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Minister for Defence (Australia)

The Minister for Defence is the principal minister responsible for the organisation and formulation of government policy in defence and military matters for the Australian Government. The individual who holds this office directs the governments approach to such matters through the Australian Defence Organisation and, by extension, the Department of Defence and the Australian Defence Force; the office of the Minister for Defence, like all Cabinet positions, is not referenced in the Constitution of Australia but rather exists through convention and the right of the Governor-General to appoint ministers of state. As the Minister for Defence is responsible for the executive management of Australia's defence and military forces and the portfolio's accountability to the Parliament, the Secretary of Defence is required under section 63 of the Public Service Act 1999 and the Requirements for Annual Reports from the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Public Accounts and Audit to submit a report to the responsible ministers on the activities of the Department of Defence after the end of each financial year for presentation to the Parliament.

On 26 May 2019, Prime Minister Scott Morrison announced that Linda Reynolds would lead the Defence portfolio as Minister in the Second Morrison Ministry. The previous Minister, Christopher Pyne, did not contest his seat in the House of Representatives for the 2019 federal election, it is one of only four ministerial positions. The primary function of the Minister for Defence is to direct the formulation of the government's defence policy relating to the universal conduct of any entity of the Australian Government, or working on behalf of the Australian Government, the agencies and personnel of the Australian Defence Organisation as a whole; the Australian Government operates three principal entities responsible for creating and maintaining defence policy within the'Defence' superstructure: the Air Power Development Centre, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Sea Power Centre - Australia. Additionally, the Australian Government at the direct request of the Prime Minister, will expend extensive introspective resources for the publication of Defence white papers so as to assess the current extent of Australia's defence capabilities and infrastructure and investigate the best manner of improving Defence in such a way that will positively inform the government's policy.

The most recent white paper publication is the 2016 Defence White Paper that includes three elements: the 2016 Defence White Paper itself, 2016 Integrated Investment Program, 2016 Defence Industry Policy Statement. Presented on 24 February 2016 and published the same day, it is the eighth defence whitepaper since 1976 and defined three key strategic objectives that the defence portfolios and governments of both parties have had little debate over. Recent Ministers for Defence for both political parties have formed their policy around the strict and professional advice of Australia's leading policy experts and senior military personnel and has caused little controversy. Over the years there have been a number of ministers with a variety of functions involved in the defence portfolio. Instead, several ministers were responsible for the various tasks and duties that are presently under the purview of the Minister for Defence. Previous governments have included ministers with titles using one or more of the following terms: There was a Minister for Defence from 1 January 1901 until 13 November 1939, with the exception of two small breaks.

Robert Menzies, the Prime Minister, abolished the position on the outbreak of World War II and created separate Ministers for the Navy, the Army and the Air, with himself as Minister for Defence Coordination in his first ministry. He retained this position until the fall of his government, held the post in the brief government of Arthur Fadden. John Curtin followed the same arrangement as Menzies in his ministry until 14 April 1942, when he took the title of Minister for Defence; the separate titles of Ministers for the Navy, the Army and the Air were abolished in the second Whitlam Ministry on 30 November 1973, when the separate departments of Navy and Air were abolished. There had been a separate Navy portfolio between 1915 and 1921; the following have served as Minister for Defence: The following individuals have been appointed as Assistant Minister for Defence, or any of its precedent titles: The following served as Minister for the Navy: The following served as Minister for the Army: The following served as Minister for Air: Department of Defence Minister for Defence Industry Minister for Defence Personnel Minister for Veterans' Affairs www.defence.gov.au

Pittsburgh Gifted Center

Pittsburgh Gifted Center is a special school that provides gifted education, to students in Pittsburgh. Until May 2006, the Pittsburgh Gifted Center was located at the McKelvy building in the Pittsburgh Hill District. In September 2006, the Pittsburgh Gifted Center was made part of a school in Pittsburgh's West End called Greenway; the move to Greenway was made with the understanding. The location for 2007-08 was cancelled and instead moving to 2016; the early draft of the Rightsizing Plan of Superintendent Mark Roosevelt called for the Pittsburgh Gifted Center to move to Pittsburgh's North Side on Ridge Avenue. That plan was nixed. A shift to Greenway was accomplished after some political wrangling by school officials; the Ridge Avenue facility owned by the Pittsburgh Public Schools was put up for sale from 2006 until 2008. The Center is to provide students to interact with students from other parts of the city and provide academic and enrichment opportunities not available in normal schools. Students attend once every week with small classes of about 12 students.

All students attending are from Pittsburgh Public Schools. Until 2010, the Gifted Center accepted students from local parochial schools. There is a variety of academic courses, the Gifted Center provides students the opportunities to choose which ones they wish to attend, they include subjects related to basic courses, like English, Language Arts, Science. Students can choose interest and technological courses, including JavaScript, business planning, Web Design; the Gifted Center has integrated technology into classes, with all rooms containing computers for student research and projects. Some of these classes may further expand on a subject for traditional school or they may deal with a radically different subject. Information on the Gifted Center: Demographics: African-Americans 28%–35%, White/Other 65%–72% School year: September to JuneAlong with its weekly classes, the PGC allows students to participate in extracurricular activities and competitions on Saturdays; the Gifted Center has participated in National History Day, in which two of its students attended the state competition at Penn State University.

PGC had a team that entered English Festival, a reading competition sponsored by Duquesne University, Math Counts. The Gifted Center is considering offering additional competitions for students to join; the goal of the school participation is to improve public relations, boast school spirit, to gain support to preserve the school. Mr. Peglow, the school's Social Studies teacher who administered National History Day for the school this year, is planning to offer the competition as a class to boast the number of students participating and allowing larger group projects; the PGC was in the news when it was considered to be closed under the Superintendent Mark Roosevelt's school reform agenda. In an attempt to conserve financial resources, the superintendent wanted to return gifted education to the home schools, which could exclude smaller schools from participating in the program. However, the proposal faced stiff opposition from students; the board agreed to move the Center to the Ridge Avenue building, where the program existed for several years.

Some people still suspect that the School Board is still considering closing the Center and it is unclear whether renovations to the Ridge Avenue building will be completed before the next school year. The PGC has the Gifted Gazette. Profile of the Pittsburgh Gifted Center Pittsburgh Gifted Center Official Website

TBC domain

The TBC is identified as a domain of some proteins or as a protein motif and recognized as a conserved one that includes 200 amino acids in all eukaryotes. TBC was identified as a conserved domain among the tre-2 oncogene product and the yeast cell cycle regulators, it has been shown that humans have 42 different TBC proteins which differ from each other by having additional motifs and domains and add functional diversification to the family. The most well known of this protein group are TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 which are directly associated with functional diseases. Moreover, most of them have close relations with other protein domains. For example, it has been demonstrated that some of them act like a GAP for small GTPases: Rab activity is modulated in part by GTPase-activating proteins and many of these RabGAPs share a Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16-domain architecture. However, it is needed much research on these kind of proteins and in this article it explains what is known by now. Picture 1. A Rab Cycle in membrane trafficking: The cycle between the GTP-bound inactive state and the GTP- bound active state is led by the Rab protein and regulated by an activating enzyme GEF and an inactivating enzyme GAP which in this case could be the TBC protein.

Hereafter, the activated form of Rab, GTP-bound, is incorporated to a specific organelle or vesicle and promotes its transport by interacting with a specific effector molecule. GTPase-activating proteins limit the duration of the active state and accelerate the slow intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis. TBC functions as a specific Rab GAP by being used as tools to inactivate specific membrane trafficking events. GAPs serve to increase GTPase activity by contributing the residues to the active site and promoting conversion from GTP to GDP form; such activity of TBC proteins does not always require a close physical interaction although few TBC proteins have shown clear GAP activity towards their binding Rabs. Rab families contribute to defining organelles and controlling specificity and rate of transport through individual pathways. Therefore, TBC Rab-GAPS are essential regulators of intracellular and membrane transports as well as central participants in signal transduction. Not all TBC may have a primary role as a Rab-GAP and conversely, not all Rab-GAP contain TBC.

In addition, the fact that this family has been poorly studied makes it further complicated. Phylogenetic analysis has provided insight into the evolution of the TBC family. ScrollSaw was implemented as a recent strategy to overcome poor resolution between TBC genes found in standard phylogenetic strategies during initial reconstructions; the TBC domain is nearly always smaller than the Rab cohort in any individual genome, suggesting Rab/TBC coevolution. Twenty-one putative TBC sub-classes were founded and identified as a seven robust and two moderately supported clades. Moreover, there has been systematic analysis in order to identify the target Rabs of TBC proteins, it was, based on the physical interaction between the TBC domain and its substrate Rab. For instance Barr and his coworkers found a specific interaction between RUTBC3/RabGAP-5 and Rab5A that activates the GTPase activity of Rab5 isoform. Other research has shown that, among other important aspects, the TBC-Rab interaction alone is insufficient to determine the target of TBC proteins.

However, there has been a second approach to identifying the target Rabs of TBC by investigating their in vitro GAP activity. Yet there has been similar discrepancies between this findings of different investigators which can be found in literature and may be attributable to differences between methods of in vitro. In addition, research has shown. For example, a dysfunction of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 directly affects glucose uptake. Causing overweight or leanness due to the fact that this two family members of TBC regulate insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in mammals. Furthermore, many of them have been shown to be associated with cancer, but the exact mechanism by which they are associated with this illness remains unknown. Therefore, there’s still much research needed to be done on this biological topic. Fukuda M. "TBC proteins: GAPs for mammalian small GTPase Rab?". Bioscience Reports. 31: 159–68. Doi:10.1042/BSR20100112. PMID 21250943. Gabernet-Castello C, O'Reilly AJ, Dacks JB, Field MC.

"Evolution of Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 Rab GTPase-activating proteins". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 24: 1574–83. Doi:10.1091/mbc. E12-07-0557. PMC 3655817. PMID 23485563. Itoh T, Satoh M, Kanno E, Fukuda M. "Screening for target Rabs of TBC domain-containing proteins based on their Rab-binding activity". Genes to Cells. 11: 1023–37. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.00997.x. PMID 16923123. Jackson TR, Brown FD, Nie Z, Miura K, Foroni L, Sun J, Hsu VW, Donaldson JG, Randazzo PA. "ACAPs are arf6 GTPase-activating proteins that function in the cell periphery". The Journal of Cell Biology. 151: 627–38. Doi:10.1083/jcb.151.3.627. PMC 2185579. PMID 11062263. Pan X, Eathiraj S, Munson M, Lambright DG. "TBC-domain GAPs for Rab GTPases accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a dual-finger mechanism". Nature. 442: 303–6. Bibcode:2006Natur.442..303P. Doi:10.1038/nature04847. PMID 16855591. Gabernet-Castello C, O'Reilly AJ, Dacks JB, Field MC. "Evolution of Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 Rab GTPase-activating proteins". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 24: 1574–83.

Doi:10.1091/mbc. E12-07-0557. PMC 3655817. PMID 23485563. Albert S, Will E, Gallwitz D. "Identification of the catalytic