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Minister for Foreign Affairs (Germany)

The Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs is the head of the Federal Foreign Office and a member of the Cabinet of Germany. The current office holder is Heiko Maas. Since 1966, the Foreign Minister has also held the office of Vice Chancellor; the Foreign Office was established within the North German Confederation in 1870 and its head, first appointed in 1871, had the rank of Secretary of State. As the German constitution of 1871 installed the Chancellor as the sole responsible government minister and since the Chancellor also held the position of Foreign Minister of Prussia, the Secretary of State fulfilled a more subject role as an assistant to the Chancellor, acting to draft correspondence rather than to direct the formation of foreign policy; this was true during the chancellorships of Otto von Bismarck and Bernhard von Bülow, both of whom had considerable prior experience with foreign affairs, while secretaries at other times wielded more influence over the foreign policy. In 1919, the Weimar Republic elevated the head of the foreign office to the position of Foreign Minister responsible for his department.

As governments were now formed by parties entering coalitions with each other, individual ministers gained independence towards from the chancellor. After a succession of short-lived ministers, Gustav Stresemann, leader of the small National-liberal German People's Party, held the office of Foreign Minister in successive cabinets from 1923 to his death 1929, his long term gave stability to Germany's foreign policy and improved the minister's position towards the weak and short-lived chancellors. Stresemann was awarded the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize for his work for reconciliation between Germany and France; the foreign office remained unaffected by the establishment of the Nazi regime in 1933, as minister Konstantin von Neurath, appointed in 1932, remained in office until 1938. After World War II, two separate German states emerged in 1949, the democratic Federal Republic of Germany in the West and the communist-ruled German Democratic Republic in the East. While the Soviet Union ostensibly restored political sovereignty to its satellite and allowed for a Foreign Ministry of the GDR, West Germany's sovereignty was curtailed by the Western powers in the field of foreign policy.

In 1951 the Foreign Office was reestablished in West Germany, but Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was required to hold the office of Foreign Minister until the Western powers restored sovereignty to West Germany in 1955. Heinrich von Brentano di Tremezzo succeeded as foreign minister in 1955. In 1990, the GDR ceased to exist as a separate state and its territory was reunited with West Germany. From the 1966 Grand Coalition government of Kurt Georg Kiesinger onwards, the office has been held by a member of the smaller partner in coalitions. Therefore, the Foreign Minister mostly holds the office of Vice Chancellor of Germany, although there have been notable exceptions, most during the term of Philipp Rösler as Vice Chancellor, from 2011 to 2013. Political Party: SPD Zentrum DDP DVP NSDP Political Party: CDU SED NDPD SPD Political Party: CDU SPD FDP Green auswärtiges-amt.de

Artyom, Russia

Artyom or Artem is a city in Primorsky Krai, located in the north of the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula. Population: 102,603 , it was founded in 1924 near the Zybunny pit mine, named after revolutionary Fyodor Sergeyev, better known by his nickname Artyom. On October 26, 1938, it was granted town status. In 2004, the amalgamation of surrounding former urban-type settlements of Uglovoye and Artyomovsky into the city saw its official population rise from around 60,000 to over 100,000. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with five rural localities, incorporated as Artyom City Under Krai Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, Artyom City Under Krai Jurisdiction is incorporated as Artyomovsky Urban Okrug. Half of the able-bodied population of Artyom is engaged in the production of materials. Artyom has twenty-nine industrial enterprises. Among the consumer goods produced in the town are furniture, sewing production.

The companies employing the largest number of workers in Artyom are Primorskoye Mine Administration and Artyom-Mebel Furniture Factory. Fifteen joint ventures have been registered in Artyom. Coal mining has always been the basis of the local economy, although the existing coal reserves have been exhausted; the forecasts are that transport will be the most productive industry for Artyom's economic development. The Vladivostok International Airport is located near Artyom, to the southwest, the Uglovoye military airfield; the largest Primorsky Krai railway junction is found here. Annually, 12 million tons of cargo pass through Artyom to Vladivostok, 24 million tons to Nakhodka. In 1994, the airport served 500,000 passengers; this number represented no more than 28% of its potential. Artyom is built with one-, two-, five-story panel buildings, though a comparatively large number of wooden private houses can be seen. Законодательное Собрание Приморского края. Закон №161-КЗ от 14 ноября 2001 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Приморского края», в ред.

Закона №673-КЗ от 6 октября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Приморского края "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Приморского края"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красное знамя Приморья", №69, 29 ноября 2001 г.. Законодательное Собрание Приморского края. Закон №157-КЗ от 10 ноября 2004 г. «Об Артёмовском городском округе», в ред. Закона №123-КЗ от 13 ноября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Приморского края в связи с изменением наименований некоторых сельских населённых пунктов Приморского края». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Ведомости Законодательного Собрания Приморского края", №72, 11 ноября 2004 г.. Artyom at the Encyclopædia Britannica

Sommerroparken

Sommerroparken known as Solliparken, is a small park between the streets of Sommerrogata and Henrik Ibsens Gate in the Frogner district of Oslo, Norway. It consists of a narrow grass-covered strip with park benches, ornaments and bushes; the park, with a maximum width of 8 m, stretches some 200 m between Henrik Ibsens Gate, which leads to the square of Solli plass, Sommerrogata, a small street on its north side flanked by buildings. The roundabout at its western end provides access to Frognerveien and Bygdøy Allé; the name of Sommerro stems from the large estate which belonged to the 18th century merchant Bernt Anker. The park was developed by the Society for the Welfare of Oslo between 1850 and 1874 when various trees and shrubs were planted. By 1886, the park covered an area of 2,146 m2; the sculpture Mannen med nøkkelen by the French sculptor Auguste Rodin was unveiled in the park in 1902. It depicts Jean one of the figures from the work The Burghers of Calais; the length of the park was reduced in at the end of the 1930s with the development of Lapsetorvet and Solli Plass.

In 2009, the municipality undertook renovation work with new benches. Historical photographs of Sommerroparken from Norway's Digital Museum