Quisling first came to international prominence as a close collaborator of Fridtjof Nansen, organizing humanitarian relief during the Russian famine of 1921 in Povolzhye. He was posted as a Norwegian diplomat to the Soviet Union and he returned to Norway in 1929, and served as Minister of Defence in the governments of Peder Kolstad and Jens Hundseid, representing the Farmers Party. Although Quisling achieved some popularity after his attacks on the political left, from 1942 to 1945 he served as Minister-President, heading the Norwegian state administration jointly with the German civilian administrator Josef Terboven. His pro-Nazi puppet government, known as the Quisling regime, was dominated by ministers from Nasjonal Samling, the collaborationist government participated in Germanys genocidal Final Solution. He was executed by firing squad at Akershus Fortress, the word quisling has since become a synonym for collaborator or traitor, reflecting the very poor light in which Quislings actions were seen, both at the time and since his death.
Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling was born on 18 July 1887 in Fyresdal, the elder Quisling had lectured in Grimstad in the 1870s, one of his pupils was Bang, whom he married on 28 May 1886, following a long engagement. The newly-wed couple promptly moved to Fyresdal, where Vidkun and his siblings were born. The family name derives from Quislinus, a Latinised name invented by Quislings ancestor Lauritz Ibsen Quislin, based on the village of Kvislemark in Jutland, whence he had emigrated. Having two brothers and a sister, the young Quisling was shy and quiet but loyal and helpful, private letters found by historians indicate a warm and affectionate relationship between the family members. From 1893 to 1900, his father was a chaplain for the Strømsø borough in Drammen, Vidkun went to school for the first time. He was bullied by students at the school for his Telemark dialect. In 1900, the moved to Skien when his father was appointed provost of the city. Academically Quisling proved talented in humanities, particularly history, and natural sciences, at this point, his life had no clear direction.
In 1905, Quisling enrolled at the Norwegian Military Academy, having received the highest entrance examination score of the 250 applicants that year. Transferring in 1906 to the Norwegian Military College, he graduated with the highest score since the inception in 1817. On 1 November 1911, he joined the army General Staff, Norway was neutral in the First World War, Quisling detested the peace movement, though the high human cost of the war did temper his views. In March 1918, he was sent to Russia as an attaché at the Norwegian legation in Petrograd, when the legation was recalled in December 1918, Quisling became the Norwegian militarys expert on Russian affairs. In September 1919, Quisling departed Norway to become an officer with the Norwegian delegation in Helsinki
Prime Minister of Hungary
The Prime Minister of Hungary is the head of government of Hungary, and the most powerful person in Hungarian politics. He or she leads the majority party or coalition in the National Assembly of Hungary, the current Prime Minister is Viktor Orbán, who has served since 29 May 2010. The title of Hungarys head of government in Hungarian is miniszterelnök, if there is no party with a majority, the President asks the leader of the largest party to attempt to form a government coalition. Therefore, the election of members of a party to parliament is the equivalent to a vote for that partys leader for Prime Minister. There is no limit to the number of mandates as Prime Minister, he/she is appointed by the President of the Republic, after the legislative elections and after an audience with every leader of a party represented at the Assembly. It is usual for the leader of the party receives a plurality of votes in the elections to be named Prime Minister. The Prime Minister has a role in the executive branch in accordance with the Hungarian Constitution.
Further, the Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the right to dismiss them as is the case with the Chancellor of Germany. Cabinet nominees appear before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings and they must survive a vote by Parliament and be formally approved by the President. The palatine was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king from the rise up to 1848/1918. Initially, he was in fact the representative of the king, in the early centuries of the kingdom, he was appointed by the king, elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Habsburgs solidified their hold of Hungary, the dignity became a position once again. Finally, it became hereditary in a branch of the Habsburg dynasty after King Francis appointed his brother Joseph. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 the revolutionaries wanted the creation of a Hungarian cabinet which would be independent from the Austrian Empire, one of the 12 points said,2. Ferdinand V appointed Count Lajos Batthyány for the position of Prime Minister of Hungary on 17 March 1848, the government was called ministry, differently from the current acceptation.
Batthyány resigned on October 2,1848 he was succeeded by Lajos Kossuth as President of the Committee of National Defence and this executive body has not been allocated the portfolios. In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, in May Bertalan Szemere was appointed Prime Minister. The position was vacant after the defeat of the freedom fight, List of rulers of Hungary List of heads of state of Hungary List of palatines of Hungary List of Prime Ministers of Hungary by tenure
Premier of the Republic of China
The President of the Executive Yuan, commonly known as the Premier of the Republic of China, is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China. The premier is appointed by the President of the Republic of China, before the establishment of the Executive Yuan in 1928, the premier of the Republic of China was created as Premier of Cabinet in 1912. It was changed to the Secretary of State in 1914 and Premier of State Council in 1916 in the Beiyang Government, in 1928, the Kuomintang Government established the Executive Yuan and Tan Yankai served as the first President of the Executive Yuan. The premier presides over the Executive Yuan Council, which makes up the official cabinet, the vice premier and chairpersons of the Executive Yuan Council are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier. Laws and decrees promulgated by the President must be countersigned by the Premier, in the event of vacancies in both the presidency and the vice presidency, the premier serves as Acting President of the Republic for up to three months.
One-third of the Legislators may initiate a vote against the premier. If approved with majority, the premier must resign from office within ten days. If the motion fails, another motion against the same premier cannot be initiated for one year. This power has never been used, power shifted to Premier Chiang Ching-kuo after President Chiang Kai-sheks death but shifted to the presidency again when Chiang Ching-kuo became president. The first three premiers under Lee, Yu Kuo-hwa, Lee Huan, and Hau Pei-tsun were mainlanders who had initially opposed Lees ascension to power, the appointment of Lee and Hau were compromises by President Lee to placate the conservative mainlander faction in the party. The subsequent appointment of premier Lien Chan was taken as a sign of Lees consolidation of power, the established constitutional convention is that the premier is responsible to the President and does not have any responsibility to the legislature other than to report on his activities. However, the Pan-Blue Coalition has contended that Chens actions are unconstitutional and has proposed to name its own choice of premier and this has renewed calls for a constitutional amendment to better define the relationship between the executive and legislative branches of government.
List of premiers of the Republic of China President of the Republic of China Politics of the Republic of China Elections in the Republic of China
German occupation of Norway
The German occupation of Norway began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway. Conventional armed resistance to the German invasion ended on 10 June 1940, throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht. This period of occupation is in Norway referred to as the war years or occupation period. By the late 1930s, the Norwegian parliament had accepted the need for a military and expanded the budget accordingly. As it turned out, most of the plans enabled by the expansion were not completed in time. Although neutrality remained the highest priority until the invasion was a fait accompli, it was throughout the government that Norway, above all. By the autumn of 1939, there was a sense of urgency that Norway had to prepare, not only to protect its neutrality. Efforts to improve military readiness and capability, and to sustain an extended blockade, were intensified between September 1939 and April 1940, several incidents in Norwegian maritime waters, notably the Altmark incident in Jøssingfjord, put great strains on Norways ability to assert its neutrality.
In March and April 1940, British plans for an invasion of Norway were prepared, mainly in order to reach and it was hoped that this would divert German forces away from France, and open a war front in south Sweden. It was agreed that mines would be laid in Norwegian waters, because of Anglo-French arguments, the date of the mining was postponed from 5 April to 8 April. A major storm on 7 April resulted in the British Navy failing to make contact with the German shipping. Consistent with Blitzkrieg warfare, German forces attacked Norway by sea, the first wave of German attackers counted only about 10,000 men. In the other cities that were attacked, the Germans faced only weak or no resistance, the surprise, and the lack of preparedness of Norway for a large-scale invasion of this kind, gave the German forces their initial success. The major Norwegian ports from Oslo northward to Narvik were occupied by advance detachments of German troops, at the same time, a single parachute battalion took the Oslo and Stavanger airfields, and 800 operational aircraft overwhelmed the Norwegian population.
The first troops to occupy Oslo entered the city brazenly, marching behind a German military brass band, on establishing footholds in Oslo and Trondheim, the Germans launched a ground offensive against scattered resistance inland in Norway. Allied forces attempted several counterattacks, but all failed, while resistance in Norway had little military success, it had the significant political effect of allowing the Norwegian government, including the royal family, to escape. The Blücher, which carried the main forces to occupy the capital, was sunk in the Oslofjord on the first day of the invasion, an improvised defence at Midtskogen prevented a German raid from capturing the king and government. The Norwegian Army rallied after the confusion and on several occasions managed to put up a stiff fight
Head of state
A head of state is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. In some countries, the head of state is a figurehead with limited or no executive power, while in others. Former French president Charles de Gaulle, while developing the current Constitution of France, some academic writers discuss states and governments in terms of models. An independent nation state normally has a head of state, the non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or very limited executive powers, and mainly has a ceremonial and symbolic role. In parliamentary systems the head of state may be merely the chief executive officer, heading the executive branch of the state. This accountability and legitimacy requires that someone be chosen who has a majority support in the legislature and it gives the legislature the right to vote down the head of government and their cabinet, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the head of state typically derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives.
In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system, the king had the power of declaring war without previous consent of the parliament. For example, under the 1848 constitution of the Kingdom of Italy, the Statuto Albertino—the parliamentary approval to the government appointed by the king—was customary, so, Italy had a de facto parliamentarian system, but a de jure presidential system. These officials are excluded completely from the executive, they do not possess even theoretical executive powers or any role, even formal, hence their states governments are not referred to by the traditional parliamentary model head of state styles of His/Her Majestys Government or His/Her Excellencys Government. Within this general category, variants in terms of powers and functions may exist, the constitution explicitly vests all executive power in the Cabinet, who is chaired by the prime minister and responsible to the Diet. The emperor is defined in the constitution as the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people and he is a ceremonial figurehead with no independent discretionary powers related to the governance of Japan.
Today, the Speaker of the Riksdag appoints the prime minister, Cabinet members are appointed and dismissed at the sole discretion of the prime minister. In contrast, the contact the President of Ireland has with the Irish government is through a formal briefing session given by the taoiseach to the president. However, he or she has no access to documentation and all access to ministers goes through the Department of the Taoiseach. The president does, hold limited reserve powers, such as referring a bill to the court to test its constitutionality. The most extreme non-executive republican Head of State is the President of Israel, semi-presidential systems combine features of presidential and parliamentary systems, notably a requirement that the government be answerable to both the president and the legislature. The constitution of the Fifth French Republic provides for a minister who is chosen by the president
The Quisling regime or Quisling government are common names used to refer to the collaborationist government led by Vidkun Quisling in occupied Norway during the Second World War. The official name of the regime from 1 February 1942 until its dissolution in May 1945 was Nasjonale regjering, actual executive power was detained by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, headed by Josef Terboven. Vidkun Quisling, Fører of the Nasjonal Samling party, had first tried to out a coup against the Norwegian government on 9 April 1940. At 7,32 p. m. Quisling visited the studios of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation and made a radio broadcast proclaiming himself Prime Minister and he announced that he and Nasjonal Samling were taking power due to Nygaardsvolds Cabinet having raised armed resistance and promptly fled. He further declared that in the present situation it was the duty, Quisling claimed that the Nygaardsvold Cabinet had given up power despite that it had only moved to Elverum, some 50 km from Oslo, and was carrying out negotiations with the Germans.
The next day, German ambassador Curt Bräuer traveled to Elverum and demanded King Haakon VII, Haakon told the Cabinet that he could not in good conscience appoint Quisling as prime minister, and would abdicate rather than appoint a government headed by him. By this time, news of Quislings attempted coup had reached Elverum, negotiations promptly collapsed, and the government unanimously advised Haakon not to appoint Quisling as prime minister. Quisling tried to have the Nygaardsvold Cabinet arrested, but the officer he instructed to carry out the arrest ignored the warrant, attempts at gaining control over the police force in Oslo by issuing orders to the chief of police Kristian Welhaven failed. The coup failed after six days, despite German support for the first three days, and Quisling had to step aside in the parts of Norway in favour of the Administrative Council. Terboven appointed a group of 11 kommissariske statsråder from Nasjonal Samling to help him in governing Norway. Although the provisional councillors of state did not form a government, Vidkun Quisling was made the political head of the councillors and all members of Nasjonal Samling had to swear a personal oath of allegiance to him.
Most of the councillors worked diligently at introducing Nasjonal Samling ideals, the provisional councillors of state were intended as a temporary system while Nasjonal Samling built up its organization in preparation to assume full governmental powers. On 25 September 1941, the anniversary of the councillors. With the establishment of Quislings national government, Quisling, as minister-president, in 1942, after two years of direct civilian administration by the Germans, he was finally put in charge of a collaborationist government, which was officially proclaimed on 1 February 1942. The official name of the government was Den nasjonale regjering, the Quisling government was instead given the role of an occupying authority with wide-ranging authorisations. Quisling himself viewed the creation of his government as a step on the road towards the complete independence of Norway. Although having only temporarily assumed the Kings authority, Quisling still made efforts to distance his regime from the exiled monarchy.
After Quisling moved into the Royal Palace he took back into use the seal of Norway
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss members of the cabinet. In most systems, the minister is the presiding member. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the minister is the presiding and actual head of government. In such systems, the head of state or the head of states official representative usually holds a ceremonial position. The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may exercise powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown. The first actual usage of the prime minister or Premier Ministre was used by Cardinal Richelieu when in 1625 he was named to head the royal council as prime minister of France. Louis XIV and his descendants generally attempted to avoid giving this title to their chief ministers, the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole.
Over time, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century, the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII, William Cecil, Lord Burghley under Elizabeth I, Clarendon under Charles II and these ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were commonly known as the minister, the chief minister, the first minister and finally the prime minister. The power of ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the skills of holding high office. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse, Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful, late in Annes reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and St John shared power.
The monarch could no longer any law or impose any tax without its permission. It is at point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714, George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943