customer or the region of Honduras. Simple baleadas Special baleadas Super special baleadas In the region of Olancho and Ocotepeque the special baleada is served with all of the above and "carne asada"; the Bay Island of Utila, off the coast of La Ceiba, adds pickled onions and creole cheese to the beans. In the Honduran movie Amor y Frijoles, the protagonist is a woman.

In 2017, Chef Gordon Ramsay visited Honduras. He said that baleadas are the best Latin American cuisine. Phaseolus vulgaris Black turtle bean Honduran cuisine

Vino cotto

Vino cotto, is a type of wine from the Marche and Abruzzo in Central Italy, made in the hills of the Province of Ascoli Piceno and the Province of Macerata. It is a strong ruby-colored wine semi-sweet, traditionally drunk in small glasses with puddings and cheese, it is produced from the must of any of the local varieties of grapes, heated in a copper vessel until reduced to a half or third of its original volume, fermented. It can be aged for barrels being topped up with each harvest, it is made by private individuals for their own use as, under EU rules, it cannot be sold as wine. A few wineries sell it commercially as a foodstuff; this vino cotto should not be confused with the sweet syrup obtained by cooking the grape must, not fermenting it. Although southern Italian regions such as Calabria call the syrup vino cotto or vincotto, the Marche regions and Puglia/Apulia call it sapa. It's known throughout the Mediterranean by various other names as well. Vino cotto production is documented as being produced in the 3rd century BC by the Picenes and again from the 16th century AD.

The Roman patricians, the emperors and the popes were reputed to savour this drink at the end of their lavish banquets, although the sources are vague between the various forms of cooked wine. The raw material comes from any of the red and white grapes of the region damaged bunches, may include the pomace left over from normal winemaking, thus it is a way to ensure. This material is crushed and cooked in a large cauldron over a fire for 24 hours, which gives its characteristic aromas. Traditionally two men attended it, taking turns to sleep and stirring and skimming off the scum that formed on the surface; the must is cooked until a half or a third of the volume remains, depending on how sweet it is to be. In the Marche some add. Once cooled, the must is transferred to chestnut casks where it is left to ferment, it is racked off the lees twice. The wine is aged in old wine barrels for at least a year, it is combined with and used to top up previous years' barrels. Due to the cooking, the wine is stable and keeps well in heat and open containers.

The Marche authorities have set down a specification for the method of production of vino cotto. Although it is recognized as a traditional Italian food product by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, it cannot be sold as ‘wine’ and little is produced commercially. EU rules prohibit the use of the description “wine" for drinks produced by heating the wort unless they are Marsala, a more recent innovation than vino cotto. Vincotto Vin cuit Mulled wine Il Cotto dei Piceni Vino Cotto di Montillo official

Tamil All Character Encoding

Tamil All Character Encoding is a 16-bit Unicode-based character encoding scheme for Tamil language. The Keyboard driver for this encoding scheme are available in Tamil Virtual University website for free, it uses Tamil99 and Tamil Typewriter keyboard layouts, which are approved by Tamil Nadu Government, maps the input keystrokes to its corresponding characters of TACE16 scheme. To read the files which are created using TACE16 scheme, the corresponding Unicode Tamil fonts for this encoding scheme are available in the same website; these fonts not only has mapping of glyphs for characters of TACE16 format, but has mapping of glyphs for the present Unicode encoding for both ASCII and Tamil characters, so that it can provide backward compatibility for reading existing files which are created using present Unicode encoding scheme for Tamil language. All characters of this encoding scheme are located in the private use area of the Basic Multilingual Plane of Unicode's Universal Character Set. Analysis of TACE16 over present Unicode standard for Tamil language: The present Unicode standard for Tamil is considered not adequate for efficient and effective usage of Tamil in computers, due to the following reasons: Unicode code Tamil has code positions only for 31 out of 247 Tamil Characters.

These 31 characters include 12 vowels, 18 agara-uyirmey, one aytham, not including five Grantha agara-uyirmey which are provided code space in Unicode Tamil. The other Tamil Characters have to be rendered using a separate software. Only 10% of the Tamil Characters are provided code space in the Present Unicode Tamil. 90% of the Tamil Characters that are used in general text interchange are not provided code space. The Uyir-meys that are left out in the present Unicode Tamil are simple characters, just like A, B, C, D are characters to English. Uyir-meys conjunct characters as assumed in Unicode. Ka, kA, ki, kI, etc. are characters to Tamil. In any plain Tamil text, Vowel Consonants form 64 to 70%. Breaking high frequency letters like vowel-consonants into glyphs is inefficient; this type of encoding which requires a rendering engine to realize a character while computing is not suitable for applications like system software developments in Tamil and sorting and Natural language processing in Tamil, It consumes extra time and space, making the computing process inefficient.

For such applications Level-1 implementation where all the characters of a language have code positions in the encoding, like English is required. This encoding is based on ISCII and therefore, the characters are not in the natural order of sequence, it requires a complex collation algorithm for arranging them in the natural order of sequence. It uses multiple code points to render single characters. Multiple code points lead to security vulnerabilities, ambiguous combinations and requires the use of normalization. Simple counting letters, searching are inefficient It requires ZWJ/ZWNJ type hidden chars, it needs exception table to prevent illegal combinations of code points. Unicode Indic block is built on enormous, error-prone edifice, based on an encoding, NOT built to last. First code point says "Tamil Sign Anusvara - Not used in Tamil". Assumed collation was same as Devanagari - incorrectly uses ambiguous encoding to render same character, it calls them as consonants, against Tamil grammar.

Unnatural for Speech to Text/Text to Speech. Inefficient to store and retrieval. Complex processing hinders development. Need normalization for string comparison. A sequence of characters may correspond to a single glyph, that is, ச + ெ◌ + ◌ா = ெசா. Characters are not graphemes. According to Unicode ெசா is a grapheme. Requires Dynamic Composition - a text element encoded as a sequence of a base character followed by one or more combining marks. There are two methods of rendering the Vowel Consonants; this leads to ambiguity in rendering characters. The present Unicode is not efficient for parsing. For example, the name திருவள்ளுவர் looks. However, according to Unicode, this name has twelve characters: த ◌ி ர ◌ு வ ள ◌் ள ◌ு வ ர ◌ To properly count the letters in this name, an expert developer had to write a complex program and present it as a technical paper in a Tamil computing conference. To compare, counting letters in an English word is an exercise left to a beginning programmer; such problems are triggered because a simple script such as Tamil is treated as a complex script by Unicode.

For example in Python library open-tamil, which uses present Unicode Standard for Tamil, in order to count the number of Tamil letters in the given text, the function tamil.utf8.get_letters is first used to parse the text into a List and returns the length of the list as the count of the number of letters. This type of complex programming logic or extra additional layer of framework requirement is needed when a simple script such as Tamil is treated as a complex script; the Unicode standard policy is to encode only characters, not glyphs. However, because Unicode Tamil standard includes the vowel signs as combining characters; these signs that have no meaning to a Tamil reader would be displayed as is by character shaping engines that detect a blank space between them and a base character. Thus Unicode introduces the dotted circle as a Tamil character. Unicode Tamil is not supported in many platforms because Tamil is treated as a complex script that requires complex processing. Since all the above-mentioned inefficiencies consumes extra processing cycles of a pr

1995 Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré

The 1995 Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré was the 47th edition of the cycle race and was held from 4 June to 11 June 1995. The race finished in Chambéry; the race was won by Miguel Induráin of the Banesto team. Fourteen teams, containing a total of 109 riders, participated in the race: 4 June 1995 – Évian-les-Bains, 6.7 km 5 June 1995 – Évian-les-Bains to Montalieu-Vercieu, 225 km 6 June 1995 – Charbonnières-les-Bains to Guilherand-Granges, 173 km 7 June 1995 – Tain-l'Hermitage to Tain-l'Hermitage, 36.5 km 8 June 1995 – Guilherand-Granges to Carpentras, 205 km 9 June 1995 – Avignon to Gap, 198 km 10 May 1995 – Briançon to Vaujany, 143 km 11 June 1995 – Vaujany to Chambéry, 164 km