Sir Joseph Dubuc, was a Canadian lawyer and judge, born in Lower Canada and became an important political figure from Manitoba. Dubuc was irregularly in school because of family responsibilities, he spent some time in the United States and learned English while working in a factory. Upon returning to Quebec, he completed military school in Montreal in November 1866, he further engaged in formal studies, latterly at the Petit Séminaire de Montreal, where he made friends with Louis Riel. This connection would shape his political life in the future, he received a Bachelor of Common Law degree from McGill College in 1869 and was called to the Lower Canada bar the same year. In January 1870, Riel called on him to help with the new provisional government, established as part of the Red River Rebellion. Dubuc left for Manitoba in June and, upon his arrival in the Red River area, became friends with Bishop Alexandre-Antonin Taché who dissuaded him of his doubts, he wrote articles for the Montreal newspaper La Minerve explaining the position of the Métis and encouraging francophones to settle in the Canadian West.
In 1871, he was accepted into the Manitoba bar. Following the end of the rebellion Dubuc established a law practice in Winnipeg and was editor a French-language weekly, Le Métis, aimed at the Métis population, he had a son Lucien Dubuc. He was acclaimed to the first provincial legislature when elections were held in 1870 at the Baie St-Paul riding, he persuaded Riel to run for the House of Commons of Canada in 1872 and was beaten to death in the ensuing riots. Dubuc worked to preserve the alliance between French Canadians and Métis. Politically he was a ultramontane, he served as attorney-general in the government of Marc-Amable Girard in 1872 but only served for a few months until the Girard ministry fell and was replaced by one formed by Robert Atkinson Davis, In March 1875, Dubuc was chosen Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba serving until 1878. He served on the Council of the North-West Territories from 1872 to 1876. Dubuc resigned from the provincial legislature was acclaimed in Provencher in the federal election of 1878 but left the House of Commons the next year to accept a judicial appointment on the Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba.
He grew estranged from Riel calling him a "dangerous maniac" following the Second Riel Rebellion. Dubuc unsuccessfully opposed the government of Thomas Greenway's move to reduce French-language rights and make English the sole language of the province during the Manitoba Schools Question debate and was a dissenting judge in the case of Barrett v. City of Winnipeg where the majority of the court ruled that the government had a right to establish a public school system to the detriment of French-language Catholic schools. In 1903, he became chief justice of Manitoba and retired from the bench in 1909. In 1912 he was knighted. Dubuc died unexpectedly in Los Angeles on 7 January 1914. Dubuc Street in Winnipeg was named in his honour. Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Manitoba Heritage Council Joseph Dubuc – Parliament of Canada biography
Sterling Rufus Lyon, was a Canadian lawyer, cabinet minister, the 17th Premier of Manitoba from 1977 to 1981. His government introduced several fiscally-conservative measures, was sometimes seen as a local version of the government of Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom, he successfully fought for the inclusion of the notwithstanding clause in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Born in Windsor, the son of David Rufus Lyon and Ella Mae Cuthbert, he moved with his family to Manitoba at a young age and grew up in Portage la Prairie. Lyon graduated from United College in 1948, received an LL. B from the Manitoba Law School in 1953. Following the completion of his legal education he worked as a crown attorney for the next four years. In 1953, he married Barbara Jean Mayers. Lyon was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba in 1958, in the south-central Winnipeg riding of Fort Garry. A Progressive Conservative, Lyon defeated incumbent Liberal-Progressive MLA L. Raymond Fennell, was subsequently named as Attorney General in Dufferin Roblin's minority government.
Roblin's Tories won a majority in 1959, Lyon was re-elected in his own riding. He continued to serve as Attorney General, served as Minister of Municipal Affairs and Minister of Public Utilities. On December 9, 1963, Lyon was shifted from the Attorney General's position to the Ministry of Mines and Natural Resources, he held this position until June 22, 1966, served as Public Utilities minister again in mid-1964. Lyon became Attorney General again after the 1966 election, served as Minister of Tourism and Recreation from 1968 to 1969, he had no difficulties being re-elected in 1962 and 1966. He served a total of nine years as Attorney General; when Roblin moved to federal politics in 1967, Lyon was one of four candidates who sought to replace him. He was defeated by Walter Weir on the third ballot, did not seek re-election in 1969. Although Weir and Lyon were both politically to the right of Roblin, they represented different constituencies in the party: Weir was a rural populist, Lyon a supporter of urban business development.
In February 1969, Lyon expressed skepticism about the wisdom of codifying common law rights in a written constitution. Lyon ran for the House of Commons of Canada in 1974, narrowly losing the riding of Winnipeg South to Liberal James Richardson; the following year, Lyon returned to provincial politics to challenge Sidney Spivak for the Progressive Conservative Party's leadership. Spivak, elected party leader in 1971, was a Red Tory opposed by many of the more conservative figures within his caucus; the conservative wing of the party consolidated around Lyon's challenge, he defeated Spivak by 57 votes at a divisive leadership convention in December 1975. Lyon returned to the legislature for the rural riding of Souris-Killarney in a 1976 by-election. In 1977, Lyon led the Progressive Conservative Party to an upset victory of Edward Schreyer's New Democrats. Lyon's government cut spending in several departments, de-invested in a number of social programs sponsored by the NDP. In other respects, the Lyon government's commitment to'small government' was ambivalent — it was, for instance supportive of large-scale energy development projects.
Duff Roblin has argued that the Lyon government's right-wing reputation was undeserved, but few others have as yet agreed with this assessment. Lyon was an initial opponent of Pierre Trudeau's constitutional plans, subsequently became a leading supporter of the notwithstanding clause provision, he fought, unsuccessfully, to have property rights entrenched in the constitution. Lyon's government was defeated by the NDP under Howard Pawley in 1981, after only one term in office. Lyon acted as Leader of the Opposition for two years and fought Pawley's proposals to entrench the rights of Franco-Manitobans in the constitution. In 1983, Lyon was replaced by Gary Filmon, he retired from politics in 1986. He was appointed to the Manitoba Court of Appeal in 1986, he served there until retiring in 2002. Sterling Lyon died after a brief illness on December 16, 2010, he was sworn into the Privy Council on April 17, 1982 by Edward Schreyer on the advice of Pierre Trudeau. In 2004, Lyon was chosen as the University of Winnipeg's annual receipt of the "Distinguished Alumnus Award".
In 2009, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada "for his contributions as a judge and long-time politician in Manitoba, where, as premier, he led the expansion of community-based health and social services, modernized governmental financial procedures". The Sterling Lyon Parkway in Winnipeg was completed and opened to traffic in November 2005; the route was added during the construction of the Kenaston Underpass. The Sterling Lyon Parkway, a new east-west road, has replaced a section of Wilkes Avenue near the underpass. Though his premiership was short, it's been argued. An unsigned editorial in the Winnipeg Free Press argued: The other major pillar of Mr. Lyon's legacy – the inclusion of the notwithstanding clause in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms as a defence of the supremacy of elected parliaments over unelected courts – was controversial when he first supported it and remains so today, he feared that provincial and federal parliaments would themselves cede their power to the courts to avoid controversial issues, a fear that has proved well founded.
Call it meaningful, or call it mean, he believed in the right-wing rhetoric Globe and Mail obituary, 26
Howard Russell Pawley, was a Canadian politician and professor, the 18th Premier of Manitoba from 1981 to 1988. The son of Methodist parents, Pawley was born in Brampton, moved to Winnipeg at the age of 17 and was educated at Manitoba Teachers College, United College and the Manitoba Law School. In 1960, he married Adele Schreyer, a cousin of Edward Schreyer, who served as Premier of Manitoba from 1969 to 1977. Pawley worked as a lawyer and educator, was active in the Manitoba Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and its successor, the New Democratic Party of Manitoba. In 1957, Pawley was elected President of the Manitoba CCF, becoming at the age of 22, the youngest President in the party's history, he opposed the transformation of the CCF into the NDP in 1961, but this decision did not hurt his subsequent career in the party. Pawley first ran for public office in the 1957 Canadian federal election as the CCF candidate in the riding of Lisgar, finishing fourth with 443 votes. In the Manitoba 1958 provincial election, he ran in the northern riding of The Pas and received 801 votes, finishing third.
In both these elections he ran as a sacrificial candidate while working as an organizer for the Manitoba C. C. F. In the 1965 federal election, he ran in the Selkirk riding and received a more respectable 4,456 votes, finishing third. In the 1969 provincial election, Pawley was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba for the constituency of Selkirk, a mixed urban/rural seat to the north of Winnipeg, he was chosen to be a part of Edward Schreyer's cabinet, was sworn in as Minister of Government Services and Minister of Municipal Affairs on July 15, 1969. He stood down from the former position on December 18, 1969, but retained the latter until September 22, 1976. In addition to his cabinet duties, Pawley chaired a committee that brought forward public auto insurance legislation for the province, was the first Chair and Minister responsible for the Manitoba public Insurance Corporation. On September 4, 1973, Pawley was promoted to Attorney-General. After stepping down as Municipal Affairs minister in 1976, he was given the additional responsibility of administering the Liquor Control Act.
In 1979, Pawley replaced Schreyer as leader of the provincial NDP. He was elected leader by the party caucus on an interim basis, defeated Muriel Smith and Russell Doern at the subsequent leadership convention. Like Schreyer, he was from the northeast of the province and could appeal to voters beyond the CCF/NDP's traditional Winnipeg base. In the 1981 election, the NDP led by Pawley defeated the Progressive Conservative government of Sterling Lyon; this was the first time in the province's history that any party had been voted out of office after serving only one term. Pawley was sworn in as Premier of Manitoba on November 30, 1981, his government reintroduced and entrenched French language rights, removed by the Thomas Greenway government in 1890, but was forced to withdraw proposed legislation that would further extend French language services in the face of widespread opposition among the public. This issue nearly caused the Pawley government's defeat at the polls in the 1986 provincial election.
On the economic front, the Pawley government's record was at or near the top in provincial comparison in respect to investment and employment growth and enjoyed the lowest unemployment rate anywhere in Canada, sustained the province's social programs during the recession of the early 1980s. His government launched the giant Limestone hydro generating project and negotiated major export agreements of hydro electricity to the twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul. However, this was not without an economic price, as the Pawley government delivered budgets with large deficits, only balancing the budget at the end of its term. On the social front the Pawley government enacted changes to labour legislation including pay equity, Final Offer Selection and first-contract legislation, it introduced changes to the Human Rights Code, including the addition of the words "sexual orientation". Pawley's NDP was reduced to a narrow majority in 1986, his government would become unpopular with the electorate over the next two years, due to a jump in auto insurance premiums in 1987 and massive multimillion-dollar losses at MTX, a subsidiary of the Crown-owned Manitoba Telephone System formed to invest in telecommunications in Saudi Arabia.
In March 1988, backbench NDP MLA Jim Walding, a former Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, voted against the government's budget and caused the government to fall. Pawley resigned as party leader and Premier, did not run in the subsequent election, won by the Progressive Conservatives led by Gary Filmon. In his last years as Premier, Pawley had become a prominent figure on the national stage as an opponent of free trade, as well as a party to the Meech Lake Constitutional Accord. No longer in provincial politics, Pawley again ran as a candidate for the federal NDP in the 1988 federal election, but was defeated by Progressive Conservative candidate David Bjornson. Pawley left politics and became a political science professor at the University of Windsor, where he taught until his retirement. In 2000, he was awarded the Order of Manitoba and in 2001 he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada. In 2001, he received the Cesar E. Chavez Award and in 2004 was the recipient from the Manitoba NDP of the Lucille Ono Award.
Howard Pawley was awarded the Distinguished Alumni Award, University of Winnipeg in 2008. He was the recipient of the 2008 Youth Parliament of Manitoba Alumni Achievement Award. In 2003, he supported Bill Blaikie's campaign to lead the federal NDP
Sir Clifford Sifton, was a Canadian lawyer and a long-time Liberal politician, best known for being Minister of the Interior under Sir Wilfrid Laurier. He was responsible for encouraging the massive amount of immigration in Canada which occurred during the first decade of the 20th century. In 1905, he broke with Laurier and resigned from cabinet on the issue of publicly-funded religious education in the new provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Born in Middlesex County, Canada West, Sifton's father, John Wright Sifton, was a contractor and businessman who moved with his family to Manitoba when Clifford was a boy, he trained as a lawyer and graduated from Victoria University in the University of Toronto, where he was the founding manager of Acta Victoriana. Sifton worked on his father's political campaigns before being himself elected to the legislative assembly of Manitoba in 1888. Sifton served in the cabinet of Thomas Greenway from 1891 to 1896 as attorney general and Provincial Lands Commissioner.
He played a role in negotiating the Laurier-Greenway Compromise, which temporarily resolved the Manitoba Schools Question. In 1896, Sifton was elected a Member of Parliament and served as Minister of the Interior under Laurier; as Minister of the Interior he started a vigorous immigration policy to encourage people to settle and populate the West. Sifton established colonial offices in the United States, he enticed people to come to western Canada. While many of the immigrants came from Britain and the United States, there was to Canada, a large influx of Ukrainians, Scandinavians and other groups from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he famously defended the "stalwart peasants in sheep-skin coats" who were turning some of the most difficult parts of the western plains into productive farms. Between 1891 and 1914, more than three million people came to Canada from continental Europe, following the path of the newly constructed continental railway. In the same period, mining operations were begun in the Canadian Shield.
In the federal election of 1900, Sifton retained his seat against a strong challenge from former Manitoba Premier Hugh John Macdonald. After presiding over the creation of Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905, Sifton resigned from cabinet following a dispute with Laurier over religious education. In his life, Sifton battled increasing deafness, which precluded any further potential political advances. Sifton retired from politics in 1911 but crusaded against the government policy of reciprocity, because he believed that increased economic integration between Canada and the United States would result in Canada being taken over by the Americans. Sifton died in 1929 in New York City, he left a fortune estimated at $3.2 million, equivalent to about $47 million in present-day terminology. Sifton is buried at Toronto. Sifton a young lawyer, was married at Winnipeg, Manitoba, on August 18, 1884, to Elizabeth Armanella Burrows, she was the daughter of Henry James Burrows and his wife, Sarah Sparks. Elizabeth was born in Ottawa and educated at the Ottawa Ladies' College.
The couple had five sons. She presided over the Woman's Christian Temperance Union at Brandon, Manitoba, his brother Arthur Sifton served as the second Premier of Alberta. Dafoe, John W. Clifford Sifton in Relation to His Times Hall, D. J. "Clifford Sifton: Immigration and Settlement Policy, 1896-1905," in Howard Palmer, ed. The Settlement of the West pp 60 –85 Hall, D. J. Clifford Sifton, short biography ISBN 978-0-88902-223-2 Hall, D. J. Clifford Sifton. Vol. 1: The Young Napoleon, 1861-1900. Vol. 2: The Lonely Eminence, 1901-1929 the standard scholarly biography Timlin, Mabel F. "Canada's Immigration Policy, 1896-1910," Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 517–532 in JSTOR "Clifford Sifton". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016. Media related to Clifford Sifton at Wikimedia Commons Clifford Sifton – Parliament of Canada biography Works by or about Clifford Sifton at Internet Archive
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Colin H. Campbell
Colin H. Campbell was a politician in Manitoba, Canada, he served in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba as a Conservative from 1899 to 1914, was a cabinet minister in the governments of Hugh John Macdonald and Rodmond Roblin. Campbell was a barrister, ran a practice in Winnipeg, he first ran for the Manitoba legislature in the 1892 provincial election, lost to Liberal Peter McIntyre by 280 votes in Winnipeg North. He sought election to the House of Commons of Canada in November 1893, as a candidate of the Conservative Party of Canada. Campbell stood in by-election for the riding of Winnipeg, after Hugh John Macdonald's resignation from the house, he lost to Liberal candidate Joseph Martin. Campbell was first elected to the Manitoba legislature in the 1899 election, defeating Liberal incumbent Stewart Mulvey by 188 votes in the constituency of Morris; the Conservatives won the election, Campbell was named as a minister without portfolio in Macdonald's government on January 10, 1900. He was promoted to Attorney General on October 9 of the same year.
In this period of Canadian history, newly appointed ministers were required to resign their legislative seats to seek a new mandate from their electors. These by-elections were mere formalities, many ministers were returned without opposition. Campbell faced a challenge from Liberal Matthew Laurie, defeated him by 278 votes on October 29, 1900; this by-election occurred on the same day. The new premier kept Campbell as his Attorney General, appointed him as Municipal Commissioner from October 29 to December 20, 1900. Campbell was re-elected in the elections of 1903, 1907 and 1910, retaining his seat in 1907 by a single vote, he was named Minister of Education and Municipal Commissioner on October 11, 1911. He was appointed Minister of Public Works. After Robert Rogers left the provincial legislature for federal politics, Campbell was seen as the second most important minister in Roblin's government. Campbell was stricken by a severe illness on February 15, 1913, the same day that the provincial legislature was scheduled to open.
He traveled to Kingston, Jamaica to recover, but was afflicted with paralysis immediately after arriving. He resigned his ministry on November 3, 1913, did not stand in the 1914 election. After unsuccessfully seeking medical care in the United States of America and Egypt, Campbell returned to Manitoba in summer 1914, he died shortly thereafter, at age 54. Manitoba Historical Society biography My Dear Campbell, article by W. Leland Clark Mrs. Colin Campbell's war work / Crag & Canyon 01 Sept 1917 Report on Campbell/Buck family heirlooms held at the Halton Regional Museum, Ontario Entry on 1901 Census, Manitoba Entry on 1911 Census, Manitoba
Albert Blellock Hudson was a politician and judge from Manitoba, Canada. He served in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1914 to 1920 as a member of the Manitoba Liberal Party, was a cabinet minister in the government of Tobias Norris, he served in the House of Commons of Canada from 1921 to 1925, as a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. In 1936, Hudson was appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada. Hudson was born in Pembroke, the son of Albert Hudson and Elizabeth Blellock, was educated in Portage la Prairie and Winnipeg, he received a law degree from the University of Manitoba in 1898 and was called to the Manitoba bar the next year. He founded the firm of Ormond & Marlatt, with which he practised law for thirty-one years. In 1914, he was named King's Counsel. Hudson married Mary R. Russell in 1908. In religion, Hudson was a Presbyterian, he was first elected to the Manitoba legislature in the provincial election of 1914, defeating incumbent Conservative Lendrum McMeans by 998 votes in the Winnipeg South "A" constituency.
The Conservatives won this election, Hudson sat with his party on the opposition benches. The Conservative administration of Rodmond Roblin was forced to resign from office in 1915 amid a corruption scandal, the Liberals were called on to form a new government. Norris was sworn in as Premier of Manitoba on May 15, 1915, named Hudson as his Attorney-General and Minister of Telephones and Telegraphs. A new election was called. Hudson was returned in Winnipeg South "A", held both of his cabinet portfolios until resigning from office November 10, 1917. According to a Winnipeg Free Press report, Hudson had wanted to resign for several months to better oversee his personal business, he served as a backbencher for the remainder of legislative sitting, did not seek re-election in the 1920 campaign. Hudson moved to national politics, seeking election to the Canadian House of Commons in the 1921 federal election, he defeated Conservative George Nelson Jackson by 2,866 votes to win the Winnipeg South riding, served as a backbench supporter of William Lyon Mackenzie King's government for the next four years.
He did not seek re-election in the 1925 campaign. On March 24, 1936, Hudson was appointed a Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, he held this position until his death in 1947. Supreme Court of Canada biography Albert Hudson – Parliament of Canada biography