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Minimum orbit intersection distance

Minimum orbit intersection distance is a measure used in astronomy to assess potential close approaches and collision risks between astronomical objects. It is defined as the distance between the closest points of the osculating orbits of two bodies. Of greatest interest is the risk of a collision with Earth. Earth MOID is listed on comet and asteroid databases such as the JPL Small-Body Database. MOID values are defined with respect to other bodies as well: Jupiter MOID, Venus MOID and so on. An object is classified as a hazardous object – that is, posing a possible risk to Earth – if, among other conditions, its Earth MOID is less than 0.05 AU. For more massive bodies than Earth, there is a notable close approach with a larger MOID. A low MOID does not mean that a collision is inevitable as the planets perturb the orbit of small bodies, it is necessary that the two bodies reach that point in their orbits at the same time before the smaller body is perturbed into a different orbit with a different MOID value.

Two Objects gravitationally locked in orbital resonance may never approach one another. Numerical integrations become divergent as trajectories are projected further forward in time beyond times where the smaller body is perturbed by other planets. MOID has the convenience that it is obtained directly from the orbital elements of the body and no numerical integration into the future is used; the only object, rated at 4 on the Torino Scale, the Aten asteroid Apophis, has an Earth MOID of 0.000316 AU. This is not the smallest Earth MOID in the catalogues. Earth MOID values are more practical for asteroids less than 140 meters in diameter as those asteroids are dim and have a short observation arc with a poorly determined orbit; the only objects that have been detected and had their Earth-MOID calculated before Earth impact were the small asteroids 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA. 2008 TC3 was listed with a MOID of 0.00001 AU in the Minor Planet Center database, is the smallest MOID calculated for an Apollo asteroid.

It is smaller at the more precise JPL Small Body Database. Asteroid impact prediction List of Mercury-crossing minor planets List of Venus-crossing minor planets List of Earth-crossing minor planets List of Mars-crossing minor planets List of Jupiter-crossing minor planets List of Saturn-crossing minor planets List of Uranus-crossing minor planets List of Neptune-crossing minor planets Fast Geometric Method for Calculating Accurate Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances MOID for all NEOs for Mercury to Jupiter List of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroids MBPL - Minor Body Priority List SAEL - Small Asteroids Encounters List

Arthur Farquhar (Royal Navy officer, born 1772)

Sir Arthur Farquhar KCH, CB, RSO was an officer of the Royal Navy. He served during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars Farquhar was second youngest son of Robert Farquhar of Newhall near Aberdeen, his younger brother William was a founder of modern Singapore. He entered the navy in 1787 on board HMS Lowestoffe, after serving in several other ships on the home station, having passed his examination, entered on board an East India Company's ship, he had scarcely, arrived in India when news of the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars led him to enter on board the sloop HMS Hobart, whence he was removed to the flagship, in April 1798 was promoted to be lieutenant. On his return to England as first lieutenant of HMS Heroine, he was employed in various ships on the home, Mediterranean and North Sea stations, until promoted to be commander on 29 April 1802. In January 1804 he was appointed to the bomb vessel HMS Acheron, on 4 February 1805 being, in company with the sloop HMS Arrow, in charge of convoy, was captured by two large French frigates and Hortense, after a defence, rightly pronounced by the court-martial to be ‘highly meritorious and deserving imitation’.

Farquhar was most honourably acquitted, the president of the court, Sir Richard Bickerton, as he returned his sword, expressed a hope that he might soon be called on to serve in a ship in which he might meet his captor on more equal terms: ‘the result of the contest,’ he added, ‘may be more lucrative to you, but it cannot be more honourable.’ A few days 8 April, Farquhar was advanced to post-rank. From 1806 to 1809 he commanded the 20-gun HMS Ariadne in the Baltic and North Sea, during which time he captured several privateers and Danish. From 1809 to 1814 he commanded the frigate HMS Desiree in the North Sea, captured many privateers and armed vessels, was senior naval officer in the operations in the Weser, the Ems, the Elbe in 1813, culminating in the capture of Glückstadt on 5 January 1814. For these important services Farquhar was made a knight of the Sword of Sweden, of the Royal Guelphic Order. In 1815 he was made a Companion of the Bath, in September 1817 received the freedom of Aberdeen.

From May 1814 to April 1816 he commanded the 40-gun HMS Liverpool at the Cape of Good Hope, from 1830 to 1833 HMS Blanche in the West Indies, with a broad pennant, for his services there during the Baptist War, received a vote of thanks from the House of Assembly of Jamaica, a sword valued at 150l. and a piece of plate from the merchants. On his return home he was knighted, was made a Knight Commander of the Royal Guelphic Order in 1832, he became a rear-admiral in 1837, died at his residence in Aberdeenshire on 2 October 1843. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Farquhar, Arthur". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Dean of Down

The Dean of Down is based in The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, Downpatrick within the Diocese of Down and Dromore of the Church of Ireland. The current incumbent is T. Henry Hull. 1541 Connor Magennis 1609–1622 John Gibson 1623–1627 Robert Dawson 1627–1635 Henry Leslie (afterwards Bishop of Down and Connor, 1635 1635 William Coote 1661/2 Thomas Bayly 1663/4–1669 Daniel Witter (afterwards Bishop of Killaloe 1669–1681/2 William Sheridan 1682-1682 Benjamin Phipps 1682/3–1709 John M'Neale 1709–1717 Ralph Lambert 1717–1721 Benjamin Pratt 1721/2–1723 Charles Fairfax 1723/4–1731 William Gore 1731/2–1739 Richard Daniel 1739–1744 Thomas Fletcher 1744–1768 Patrick Delany 1768–1787 James Dickson 1787–1817 Hon William Annesley 1817–1831 Edmund Knox 1831–1839 Thomas Plunket 1839–1855 Theophilus Blakely 1856–1876 Thomas Woodward 1876–1887 Edward Busteed Moeran 1887–1912 Edward Maguire 1912–1923 John Pierce Brown 1923–1938 William Patrick Carmody 1938–1945 Cyril Elliott 1945–1954 Frederick Hatch 1955–1963 Walter Horatio Good 1964–1968 Alfred Weller Mussen Stanley Mann 1968–1980 Robert William Thomas Howard Kilpatrick 1980–?1987 John Herbert Rosmund Good 1987–1996 Hamilton Leckey 1997–2006 John Frederick Dinnen 2006–present Thomas Henry Hull

Samuel Halkett

Samuel Halkett was a Scottish librarian, now known for his work on anonymous publications. He was born in 1814 in the North Back of the Canongate, where his father was in business as a brewer, he was educated at two private schools, was apprenticed at the age of fourteen. For five years he was employed by Messrs. Marshall & Aitken, afterwards by Messrs. Abernethy & Stewart, with whom he remained, his spare time was devoted to study, spoken of by Sir William Hamilton and others in supporting his successful candidature for the keepership of the Advocates Library, Edinburgh, in 1848. Halkett died in April 1871, aged 57, leaving four children, he is buried against the south wall of the main section of Warriston Cemetery, backing onto the former railway. On being appointed librarian to the Faculty of Advocates he found the library without an alphabetical catalogue, he began a slip-catalogue, which formed the basis of the Catalogue of the Printed Books in the Library of the Faculty of Advocates, Edinburgh, 1863–79, 7 vols.

The printing was begun in 1860, was completed on a scale somewhat less extensive than at first planned. A report by Halkett on the state of the library in 1868 was appended to a memorandum signed by John Hill Burton on a proposed enlargement of the scope of the library. In 1856 Halkett wrote to Notes and Queries that he had been collecting materials for a dictionary of anonymous English works; the book appeared, with additions, edited by Catherine Laing, as A Dictionary of the Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature of Great Britain Halkett contributed some articles to Chambers's Cyclopædia. He was married to Caroline Sophia Roland "Halkett, Samuel". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Halkett, Samuel". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Peter Vaas

Peter Vaas is an American football coach and former player. He served as the head football coach at Allegheny College from 1986 to 1989 and at the College of the Holy Cross from 1992 to 1995, compiling a career college football record of 43–41–1, he played football as a quarterback at Holy Cross from 1971 to 1973. Vaas was a walk-on quarterback at Holy Cross, he set nine individual school passing records in his senior season. As a senior, he completed 135 passes for 13 touchdowns, his career numbers included 21 touchdown passes. Vaas began his coaching career following his graduation from Holy Cross in 1974, he served as an assistant coach at Allegheny College in Pennsylvania for five seasons. In 1979, Vaas was hired as the offensive backfield coach at the University of New Hampshire in Durham, he spent four seasons in that capacity before being promoted to the position of offensive coordinator in 1983. Vaas returned to Allegheny College as the Gators' head coach in 1986, a position he held for four seasons, until 1989.

He led the team to back-to-back North Coast Athletic Conference championships in 1987 and 1988 and earned conference "Coach of the Year" honors both years. His coaching record at the school was 29–11–1.. He spent four seasons as the head coach at Holy Cross from 1992 to 1995, his only winning season came in 1992, when he led his squad to a second-place finish in the Patriot League. In 2020, Kuharchek was announced as the offensive assistant coach for Team 9, the internal farm team/practice squad of the revived XFL. Allegheny profile

Brickell Heights

Brickell Heights are two twin towers in the Brickell neighborhood of Miami, Florida. Together, the towers have 690 units with a ground floor Equinox Gym. Ground for the towers was broken in 2014 following the groundbreaking of SLS Brickell; the project was announced as The Premiere Towers during the 2000s' building boom but was cancelled due to financial reasons caused by the Great Recession. The project was re-announced by Related in October 2013 as Brickell Heights. A third tower, SLS Lux, is across Miami Avenue to the east; the site is about one block north of the Tenth Street Metro Station. The project is directly adjacent on the east side of a 1980s office building, the Brickell Bayview Center, now nearly surrounded by high rises. List of tallest buildings in Miami Official Site Premiere Towers from Emporis