Charles Maurice Couyba was a French professor and politician. He was a deputy from 1897 to 1907 a senator from 1907 to 1920, he was Minister of Commerce and Industry from 1911 to 1912, was Minister of Labor and Social Welfare in 1914. Under the pseudonym of Maurice Boukay he was a poet and songwriter. Charles Maurice Couyba was born on 1 January 1866 in Haute-Saône. Couyba obtained an Associate of Philosophy degree in a doctorate in law, he started out as a journalist before moving into politics. He was elected general counsel of Haute-Saône in 1895. Couyba was deputy for Haute-Saône from 1897 to 1907, he joined the radical left group in the Chamber, was involved in questions related to art and education. He was rapporteur for the Fine Arts budget from 1902 to 1907, his 1902 book on The Art and Democracy was based on his report on the fine Arts budget. The book proposes a policy that reconciles the principles of "freedom" and "authority", where the state supports but does not overly restrict the arts.
Under the pseudonym "Maurice Boukay" he was author of the Chansons rouges. Couyba was elected to the Senate on 7 January 1907 and reelected on 3 January 1909, he was Minister of Commerce and Industry from 27 June 1911 to 11 January 1912. He was Minister of Labor and Social Assurance from 13 June 1914 to 26 August 1914, he left the Senate on 10 January 1920. He died on 18 November 1931 in Paris
Adrien Marquet was a socialist mayor of Bordeaux who turned to the far right. Marquet was born in Bordeaux, became mayor of that city in 1925 as a socialist. In 1933 he was expelled from the French Section of the Workers' International and formed the Neo-Socialists; this expulsion involved an address to the SFIO where he emphasized order and authority as necessary to win the masses, a position which Léon Blum found frightening. He and Marcel Déat formed the Neosocialists, he declared this faction to be decidedly anti-Marxist. He abandoned any form of socialism and served as Minister of the Interior for Philippe Pétain. Further like Marcel Déat he became a supporter of Pierre Laval
Michel Auguste Adolphe Landry was a French demographer and politician. He was deputy and senator for Corsica between 1910 and 1955, he was Minister of the Navy from 1920 to 1921, Minister of Public Education for two days in June 1924 and Minister of Labor and Social Security from 1931 to 1932. He was the author of several books on demographics, he saw that countries like France had moved from an age of high birth rates and high mortality, with the size of the population determined by the amount of food available, through a transition period to an age of low birth rates and long lives. The population might shrink unless the government took steps to encourage larger families. Michel Auguste Adolphe Landry was born on 29 September 1874 in Ajaccio, Corsica, to an old Corsican family, he had one brother, who became director of the French Institute in Florence, three sisters. One of them, Marguerite Pichon-Landry, became president of the National Council of French Women, he attended secondary school in Nîmes, where his father was president of the tribunal at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand.
He was admitted to the École Normale Supérieure, where he gained an agrégation de philosophie, which qualified him as an associate professor in philosophy. Landry moved to Toulouse, where he married in 1897, they had two children. He turned to the law, which he studied at the Sorbonne. In his 1901 thesis on the social utility of private property Landry presented the work of Karl Marx as an important achievement, but one that could be corrected and improved, he condemned capitalism and its obsession with profit, saw value in a form of socialism that incorporated marginalism and liberalism. This thesis drew much of it hostile. In 1904 he published L'intérêt du capital, followed by various other works on economics, the history of art, political sociology and so on. In 1907 he was appointed to the chair of economic history at the École pratique des hautes études. Landry did not succeed, he ran again for the Calvi constituency in 1910 and this time was elected in the second round. In the chamber he was interested in the subject of commerce.
In 1912 Landry became a member of the board of the natalist Alliance nationale contre le dépopulation. He was influential in obtaining the passage of the 1913 law for assistance to large families. Landry won in the first round, he was active on issues such as workers' and peasants' pensions, family income tax and finance. On 16 November 1919 Landry was reelected on the platform of the Corsican Democratic Republican Party. In 1920 he obtained creation of the "large family card" which gave public transport discounts to families with more than two children. On 24 September 1920 he was appointed Minister of the Navy in the cabinet of Georges Leygues, which resigned on 12 January 1921; as Minister he revived the Académie de Marine. Landry was elected vice-president of the chamber in 1923, reelected in 1924, he was rapporteur general of the finance committee. On 11 May 1924 Landry was reelected on the platform of the Corsican Democratic Republican Party, he again sat on the Finance Committee. On 9 June 1924 he was appointed Minister of Education, Fine Arts and Technical Education in the ephemeral cabinet of Frédéric François-Marsal, which lasted for only 24 hours between the 3rd cabinet of Raymond Poincaré and the 1st cabinet of Édouard Herriot.
On 22 April 1928 Landry was elected as deputy for Ajaccio. Again he sat on the finance committee, supported measures such as family support, affordable housing and the birth rate, he was rapporteur of projects or proposed laws related to social or family issues, notably the 1930 Social Assurance Law. He was elected senator on 14 January 1930 but resigned on 13 February 1930 and returned to the chamber, he was appointed Minister of Labor and Social Security in the 1st and 2nd cabinets of Pierre Laval, from 27 January 1931 to 16 February 1932. He passed the law that extended family allowances to all workers in industry. Landry ran unsuccessfully for reelection on 1 May 1932, he lost again in the elections on 26 April 1936, but the result was invalidated, he was elected in a fresh vote on 30 August 1936. He was again involved in proposals related to family and social problems. On 22 February 1939 the High Committee of the Population was created, with Landry as one of the five members. On 30 June 1939 the committee submitted a basic report to the government that became the Family Code by decree on 29 July 1939.
He abstained from voting on the draft constitutional law on 10 July 1940 that established the Vichy government. The government removed him from his office as mayor of Calvi. After the Liberation of France Landry would not accept appointment to the Provisional Consultative Assembly due to his Republican principles, he was appointed chairman of the committee on the cost of the enemy occupation as a member of the high consultative committee on population and the family. He was charged with advising the government on matters related to protecting the family, increasing the birthrate and integrating foreigners, he was elected to the first National Consultative Assembly on 21 October 1945, to the second National Consultative Assembly on 2 June 1946. In 1945 he gained acceptance of the principle of the family quotient, which came into force in 1948 and reduced the inequalities between rich and poor families. Landry failed to be elected to the legislature in the elections of November 1946, but wa
Paul Jacquier was a French senator. MP of Haute-Savoie from 1909 to 1919 and from 1924 to 1935 Senator of Haute-Savoie from 1935 to 1940 Undersecretary of State for Fine Arts on Dec. 9 1913 to 9 June 1914 in the government of Gaston Doumergue Undersecretary of State for the Interior on June 14, 1914 to October 29, 1915 in the governments of René Viviani and René Viviani Undersecretary of State for Finance of 19 to 23 July 1926 in the government of Edouard Herriot Minister of Labour on November 8, 1934 at 1 June 1935 in the government of Pierre-Étienne Flandin Minister of Agriculture from 1 to 7 June 1935 in the government of Fernand Bouisson
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Louis Loucheur was a French politician in the Third Republic, at first a member of the conservative Republican Federation of the Democratic Republican Alliance and of the Independent Radicals. Coming from a background in the arms industry, Loucheur became Minister of Armaments in September of 1917, he was administrator of Tréfileries et Laminoirs du Havre when he was appointed Minister of Armaments. He replaced Albert Thomas and served as armaments minister until November 26, 1918 when he became Minister of Industrial Re-construction where he remained until January 20, 1920, he was the principal economic advisor for Georges Clemenceau at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The product of this conference was the controversial Treaty of Versailles, he was Minister of Liberated Regions from 16 January 1921 to 15 January 1922 in the 7th cabinet of Aristide Briand. Loucheur was Minister of Commerce, Industry and Telegraphs under Raymond Poincaré in 1924, he served as Minister of Finance in Aristide Briand's seventh Government during 1925 and 1926.
In Édouard Herriot's Second Ministry Loucheur served as Minister of Commerce and Industry and from June 1928 to February 1930. He succeeded Maurice Bokanowski, he served again under Poincaré as Minister of Labour, Welfare Work, Social Security Provisions. Carls, Stephen. Louis Loucheur and the Shaping of Modern France 1916-1931. Louisiana State University Press. Newspaper clippings about Louis Loucheur in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Albert Pierre Camille Peyronnet was a French politician, a senator from 1912 to 1945 and Minister of Labor in 1922–24. Albert Pierre Camille Peyronnet was born on 5 January 1862 in Finistère, his father was a secondary school principal. From there Peyronnet went on to study at the faculty of law in Paris, the School of Political Science and the School of Business and Economics, he became an advocate in Cosne-sur-Loire, a magistrate in Paris, an advocate in Paris. He was deputy chief of staff of René Viviani, Minister of Labor from 1906 to 1908 Viviani's chief of staff until 1909, he was chief of staff of Louis Puech, Minister of Public Works and Telegraphs from 1910 to 1911 chief of staff of Ernest Monis, Minister of Worship in March-June 1911. Peyronnet was elected senator for the Allier on 7 January 1912, was reelected in 1921, 1929 and 1938, he joined the Democratic Left group. He was vice-president of the Senate from January 1925 to January 1929, he was appointed Minister of Labor in the 2nd cabinet of Raymond Poincaré from 15 January 1922 to 29 March 1924.
He supported shorter working days in return for the gains in efficiency. He claimed that the eight-hour day led "to suburbanization, the increase of workers' gardens, greater attendance at professional courses and libraries, the decline of alcoholism."During World War II Peyronnet voted on 10 July 1940 in favor of the constitutional change that gave full powers to Marshal Philippe Pétain. He retired from public life, he died on 18 December 1958 in Nice at the age of 96. Peyronnet's book Ministère du Travail 1906–1923 was crowned by the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. Albert Peyronnet, Le Ministère du travail, 1906-1923, Nancy. Berger-Levrault