A miniseries is a television program that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes. The term "serial" is used in the United Kingdom and in other Commonwealth nations, though its meaning does not equate to "miniseries" in its usage. A miniseries is distinguished from an ongoing television series. Before the term was coined in the US in the early 1970s, the ongoing episodic form was always called a "serial", just as a novel appearing in episodes in successive editions of magazines or newspapers is called a serial. In Britain, miniseries are still referred to as serials. Several commentators have offered more precise definitions of the term. In Halliwell's Television Companion, Leslie Halliwell and Philip Purser argue that miniseries tend to "appear in four to six episodes of various lengths", while Stuart Cunningham in Textual Innovation in the Australian Historical Mini-series defines a miniseries as, "a limited run program of more than two and less than the 13-part season or half season block associated with serial or series programming."
Still, with the proliferation of the format in the 1980s and 90s, television films broadcast over two or three nights were referred to as miniseries. In Television: A History, Francis Wheen states: Both soap operas and primetime series cannot afford to allow their leading characters to develop, since the shows are made with the intention of running indefinitely. In a miniseries on the other hand, there is a defined beginning and end, enabling characters to change, mature, or die as the serial proceeds; the British television serial is rooted in dramatic radio productions developed between the First and the Second World Wars. In the 1920s the BBC pioneered dramatic readings of books. In 1925 it broadcast A Christmas Carol. John Reith, wanting to use radio waves to "part the clouds of ignorance", came up with the idea of a classic serial, based on a "classical" literary text. In 1939 the BBC adapted the romantic novel The Prisoner of Zenda for radio broadcast, its adapter, Jack Inglis, summed up his approach as follows: "The story is simple, with clear cut characters, falls into episodes.
It always seems to me, that it is the first duty of an adapter to reproduce in another medium the original flavour and atmosphere of the book". Inglis simplified the plotline; the production served as a prototype for serials that followed it. Post-war BBC television picked up the classic radio serial tradition by broadcasting The Warden by Anthony Trollope over six-episodes in 1951. Pride and Prejudice was serialised in 1952, Jane Eyre in 1955. In 1953 the BBC broadcast the first serial written for television: the six-part The Quatermass Experiment, its success paved the way for two more six-part serials: Quatermass II in 1955 and Quatermass and the Pit in 1958. Early television technology influenced the quality of the broadcast product: all productions were broadcast live from a small studio, with inserts shot on 35 mm film at the beginning and end of episodes. After the invention of videotape the production could be recorded for re-runs. In November 1960 the BBC televised a thirteen-episode adaptation of Charles Dickens's Barnaby Rudge.
In December of that year it broadcast a four-episode dramatization of Jane Austen's Persuasion. To compete with commercial television, BBC launched BBC-2 in 1964, it had a new time slot allocated for classic serial adaptations on Saturday evenings. The late-night broadcast allowed for longer episodes. In 1967 The Forsyte Saga was broadcast in 26 50-minute episodes. Following its success in Britain, the series was shown in the United States on public television and broadcast all over the world, became the first BBC television series to be sold to the Soviet Union. Anthology series dominated American dramatic programming during the Golden Age of Television, when "every night was opening night. A different story and a different set of characters were presented in each episode; the stories were split into several episodes, like 1955 Mr. Lincoln from Omnibus series, presented in two parts, or 1959 adaptation of For Whom the Bell Tolls from Playhouse 90 series, planned by the director John Frankenheimer to consist of three parts, but was broadcast as two 90-minute installments.
The high cost and technical difficulties of staging a new play every week, which would cost as much as—or more than—an episode of a filmed television series, led to the demise of anthology programming by the end of the 1950s. The void was filled with less expensive series like Gunsmoke or Wagon Train, which featured the same characters every week and had higher potential for lucrative rebroadcast and syndication rights, it was the American success in 1969–1970 of the British 26-episode serial The Forsyte Saga that made TV executives realize that finite multi-episode stories based on novels could be popular and could provide a boost to weekly viewing figures. The form began in earnest in the spring of 1974 with the CBC's eight-part serial The National Dream, based on Pierre Berton's nonfiction book of the same name about the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, ABC's three-part QB VII, based on the novel by Leon Uris. Following these initial forays, broadcasters used miniseries to bring other books to the screen.
Rayson Tan is a Singaporean actor under Mediacorp. Before joining MediaCorp, Tan worked as a flight attendant with Singapore Airlines. In 1990, he emerged as the 2nd Runner-Up in Singapore's Star Search Singapore talent competition, he has worked on many different roles and hosted many TV programmes, including the role of Singaporean war hero Lim Bo Seng in the 1997 WWII drama series The Price of Peace and the host for PSC Night in 2006. Tan has been nominated multiple times in the annual Star Awards for the "Best Supporting Actor" award category, he has wrapped up Life Less Ordinary. Tan has gotten 1 out of 10 Top 10 Most Popular Male Artistes from 1997 respectively. Tan married fellow MediaCorp actress Chen Liping in 1998, they have a son named Xavier, born in 2002. Tan and his wife are Christian. In 2003, Tan was sued by actress Andrea De Cruz in the Slim 10 pills saga. De Cruz began her court battle against the importers and distributors of diet pills that she says nearly caused her to die of liver failure.
Lawyers for Singapore television star Andrea De Cruz began arguments in the High Court seeking unspecified damages in a civil suit against Health Biz, the importer and distributor of Slim 10 diet pills. The case is expected to last three weeks. De Cruz is seeking damages for injuries she alleges were caused by the drug and to cover the cost of her liver transplant surgery and treatment, court documents said, she is suing the pills' distributor, TV Media, actor. Tan who sold the pills to her. Tan was cleared while the distributors were forced to compensate her. Tan was acquitted of the charges in the lawsuit; the Star Awards are presented by Mediacorp. Rayson Tan on IMDb Profile on xin.msn.com
The Moses Morse House is a historic house at 311 Pelham Street in Methuen, Massachusetts, USA. It is a rare surviving farmhouse in the town with 18th century origins, with its oldest elements dating to c. 1762. It is a 2½ story wood frame house with a massive central chimney, a small single story ell on the left side; the ell appears to date from near the house's original construction, the chimney is off-center, indicating the house may have been built in stages. The front door is sheltered by an elaborate Italianate portico, a c. 1870s modification. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. National Register of Historic Places listings in Methuen, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts