The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
The Napoleonic Code is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804. It was drafted by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered force on 21 March 1804. The Code, with its stress on clearly written and accessible law, was a step in replacing the previous patchwork of feudal laws. Historian Robert Holtman regards it as one of the few documents that have influenced the whole world. It was, the first modern legal code to be adopted with a pan-European scope, the Napoleonic Code influenced developing countries outside Europe, especially in the Middle East, attempting to modernize their countries through legal reforms. The Institutes divide law into the law of, persons things actions, the Napoleonic Code divided law into law of, persons property acquisition of property civil procedure. Napoleon set out to reform the French legal system in accordance with the ideas of the French Revolution, because the old feudal and royal laws seemed confusing and contradictory. Before the Napoleonic Code, France did not have a set of laws, law consisted mainly of local customs.
There were exemptions and special charters granted by the kings or other feudal lords, during the Revolution, the last vestiges of feudalism were abolished. Specifically, as to law, the many different bodies of law used in different parts of France were replaced by a single legal code. Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès led this drafting process, a fresh start was made after Napoleon came to power in 1799. A commission of four eminent jurists was appointed in 1800, including Louis-Joseph Faure and chaired by Cambacérès, the Code was complete by 1801, after intensive scrutiny by the Council of State, but was not published until 21 March 1804. It was promulgated as the Civil Code of the French, but was renamed the Napoleonic Code from 1807 to 1815, and once again after the Second French Empire. The process developed mainly out of the various customals, but was inspired by Justinians sixth-century codification of Roman law, the development of the Napoleonic Code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law system, making laws clearer and more accessible.
Such conflict led the Revolutionaries to take a view of judges making law. In theory, there is no case law in France. However, the still had to fill in the gaps in the laws and regulations and. Moreover, both the code and legislation have required judicial interpretation, thus a vast body of judicially-created law has come into existence
Baden is a historical German territory. Together with Württemberg and the former Prussian province of Hohenzollern, two other territories, it currently forms the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg. Finally, the state of Baden-Württemberg was formed a few years later, history of Baden List of states in the Holy Roman Empire Baden-Württemberg Province of Hohenzollern Württemberg Baden in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The core environmental law regimes address environmental pollution. Other areas, such as environmental impact assessment, may not fit neatly into either category, early examples of legal enactments designed to consciously preserve the environment, for its own sake or human enjoyment, are found throughout history. In the common law, the protection was found in the law of nuisance. Thus smells emanating from pig stys, strict liability against dumping rubbish, private enforcement, was limited and found to be woefully inadequate to deal with major environmental threats, particularly threats to common resources. During the Great Stink of 1858, the dumping of sewerage into the River Thames began to smell so ghastly in the heat that Parliament had to be evacuated. In 19 days, Parliament passed a further Act to build the London sewerage system, London suffered from terrible air pollution, and this culminated in the Great Smog of 1952, which in turn triggered its on legislative response, the Clean Air Act 1956.
The basic regulatory structure was to set limits on emissions for households, notwithstanding early analogues, the concept of environmental law as a separate and distinct body of law is a twentieth-century development. Air quality laws govern the emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere, a specialized subset of air quality laws regulate the quality of air inside buildings. Air quality laws are designed specifically to protect human health by limiting or eliminating airborne pollutant concentrations. Regulatory efforts include identifying and categorizing air pollutants, setting limits on acceptable emissions levels, Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, and stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed solely with reference to human health, regulatory areas include sewage treatment and disposal and agricultural waste water management, and control of surface runoff from construction sites and urban environments.
Waste management laws govern the transport, treatment and disposal of all manner of waste, including solid waste, hazardous waste. Regulatory efforts include identifying and categorizing waste types and mandating transport, storage, Environmental cleanup laws govern the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, surface water, or ground water. Chemical safety laws govern the use of chemicals in human activities, as contrasted with media-oriented environmental laws, chemical control laws seek to manage the pollutants themselves. Regulatory efforts include banning specific chemical constituents in consumer products, Environmental impact assessment is the assessment of the environmental consequences of a plan, program, or concrete projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. Environmental assessments may be governed by rules of administrative procedure regarding public participation and documentation of decision making, Water resources laws govern the ownership and use of water resources, including surface water and ground water.
Regulatory areas may include water conservation, use restrictions, and ownership regimes, mineral resource laws cover several basic topics, including the ownership of the mineral resource and who can work them. Mining is affected by regulations regarding the health and safety of miners
Braunschweig, called Brunswick in English, is a city of 252,768 people, in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located north of the Harz mountains at the furthest navigable point of the Oker river, Braunschweig is the second largest city in Lower Saxony and a major centre of scientific research and development. The date and circumstances of the foundation are unknown. The towns original name of Brunswik is a combination of the name Bruno and Low German wik, the towns name therefore indicates an ideal resting-place, as it lay by a ford across the Oker River. Another explanation of the name is that it comes from Brand. The city was first mentioned in documents from the St. Magni Church from 1031, up to the 12th century, Braunschweig was ruled by the Saxon noble family of the Brunonids, through marriage, it fell to the House of Welf. In 1142 Henry the Lion of the House of Welf became duke of Saxony and he turned Dankwarderode Castle, the residence of the counts of Brunswick, into his own Pfalz and developed the city further to represent his authority.
Under Henrys rule the Cathedral of St. Blasius was built and he had the statue of a lion, his heraldic animal, the lion subsequently became the citys landmark. Henry the Lion became so powerful that he dared to refuse military aid to the emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, Henry went into exile in England. He had previously established ties to the English crown in 1168, through his marriage to King Henry II of Englands daughter Matilda, his son Otto, who could regain influence and was eventually crowned Holy Roman Emperor, continued to foster the citys development. By the year 1600, Braunschweig was the seventh largest city in Germany, the Princes of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel didnt regain control over the city until the late 17th century, when Rudolph Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, took the city by siege. In the 18th century Braunschweig was not only a political, influenced by the philosophy of the Enlightenment, dukes like Anthony Ulrich and Charles I became patrons of the arts and sciences.
In 1745 Charles I founded the Collegium Carolinum, predecessor of the Braunschweig University of Technology, with this he attracted poets and thinkers such as Lessing and Jakob Mauvillon to his court and the city. Emilia Galotti by Lessing and Goethes Faust were performed for the first time in Braunschweig, in 1806, the city was captured by the French during the Napoleonic Wars and became part of the short-lived Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia in 1807. The exiled duke Frederick William raised a corps, the Black Brunswickers. After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Braunschweig was made capital of the reestablished independent Duchy of Brunswick, in the aftermath of the July Revolution in 1830, in Brunswick duke Charles II was forced to abdicate. His absolutist governing style had alienated the nobility and bourgeoisie. During the night of 7–8 September 1830, the palace in Braunschweig was stormed by an angry mob, set on fire
Poaching has traditionally been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, poaching was performed by impoverished peasants for subsistence purposes, Poaching was as well set against the hunting privileges of nobility and territorial rulers. By contrast, stealing domestic animals classifies as theft, not as poaching, since the 1980s, the term poaching has referred to the illegal harvesting of wild plant species. Austria and Germany refer to poaching not as theft, but as intrusion in third party hunting rights, while Germanic law allowed any free man including peasants to hunt, especially on the commons, roman law restricted hunting for the rulers. Medieval Europe saw feudal territory rulers from the king downward trying to enforce exclusive rights of the nobility to hunt, Poaching was being deemed a serious crime punishable by imprisonment but the enforcement, till the 16th century, was comparably weak.
Peasants still were able to continue small game hunting, the right of the nobility to hunt was restricted in the 16th century, the development of modern hunting rights is closely connected to the comparably modern idea of exclusive private property of land. In the 17th and 18th centuries the restrictions on hunting and shooting rights on private property were being enforced by gamekeepers and foresters and they denied shared usages of forests, e. g. resin collection and wood pasture and the peasants right to hunt and fish. However, comparably easy access to rifles increasingly allowed peasants and servants to poach end of the 18th century, the low quality of guns made it necessary to approach to the game as close as 30 meters. For example, poachers in the Salzburg region were around 30 years old men, not yet married, hunting was being used in the 18th century as a theatrical demonstration of aristocratic rule of the land and had a strong impact on land use patterns as well. Poaching in so far inferred not only with property rights but clashed symbolically with the power of the nobility, the years between 1830 and 1848 saw a strong increase in poaching and poaching related deaths in Bavaria.
The revolution of 1848 was interpreted as an allowance for poaching in Bavaria. The reform of hunting law in 1849 reduced legal hunting to rich land owners, some of the frontier region, where smuggling was of importance, showed especially strong resistance. In 1849, the Bavarian military forces were being asked to occupy a number of municipalities on the frontier to Austria. Both, in Wallgau and in Lackenhäuser, one soldier per household was to be fed, the people of Lackenhäuser had had several skirmishes about poached deer with Austrian foresters and even military and were known as well armed pertly poachers. Poaching, like smuggling, has a long counter-cultural history, the verb poach is derived from the Middle English word pocchen literally meaning bagged, enclosed in a bag. Poaching was dispassionately reported for England in Pleas of the Forest, William the Conqueror, who was a great lover of hunting and enforced a system of forest law. Henceforth hunting of game in royal forests by commoners or in other words poaching, was punishable by death by hanging.
In 1087, a poem called The Rime of King William contained in the Peterborough Chronicle, Poaching was romanticised in literature from the time of the ballads of Robin Hood, as an aspect of the greenwood of Merry England
Historically, it was one of those regalia, or privileges, that originally constituted the sovereign rights of the king. In the early days of the Roman Empire, the landowner had the right to extract minerals, the reason behind this was that mineral resources were seen as fruit of the soil which were deemed to belong the landowner. The first regalia, or royal privileges, emerged in the first millennium and kings, the nobility or clerics who ruled over a territory, established this right for themselves, based on their ownership of land and the mineral resources found therein. This was easy for the king or territorial princes because, as a rule, but it was often political and economic circumstances rather than law and statute that were instrumental in the establishment of the Bergregal. The Emperor, had the Bergregal recorded in writing for the first time in Germany as part of the Roncaglian Constitution in 1158 and this effectively removed the right to extract minerals from the landowner who, from on, had to purchase such rights from the king.
As a result of the Roncaglian Constitution, mining rights passed over time into the hands of the territorial lords and this led to arbitrary presumptions of rights by these territorial princes. and so, in many cases, it was given to the princes. For example, Frederick I vested this privilege in Otto the Rich, the Bishop of Chur was given the Bergregal in 1349 and the King of Bohemia already received these rights even before the Golden Bull was issued. In 1356, the Golden Bull finally enshrined in writing that these rights were held, not by the emperor. Existing grants of rights to lower-ranking lords were unaffected, in general, the electoral princes were keen to retain the Bergregal for themselves. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, saw the rights of the Bergregal pass from the princes to the lesser nobility. In the 19th century the Bergregal in the German states was gradually superseded by mining acts or Berggesetze, in Prussia, the Bergregal was ended by the General Mining Act for the Prussian States or ABG of 24 June 1865.
Landowners rights were removed and mining regulations were clearly defined in the Berggesetz, as a result of the Bergregal, there was a legal separation of property ownership and mining rights. Local landowners were left with exploration and mining rights for a few unimportant minerals. But here, the ruler had to have renounced his rights to the exploitation of natural resources. In practice, no German state – indeed no European state – had a monopoly over mining rights, the way mining rights were granted went back to the days of feudalism. However, mining privileges was not just granted to certain individuals, in particular, towns involved in the mining industry for a long time were given special privileges and rights. One of these was the granting of the freedom to mine, with its associated privileges and these privileges were intended to support the mining industry and growth of the towns. However, this freedom was not part of the Bergregal, it was based, in the German states at least, in these constitutions, the Bergregal was exercised through the declaration of such freedom
Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay the debts it owes to creditors. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order, Bankruptcy is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, and the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency. In some countries, including the United Kingdom, bankruptcy is limited to individuals, in the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings. In France, the cognate French word banqueroute is used solely for cases of fraudulent bankruptcy, in Ancient Greece, bankruptcy did not exist. If a man owed and he could not pay, he and his wife, children or servants were forced into debt slavery, until the creditor recouped losses through their physical labour. Many city-states in ancient Greece limited debt slavery to a period of five years, debt slaves had protection of life and limb, which regular slaves did not enjoy. However, servants of the debtor could be retained beyond that deadline by the creditor and were forced to serve their new lord for a lifetime.
An exception to rule was Athens, which by the laws of Solon forbade enslavement for debt, as a consequence. The Statute of Bankrupts of 1542 was the first statute under English law dealing with bankruptcy or insolvency, Bankruptcy is documented in East Asia. According to al-Maqrizi, the Yassa of Genghis Khan contained a provision that mandated the death penalty for anyone who became bankrupt three times, a failure of a nation to meet bond repayments has been seen on many occasions. Philip II of Spain had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557,1560,1575 and 1596, at the edge of Europe, Egypt and Turkey have histories of chronic default as well. For private households, it is argued to be insufficient to merely dismiss debts after a certain period and it is important to assess the underlying problems and to minimize the risk of financial distress to re-occur. In most EU Member States, debt discharge is conditioned by a partial payment obligation, in the United States, discharge is conditioned to a lesser extent.
The spectrum is broad in the EU, with the UK coming closest to the US system, the Other Member States do not provide the option of a debt discharge. It is almost impossible to discharge student loan debt by filing bankruptcy, unlike most other debtors, the individual with student debt must give a series of reasons and tests to prove that the debtor could not pay the debt. If the person were to file bankruptcy, he or she is encouraged to do so under Chapter 13. In order to avoid bankruptcy, one could negotiate with the lender to lower monthly payments, student loan bankruptcy is considered a last resort. However, some find themselves being forced to file bankruptcy, as the lender refused to lower payments
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U. S. About 75% of federal land is managed by the department. The Department is administered by the United States Secretary of the Interior, the current Secretary is Ryan Zinke. The Inspector General position is vacant, with Mary Kendall serving as acting Inspector General. Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the ministries of other nations. In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security primarily, the Department of the Interior has often been humorously called The Department of Everything Else because of its broad range of responsibilities. A department for domestic concern was first considered by the 1st United States Congress in 1789, the idea of a separate domestic department continued to percolate for a half-century and was supported by Presidents from James Madison to James Polk.
The 1846–48 Mexican–American War gave the new steam as the responsibilities of federal government grew. Polks Secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, became a champion of creating the new department. In 1849, Walker stated in his report that several federal offices were placed in departments with which they had little to do. Walker argued that these and other bureaus should be together in a new Department of the Interior. A bill authorizing its creation of the Department passed the House of Representatives on February 15,1849, the Department was established on March 3,1849, the eve of President Zachary Taylors inauguration, when the Senate voted 31 to 25 to create the Department. Its passage was delayed by Democrats in Congress who were reluctant to create more patronage posts for the incoming Whig administration to fill, the first Secretary of the Interior was Thomas Ewing. Many of the concerns the Department originally dealt with were gradually transferred to other Departments. Other agencies became separate Departments, such as the Bureau of Agriculture, however and natural resource management, American Indian affairs, wildlife conservation, and territorial affairs remain the responsibilities of the Department of the Interior.
As of mid-2004, the Department managed 507 million acres of surface land, energy projects on federally managed lands and offshore areas supply about 28% of the nations energy production. Within the Interior Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs handles some federal relations with Native Americans, the current acting Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin. Several cases have sought accounting of such funds from the departments of Interior, in addition, some Native American nations have sued the government over water-rights issues and their treaties with the US
Energy laws govern the use and taxation of energy, both renewable and non-renewable. These laws are the primary authorities related to energy, in contrast, energy policy refers to the policy and politics of energy. Energy law includes the provision for oil, gasoline. There is an academic interest in international energy law, including continuing legal education seminars, law reviews. In the same line, there has growing interest on energy-specific issues and their particular relation with international trade. Nigerias government owns the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Energy is big business in Australia. The Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association represents 98% of the oil, Canada has an extensive energy law, both through the federation and the provinces, especially Alberta. The Supreme Court of Canada has had issued some Canadian energy case law and the Quebec province own extensive hydroelectric dam facilities, which have generated not only power but controversy.
European energy law has focused on the legal mechanisms for managing short-term disruptions to the continents energy supply. The aim of project was enhancing of the safety of hydrogen vehicles and harmonizing their licensing. Five nations have created the EurObservER energy consortium, the EU has created an Energy Community to extend their policies into Southeastern Europe. Germanys renewable energy law mandates the use of energy through its taxes. It promotes the development of energy sources via a system of feed-in tariffs. It regulates the amount of energy generated by the producer and the type of energy source. It creates an incentive to encourage technological advancements and costs, the results have been startling, on 6 June 2014, more than half of the nations energy used on that date came from solar power. Despite regulatory processes adding more renewable energy to its mix, Germanys electric grid has become more reliable. The German Green Party has opposed nuclear energy, as well as the power of German utilities.
There is significant academic interest in German energy law, a chart summarizing German energy legislation is available
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. Law as a system helps regulate and ensure that a community show respect, private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. Islamic Sharia law is the worlds most widely used religious law, the adjudication of the law is generally divided into two main areas referred to as Criminal law and Civil law. Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order, Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality, there is an old saying that all are equal before the law, although Jonathan Swift argued that Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies, but let wasps and hornets break through.
In 1894, the author Anatole France said sarcastically, In its majestic equality, the law forbids rich and poor alike to sleep under bridges, beg in the streets, and steal loaves of bread. Writing in 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle declared, The rule of law is better than the rule of any individual, mikhail Bakunin said, All law has for its object to confirm and exalt into a system the exploitation of the workers by a ruling class. Cicero said more law, less justice, marxist doctrine asserts that law will not be required once the state has withered away. Regardless of ones view of the law, it today a completely central institution. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries, at the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance. There have been attempts to produce a universally acceptable definition of law. In 1972, one indicated that no such definition could be produced.
McCoubrey and White said that the question what is law, glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word law depends on the context in which that word is used. He said that, for example, early customary law and municipal law were contexts where the law had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word law and it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word law. The history of law links closely to the development of civilization, Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books