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Mining industry of Egypt

Mining in Egypt has had a long history that goes back to predynastic times. Egypt has substantial mineral resources, including 48 million tons of tantalite, 50 million tons of coal, an estimated 6.7 million ounces of gold in the Eastern Desert. The total real value of minerals mined was about £E102 million in 1986, up from £E60 million in 1981; the chief minerals in terms of volume output were iron ore and salt. The quantities produced in 1986 were estimated at 2,048, 1,310, 1,233 tons compared with 2,139, 691, 883 tons in 1981. In addition, minor amounts of asbestos and quartz were mined in 1986. Preliminary exploration in Sinai indicated the presence of zinc, tin and copper deposits. Private sector exploration and exploitation activities so far have been limited. Only AngloGold Ashanti with its joint Venture Partner Thani Dubai and a Canadian listed exploration company, Alexander Nubia International have been undertaking exploration in Egypt's Eastern Desert with some success. Centamin Ltd. a mineral exploration company founded in Australia, started a massive mining project in Sukari Hill.

Gold mining in Upper Egypt can be traced back to predynastic times, the earliest map known in the world from the Ramesside Period dating to about 1160 BCE, shows the route to the gold mines in the Wadi Hammamat, Eastern Desert. Gold mining started with alluvial workings in Egypt and was followed by shallow underground vein mining in Nubia about 1300 BCE, during the New Kingdom period; the methods of working included fire-setting to weaken rocks by thermal shock, a method described by Diodorus Siculus in his Bibliotheca historica written about 60 BCE. The technique of quarrying granite and limestone was an advanced technology by the time the pyramids were being built. Marble and diorite were used for making statues, basalt for making sarcophagi, dolomite for hammers to work hard stones. Precious and semi-precious stones that were extensively mined and worked as well included turquoise, amethyst, lapis lazuli and malachite. Hathor was the miner's patron goddess, her temples, statues or inscriptions were found in many rediscovered mining locations.

A major temple to Hathor constructed by Seti II was found at the copper mines in Timna valley. Egypt became a major gold-producer during the Old Kingdom and remained so in the next 1,500 years, with interruptions when the kingdom broke down. During the New Kingdom, the production of gold increased, mining became more intensive as new fields were developed. British historian Paul Johnson says that it was gold rather than military power which sustained the Egyptian empire and made it the world power throughout the third quarter of the second millennium BCE. Most gold mines known today in Egypt have been exploited for high-grade gold by the ancient Egyptians; however there has been limited exploration that applies modern day techniques where deposits can be viable based on gold grades as low as 0.5 g/t. The earliest known beryl mine in the world is located in the mountain valley of Wadi Sikait, Eastern Desert, its mining started during the Ptolemaic period, although most of mining activities date to the Roman and Byzantine periods.

All the other beryl mining sites such as Gebel Zabara, Wadi Umm Debaa and Wadi Gimal are Roman-Byzantine or Islamic in date. Beryl mining ceased in Egypt when the Spanish Empire discovered superior-quality emeralds in Colombia in the 16th century. Alteration zones are considered the most promising areas for mineral exploration in the Central Eastern Desert. Ancient gold miners in Egypt were only targeting the smoky quartz veins that contain large amounts of gold. Remote sensing and geophysical techniques can provide cost-effective tools that can give valuable information about the new mineralization sites. Mapping of the potential mineralized alteration zones is a critical task to enhance mineral exploration in the CED; such mapping works had utilized standard remote-sensing techniques such as image rationing, principal component analysis, image classifications. Recent study implemented the Spectral Angle Mapper classification, surface structure, aeromagnetic data, the Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis to aid for better mapping results of the prospective mineralized alterations in CED.

For instances, Spectral Angle Mapper classification is one of the powerful classification techniques that can be integrated with aeromagnetic data to map the potential gold sites associated within the alteration zone in CED. The United States Geological Survey spectral signature data for alteration minerals can be used as an end-member for the SAM classification. To aid in better mapping, the SAM result can be constrained by the structural elements that restrict the mapping to the actual alteration sites; the surface lineation layer from digital remote sensing data and the geophysical information such as total magnetic intensities can be deployed to understand the tectonic regimes in the CED and to detect the structural patterns that control the existence of the gold deposits. For more details please see Economy of Egypt

Upper Nile University

Upper Nile University is a university in South Sudan. The university's main campus is located in the town of Malakal, Upper Nile State, on the banks of the White Nile; this location is 650 kilometres by road north of Juba, the capital and largest city in that country. The coordinates of the main university campus are: 9 33 00N, 31 39 30E. Upper Nile University is one of the five public universities in South Sudan; the list includes the following institutions: Juba National University, in Juba Rumbek University in Rumbek University of Bahr El-Ghazal in Wau Upper Nile University in Malakal University of Northern Bahr El-Ghazal in Aweil Upper Nile University was founded in 1991. Due to the Second Sudanese Civil War, some of the university faculties were relocated to Khartoum, for safety of staff and infrastructure. Following South Sudan's independence in July 2011, the university is consolidating all activities to its main campus in the city of Malakal, Upper Nile State, in South Sudan's northeast.

As of July 2011, the university maintains the following faculties: Faculty of Agriculture Faculty of Animal Production Faculty of Arts & Humanities Faculty of Computer Science Faculty of Education Faculty of Forestry Faculty of Medicine & Public Health Faculty of Nursing Faculty of Science Faculty of Social Science Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Faculty of Vocational Education Malakal Upper Nile Greater Upper Nile Education in South Sudan List of universities in South Sudan Location of Upper Nile University Campus At Google Maps UNU Consolidating All Faculties In Malakal

Andrew "Boy" Charlton Pool

Andrew "Boy" Charlton Pool is an eight-lane outdoor heated salt-water 50-metre swimming pool on the shore of Woolloomooloo Bay in The Domain in Sydney, near the Royal Botanic Gardens. The pool is closed for four months in the colder period of the year - May through August, it was re-opened for the 2011–12 summer season, having undergoing a major refurbishment during 2011. In 1968, the pool called the new Domain Baths, was renamed in honour of Andrew "Boy" Charlton, an Australian swimmer who won five Olympic medals during the 1920s. Since the first European settlement in Sydney there have been eleven different bathing establishments in Woolloomooloo Bay. In the early years, the small sandy beach where the Andrew "Boy" Charlton Pool now stands was reserved for the exclusive use of the military of NSW including the Marines, the New South Wales Corps and any British regiments stationed here. In the 1820s the use of Woolloomooloo Bay by others was increasing. Two hulks, Ben Bolt and the Cornwallis were moored at the swimming place known as the Fig Tree.

Some dressing sheds were built but the swimming area was not enclosed. The first swimming facility planned for the area was a floating public baths called Robinson's Hot and Cold Baths. Thomas Robinson was granted a lease for the area in December 1829 but construction of the baths took another ten years to complete. Beating Robinson to the jump was the wife of Mrs Biggs, she opened the first ladies baths, which included a bathing machine, in 1833 on a small flat inlet near the north-western corner of Cowper Wharf. The baths went out of operation in the late 1840s. In November 1843, Robinson's baths reopened after a refurbishment which included deepening the ladies pool and the introduction of a shallow children's’ area. Warm showers and a towel were available for all bathers, it was in the "Gentlemen's Baths" that Australia's the first official competitive swimming events took place. On 14 February 1846 two races were held, an open event over 402 metres and a 91-metre event for juveniles. Annual championships were held here for some years afterwards.

In 1850 the Fig Tree baths and what was left of Mrs Biggs’ women's baths were granted by the Government to Sydney Council with the intention that the Council build new baths on the site. However, with the dismissal of the council in 1853 the project stalled. In 1854 Mrs Macquarie's Road was opened to horse-drawn vehicles improving access to the baths. Towards the end of the 1850s Sydney Council, or "Corporation" as it was known, built new baths around the wharf at Fig Tree which projected into Woolloomooloo Bay; this brought to three the sets of baths in the bay at this time. In addition to the Corporation Baths was a Ladies Baths and a enclosed Gentlemen's Baths. Although the Corporation Baths were still there in 1888, more than 30 years they were unusable because of sewerage discharged into Woolloomooloo Bay. By 1890 there were four baths. In 1901, since the sewer had been diverted to Bondi and no longer emptied into Sydney Harbour at Woolloomooloo, the State Government extended the lease for the baths with Sydney Council.

Funding was provided to remove the haphazard collection of bathing buildings which had accumulated over the years and construct a new baths. These were opened in October 1908 and consisted of a fenced swimming area and concrete platform over the old stone one attached to the shore. Another fence provided privacy from the path and there was a timber and corrugated iron change shed. Apart from Australia's first swimming races, the most memorable event to take place in the Domain Baths was in January 1924 when Andrew "Boy" Charlton swam against Arne Borg of Sweden. A crowd of 6,000 came to see him beat Borg over 402 metres, equal Borg's world record and set a new Australian record. Charlton was very popular in New South Wales when he took on Borg. At the age of 14 he beat Hawaiian swimmer Bill Harris over 805 metres setting a new world record in the process. At 15 years of age he beat Olympic swimmer Frank Beaurepaire and won the NSW 800 metres freestyle title in world record time talking 19 seconds off the old mark.

It was his win over Borg, that launched him to national stardom. He beat Borg again over 805 metres at the NSW Championships. Charlton went on to win the gold medal in the 1,500 metres freestyle event at the Paris Olympics that year and silver in the 400 metres and 1,500 metres events at the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics, his 1924 world record in the Domain baths was the first set there, an achievement, recognised in January 1968 when, after yet another refurbishment, the pool was reopened and named after him. Ian Thorpe Aquatic and Fitness Centre Cook and Phillip Park Aquatic and Fitness Centre McDonald, M.. "Andrew Charlton Pool". City of Sydney Council. Poke, Robin. Olympic Gold. Murdoch Books. P. 57. ISBN 9781743362501. Vamplew, Wray; the Oxford Companion to Australian Sport. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Andrew'Boy' Charlton Pool website Fitzgerald, Shirley. "Andrew Charlton Pool". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 7 October 2015

List of Kerry GAA club competitions

The Kerry County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association, one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, responsible for Gaelic games in County Kerry, organises sports competitions for the county's clubs. Leagues and Championships are played; the competitions are organised from senior to under-age level. The following is a list of such competitions; the Kerry Senior Football Championship is the top level football competition in Kerry. The Kerry County Club Championship is a competition between the clubs, who participate in the Kerry Senior Football Championship; the Kerry Intermediate Football Championship is the second level football competition in Kerry. The Kerry Junior Football Championship is the third level football competition in Kerry; the Kerry Novice Football Championship is the fourth level football competition in Kerry. Novice Finalists 1994 Na Gaeil 1:12 Ballydonoghue 1:10 1995 Firies. 2:07 St Michaels/Foilmore 1:08 1996 Finuge. 0:09 Dromid Pearses. 0:07 1997 Knocknagashel 1:10 St Michaels/Foilmore 1:07 1998 St Michaels/Foilmore 1:12 Dromid Pearses 1:05 1999 Dromid Pearses 3:13 Listry 1:04 2000 Keel 1:08 Renard 0:05 2001 Renard 0:15 Tousist 0:11 2002 Duagh 0:11 Listry 0:05 2003 Keel 1:08 Beale 0:05 2004 Glenbeigh/Glencar 2:05 Churchill 1:06 2005 Beale 1:13 Tousist 0:15 2006 Moyvane 2:13 Na Gaeil 1:09 2007 Cromane 0:11 Ballydonghue 2:03 2008 Tousist 1:06 Scartaglin 0:07 2009 Churchill 3:06 Brosna 1:09 2010 Na Gaeil 1:10 Listry 0:09 2011 Brosna 1:09 Scartaglin 0:11 2012 Scartaglin 1:09 Lios Póil 0:05 2013 Templenoe 2:15 Listry 2:13 2014 Listry 0:15 Lios Póil 1:11 2015 St Senans 1:10 Lios Póil 1:09 In 2016, The Kerry Club Championships were restructured, with immediate effects on the naming of several competitions.

The Junior Championship was renamed the Premier Junior, Novice was renamed the Junior Championship and the Novice Shield became the Novice Championship. 2016 Fossa 2:12 Beale 0:08 2017 Listry 2:12 Castlegregory 2:11 2018 Lios Póil 1:11 Beale 1:08 This is the highest level competition for the under-21s. This is the highest level competition for the under-18s; the Kerry Senior Hurling Championship is the top level hurling competition in Kerry. The Kerry Intermediate Hurling Championship is the second level hurling competition in Kerry; the Kerry Junior Hurling Championship is the third level hurling competition in Kerry This is the highest level competition for the under-21s. This is the highest level competition for the under-18s

1934–35 Birmingham F.C. season

The 1934–35 Football League season was Birmingham Football Club's 39th in the Football League and their 22nd in the First Division. They finished in 19th position in the 22-team division, three points clear of the relegation places, they competed in the 1934–35 FA Cup, entering at the third round proper and losing to Burnley in the sixth. Thirty players made at least one appearance in nationally organised competition, there were twelve different goalscorers. Half-backs Charlie Calladine and Lewis Stoker made 42 and 41 appearances over the 46-match season, Charlie Wilson Jones was leading scorer with 17 goals, of which 16 came in the league. Joe Bradford made his 445th and last competitive appearance for Birmingham on 7 May 1935, the final game of this season, at home to Everton, he spent 15 years with the club, was their top scorer for 12 consecutive seasons, holds club records for League goals scored, goals scored in all competitions, goals scored in a top-flight season. While a Birmingham player, Bradford won 12 caps for England.

Players with name marked left the club during the playing season. Birmingham City F. C. seasons General Matthews, Tony. Birmingham City: A Complete Record. Derby: Breedon Books. ISBN 978-1-85983-010-9. Matthews, Tony. Birmingham City: The Complete Record. Derby: DB Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85983-853-2. Source for match dates and results: Birmingham City 1934–1935: Results. Statto Organisation. Retrieved 11 May 2012. Source for lineups, appearances and attendances: Matthews, Complete Record, pp. 310–11. Source for kit: "Birmingham City". Historical Football Kits. Retrieved 22 May 2018. Specific

Jakob von Washington

Baron Jacobus von Washington was a lieutenant general in the Bavarian Army and a distant relative of US President George Washington. Born in The Hague, Netherlands, he was christened James Washington. Most of his adult life was shaped by his participation in wars for and against Napoleonic France and his service to Ludwig I of Bavaria; the known history of the Washington family goes back to the 12th century. Sir Robert Washington was the progenitor of the branch of the family residing in Sulgrave Manor, England. One of his descendants, John Washington, emigrated to Virginia in 1656 and was the great-grandfather of George Washington; the brother of Sir Robert, Sir John Washington, founded the Hallhead Hall/Adwick-le-street branch of the Washingtons. His descendant, James Washington, accompanied John Washington to Virginia, but returned to England shortly thereafter emigrated to Rotterdam, the Netherlands. There he married a Dutchwoman named Clara van der Lauen, five generations to Jacobus Washington.

On 2 February 1777, Daniel Washington, aged 46 and a military solicitor, married Elisabeth Cornelia Hoogstad. Jacobus was born on 26 January 1778, his only sibling, was born 27 July 1781. Their father died in October 1786, their mother in September 1789, leaving them orphaned at 11 and 8 years old. Little is known of their lives for some years after. Daniel remained in the Netherlands, married in 1808, died in 1813 without children. In 1794, aged 16, Jacobus Washington joined the Dutch Army; when the French invaded that year he fought against them. His lot under French domination in the new Batavian Republic was not a happy one. In 1799, in a letter to George Washington, Jacobus offered his services to the United States in its undeclared Quasi-War with France, but was turned down due to his inexperience, he moved to the Kingdom of Bavaria, where he joined the Bavarian Army. He came to the attention of Crown Prince Ludwig. In July 1807 Jakob was present at the negotiations for the Treaties of Tilsit following the victory of the French Empire over Russia.

Over the next few years he advanced to the rank of Colonel. In October 1813, Bavaria joined the Allies against France. On 7 June 1815 in Brussels, Jakob Washington signed a treaty with the Duke of Wellington representing Bavaria. On the night of 15 June 1815, prior to the Battle of Quatre Bras, Washington was an invited guest at the now famous Duchess of Richmond's ball, he fought in the Battle of Waterloo, the only Bavarian officer to do so, since the rest of the Bavarians were held in reserve in Saarbrücken. In 1825, Ludwig became King of Bavaria as Ludwig I. Washington's career continued apace, rising to lieutenant general. On 8 December 1829, Ludwig made him Freiherr von Washington. Ludwig appointed him Grand Chamberlain and Marshal of his military household. In 1843, on a visit to London, Queen Victoria dubbed him a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. Washington's first wife was baroness a wealthy widow, they had two sons, Ludwig Carl August Maximilian Gerhardt and Maximilian Emanuel Willibald Bernhard Johann Gerhard von Washington.

After her death, he married baroness Caroline Segesser von Brunegg in 1833. Through this marriage he gained the Castle Notzing, near the town of Bavaria, they had Carl Theodor Albrecht Sigmund Jacob Gerhardt von Washington. Baron Jakob von Washington died in Notzing on 5 April 1848. Maximilian Emanuel became Grand Chamberlain, married Duchess Frederica of Oldenburg, had two sons, one of whom, named Peter Elimar Otto Karl George, served in the 11th Hussars of the Austro-Hungarian army reaching the rank of captain. However, despite reports to the contrary, he did not fight during the First World War, having retired before the War started. Both sons died without issue, since none of Jakob's other children had any offspring, the von Washington line became extinct