South Arabia during World War I
The campaign in South Arabia during World War I was a minor struggle for control of the port city of Aden, an important way station for ships on their way from Asia to the Suez Canal. The British Empire declared war on the Ottoman Empire on 5 November 1914, from the beginning, the Ottomans had planned an invasion of Britains Aden Protectorate in cooperation with the local Arab tribes. The Ottomans had gathered in strength on the Cheikh Saïd. At the start of the war, the British had one force stationed in the Aden Protectorate, the Aden Brigade, in November 1914, an Ottoman force from Yemen attacked Aden, but was driven off by the Brigade. On 10 November transports conveying three battalions of the 29th Indian Brigade and the 23rd Sikh Pioneers arrived off the coast of the peninsula. They were accompanied by the armoured cruiser HMS Duke of Edinburgh, the point that had been at first selected proved impossible on account of the weather, and the troops had to land a little way off under the cover of the fire of the cruiser.
They stormed the Ottomans positions and compelled them to retreat, leaving their guns behind. The sailors took part in the fighting with the troops. Having accomplished its task, the British force re-embarked and continued on to Suez and it was not considered advisable at this time to push an expedition inland. The Ottomans, retained some forces on the boundary of the Aden Protectorate. Seven months they reoccupied Cheikh Saïd and endeavoured from there to effect a landing on the north coast of Perim and this attack was successfully repulsed by the garrison of the island, the 23rd Sikh Pioneers. Propagandising during the war, British historian F. A. McKenzie wrote of the sultan, when war broke out the Abdali Sultan proved that his loyalty to Britain was real. Though other tribes turned against us he came to our side and he soon made himself an object of special detestation to the and to many of the surrounding tribes by his open and unwavering friendship for Britain. The sultan sent word to General D. G. L.
Shaw, commanding the Aden Brigade, that the Ottomans were advancing from Mawiyah to attack him, General Shaw ordered the Aden Movable Column, under Lieutenant-Colonel H. E. A. Pearson, towards Lahij. The Aden Camel Troop was despatched to reconnoitre and it discovered a strong Ottoman force beyond Lahij, supported by a large number of Arab tribesmen. The Camel Troop fell back on Lahij, where it was reinforced by the guard of the Movable Column. This advance guard had moved up under most trying conditions, the heat was intense, there was great shortage of water, and progress was difficult over the sand. The main body of the Column was so delayed by difficulties of transport, the British in the sultans capital found themselves faced by several thousand Ottoman troops and twenty guns
John Baird, 1st Viscount Stonehaven
Baird was born in Chelsea, the son of Sir Alexander Baird, 1st Baronet, and the Hon. Annette Maria, daughter of Lawrence Palk, 1st Baron Haldon. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, and he was commissioned in the Lanarkshire Yeomanry. In 1894 he served as an aide-de-camp to the Governor of New South Wales and he was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1904 and retired from the Diplomatic Service in 1908. He was a Deputy Lieutenant for Kincardineshire from 5 January 1900 and he fought in the First World War where he was mentioned in despatches and awarded the Distinguished Service Order. In January 1919 he became Joint Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Munitions, already in April 1919 he was made Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, which he remained until the coalition government fell in October 1922. Bonar Law became Prime Minister the same month, and appointed Baird Minister of Transport and he was sworn of the Privy Council a few days later.
In the November 1922 general election, he was returned for Ayr Burghs, in December, after the Conservatives returned to power, he accepted the position of Governor-General of Australia. In accordance with the practice, the Australian Prime Minister, Stanley Bruce, had been offered a number of choices, including a Duke, a Marquess and an Earl. Bruce opted for Baird partly because of his experience and partly because he was a more modest figure than the aristocratic alternatives. In June 1925 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Stonehaven, of Ury in the County of Kincardine, lord Stonehaven arrived in Australia in October 1925. He quickly established good relations with Bruce, with whom he had much in common, from now on the Governor-Generals sole role was to be a personal representative of the Crown. There were other changes during Stonehavens term and this meant an end to travelling between government houses in Sydney and Melbourne and made the post of Governor-General less expensive. At the same time, the advent of aviation, of which Stonehaven was a keen exponent, although the Parliament was only a year old, Stonehaven agreed at once, the days when Governors-General exercised a discretion in this area had passed.
Bruces party was defeated at the October election, and Bruce lost his own seat, the Labor leader, James Scullin, took office in January 1930. Stonehavens relations with Scullin were correct but not friendly, since his political sympathies lay elsewhere and it was probably fortunate for him that his term expired in 1930, before the crises of the Scullin government began. Stonehaven was not consulted by Scullin about the choice of his successor, during his term as Governor-General, he was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New South Wales. On his return to Britain he was appointed Chairman of the Conservative Party in 1931, in 1938 he was further honoured when he was made Viscount Stonehaven, of Ury in the County of Kincardine. Lord Stonehaven married Lady Sydney Keith-Falconer, daughter of the 9th Earl of Kintore and they had two sons and three daughters
The Ottoman Empire had conquered the region in the early 16th century, but never fully gained complete control. Regional pockets of Ottoman control through local rulers maintained the Ottomans reach throughout Mesopotamia. With the turn of the 19th century came reforms, work began on a Baghdad Railway in 1888, by 1915 it had only four gaps, and travel time from Istanbul to Baghdad had fallen to 21 days. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company had obtained rights to petroleum deposits throughout the Persian Empire, except in the provinces of Azerbaijan, Mazendaran, Asdrabad. In 1914, before the war, the British government had contracted with the company for oil for the navy, the operational area of the Mesopotamian campaign was limited to the lands watered by the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. The main challenge was moving troops and supplies through the swamps, shortly after the European war started, the British sent a military force to protect Abadan, the site of one of the worlds earliest oil refineries.
British operational planning included landing troops in the Shatt-al-Arab, the reinforced 6th Division of the British Indian Army was assigned the task, designated as Indian Expeditionary Force D. At first the campaign was run by the India Office and Indian Army, the Ottoman Fourth Army was located in the region. It was composed of two corps, the XII Corps, with the 35th and 36th Divisions at Mosul, and XIII Corps, on 29 October 1914, after the pursuit of Goeben and Breslau, Breslau bombarded the Russian Black Sea port of Theodosia. On 30 October the High Command in Istanbul changed the force distribution, on 2 November Grand Vizier Said Halim Pasha expressed regret to the Allies for the actions of the navy. Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Sazonov said it was too late, the Cabinet tried to explain that hostilities were begun without its sanction by German officers serving in the navy. The Ottoman Committee of Union and Progresss official Declaration of War came on 14 November, when the Caucasus Campaign became a reality with the Bergmann Offensive, Enver Pasha sent the 37th Division and XIII Corps Headquarters to the Caucasus in support of the Third Army.
The entire XII Corps was deployed to the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, Fourth Army Headquarters was sent to Syria, to replace the Second Army Headquarters, which was sent to Istanbul. In place of the Fourth Army was the Iraq Area Command with only the 38th Division under its command, Mesopotamia was a low priority area for the Ottomans, and they did not expect any major action in the region. Regiments of the XII and XIII Corps were maintained at low levels in peacetime, lieutenant Colonel Süleyman Askerî Bey became the commander. He redeployed portions of the 38th Division at the mouth of Shatt-al-Arab, the rest of the defensive force was stationed at Basra. The Ottoman General Staff did not even possess a proper map of Mesopotamia and they tried to draw a map with the help of people who had worked in Iraq before the war, although this attempt failed. Enver Pasha bought two German maps scaled 1/1,500,000, on 6 November 1914, British offensive action began with the naval bombardment of the old fort at Fao, located at the point where the Shatt-al-Arab meets the Persian Gulf
African theatre of World War I
German colonies in Africa had been acquired in the 1880s and were not well defended. They were surrounded by territories controlled by Britain, Belgium, Colonial military forces in Africa were relatively small, poorly equipped and had been created to maintain internal order, rather than conduct military operations against other colonial forces. Most of the European warfare in Africa during the 19th century had been conducted against African societies to enslave people and to conquer territory. When news of the outbreak of war reached European colonialists in Africa, an editorial in the East African Standard on 22 August argued that Europeans in Africa should not fight each other but instead collaborate, to maintain the repression of the indigenous population. Attacks on German coaling stations and wireless stations were considered to be important to clear the seas of German commerce raiders, the Zaian War was fought between France and the Zaian confederation of Berber tribes in Morocco between 1914 and 1921.
Morocco had become a French protectorate in 1912 and the French army extended French influence eastwards through the Middle Atlas mountains towards French Algeria, by 1914 the French had 80,000 troops in Morocco. Two-thirds of the French troops were withdrawn from 1914–1915 for service in France, the French governor, reorganised his forces and pursued a forward policy rather than passive defence. The German submarine U–35 torpedoed and sank a steamer, HMS Tara, u-35 surfaced, sank the coastguard gunboat Abbas and badly damaged Nur el Bahr with its deck gun. On 14 November the Sanussi attacked an Egyptian position at Sollum and on the night of 17 November, next night a monastery at Sidi Barrani,48 miles beyond Sollum, was occupied by 300 Muhafizia and on the night of 19 November, a coastguard was killed. An Egyptian post was attacked 30 miles east of Sollum on 20 November, the British withdrew from Sollum to Mersa Matruh,120 miles further east, which had better facilities for a base, and the Western Frontier Force was created.
On 11 December, a British column sent to Duwwar Hussein was attacked along the Matruh–Sollum track and in the Affair of Wadi Senba, drove the Senussi out of the wadi. The reconnaissance continued and on 13 December at Wadi Hasheifiat, the British were attacked again and held up until artillery came into action in the afternoon, the British returned to Matruh until 25 December and made a night advance to surprise the Sanussi. At the Affair of Wadi Majid, the Sanussi were defeated but were able to withdraw to the west, air reconnaissance found more Senussi encampments in the vicinity of Matruh at Halazin, which was attacked on 23 January, in the Affair of Halazin. The Senussi fell back skilfully and attempted to envelop the British flanks, the British were pushed back on the flanks as the centre advanced and defeated the main body of Senussi, who were again able to withdraw. In February 1916, the Western Frontier Force was reinforced and a British column was sent west along the coast to re-capture Sollum, air reconnaissance discovered a Senussi encampment at Agagia, which was attacked in the Action of Agagia on 26 February.
The Senussi were defeated and intercepted by the Dorset Yeomanry as they withdrew, the British lost half their horses and 58 of 184 men but prevented the Senussi from slipping away. Jaafar Pasha, the commander of the Senussi forces on the coast, was captured and Sollum was re-occupied by British forces on 14 March 1916, which concluded the coastal campaign. On 11 February 1916 Ahmed Sharif as-Senussi, leader of the Senussi order in Cyrenaica, occupied the oasis at Bahariya, the oasis at Farafra was occupied at the same time and the Senussi moved on to the oasis at Dakhla on 27 February
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Italian Front (World War I)
The Italian Front was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Fighting along the front displaced much of the population, of which several thousand died from malnutrition. The Allied victory at Vittorio Veneto and the disintegration of Austria-Hungary ended the military operations, Austria-Hungary omitted to consult Italy before sending the ultimatum to Serbia and refused to discuss compensation due according to the art. By the 1910s, the expansionist ideas of this movement were taken up by a significant part of the Italian political elite. The annexation of those Austrian territories that were inhabited by Italians, became the main Italian war goal, however, of around 1.5 million people living in those areas, 45% were Italian speakers, while the rest were Slovenes and Croats. In northern Dalmatia, which was among the Italian war aims, on 23 May, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary. Italys entry was engineered in secret by the 1915 Treaty of London, set up between the British Foreign Secretary Edward Grey, the Italian Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino and the French Foreign Minister Jules Cambon.
On February 16,1915, despite concurrent negotiations with Austria, the final choice was aided by the arrival of news in March of Russian victories in the Carpathians. The Treaty of London was concluded on April 26 binding Italy to fight within one month, not until May 4 did Salandra denounce the Triple Alliance in a private note to its signatories. During the Italo-Turkish War in Libya, the Italian military suffered equipment, at the opening of the campaign, Austro-Hungarian troops occupied and fortified high ground of the Julian Alps and Karst Plateau, but the Italians initially outnumbered their opponents three-to-one. An Italian offensive aimed to cross the Soča river, take the fortress town of Gorizia. This offensive opened the first Battles of the Isonzo, because the Austrian forces occupied higher ground, Italians conducted difficult offensives while climbing. The Italian forces therefore failed to drive much beyond the river, despite a professional officer corps, severely under-trained Italian units lacked morale.
Also many troops deeply disliked the newly appointed Italian commander, general Luigi Cadorna, preexisting equipment and munition shortages slowed progress and frustrated all expectations for a Napoleonic style breakout. Like most contemporaneous militaries, the Italian army primarily used horses for transport but struggled, the Italians recuperated, rearmed with 1200 heavy guns, and on 18 October 1915 launched Third Battle of the Isonzo, another attack. Forces of Austria-Hungary again repulsed this Italian offensive, which concluded on 4 November without resulting gains, the Italians again launched another offensive on 10 November, the Fourth Battle of the Isonzo. Italian Armies in the North East of the country, the offensive began on 11 March 1916 with 15 divisions, and resulted in no gain. Later in 1916, four more battles along the Isonzo river erupted, the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo, launched by the Italians in August, resulted in a success greater than the previous attacks
Home front during World War I
The home front during World War I covers the domestic, economic and political histories of countries involved in that conflict. It covers the mobilization of armed forces and war supplies, for the nonmilitary interactions among the major players see Diplomatic history of World War I. The Allies had much more potential wealth that they could spend on the war, One estimate, is that the Allies spent $147 billion on the war and the Central Powers only $61 billion. Among the Allies and its Empire spent $47 billion, Total war demanded total mobilization of all the nations resources for a common goal. Manpower had to be channeled into the front lines, behind the lines labor power had to be redirected away from less necessary activities that were luxuries during a total war. In particular, vast munitions industries had to be built up to provide shells, warships, airplanes, agriculture had to be mobilized as well, to provide food for both civilians and for soldiers and for horses to move supplies. Transportation in general was a challenge, especially when Britain and Germany each tried to intercept merchant ships headed for the enemy, Britain financed the Allies until 1916, when it ran out of money and had to borrow from the United States.
The US took over the financing of the Allies in 1917 with loans that it insisted be repaid after the war, the victorious Allies looked to defeated Germany in 1919 to pay reparations that would cover some of their costs. For more details on economics see Economic history of World War I, World War I had a profound impact on woman suffrage across the belligerents. France almost did so but stopped short, at the outbreak of war, patriotic feelings spread throughout over the whole country, and many of the class barriers of Edwardian era faded during the years of combat. However, the Catholics in southern Ireland moved overnight to demands for immediate independence after the failed Easter Rebellion of 1916. Northern Ireland remained loyal to the crown, Economic sacrifices were made, however, in the name of defeating the enemy. In 1915 Liberal politician David Lloyd George took charge of the newly created Ministry of Munitions and he dramatically increased the output of artillery shells—the main weapon actually used in battle.
In 1916 he became secretary for war, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith was a disappointment, he formed a coalition government in 1915 but it was ineffective. Asquith was replaced by Lloyd George in late 1916 and he had a strong hand in the managing of every affair, making many decisions himself. Historians credit Lloyd George with providing the energy and organisation that won the War. Although German were using Zeppelins to bomb the cities, morale remained high due in part to the propaganda churned out by the national newspapers. With a severe shortage of skilled workers, industry redesigned work so that it could be done by unskilled men and women so that war-related industries grew rapidly, Lloyd George cut a deal with the trades unions—they approved the dilution and threw their organizations into the war effort
Christopher Addison, 1st Viscount Addison
Christopher Addison, 1st Viscount Addison KG PC FRCS was a British medical doctor and politician. He was a prominent anatomist, and perhaps the most eminent doctor ever to enter the Commons and he was a leader in issues of health, wartime munitions and agriculture. Although not highly visible, he played a role in the postwar governments that followed both world wars. Addison worked hard to promote the National Insurance scheme in 1911 and he and Lloyd George fell out and he joined the Labour Party, Addison was born in the rural parish of Hogsthorpe in Lincolnshire, the son of Robert Addison and Susan, daughter of Charles Fanthorpe. His family had owned and run a farm for several generations and he maintained a strong interest in agriculture and he attended Trinity College, from the age of thirteen. He trained in medicine at Sheffield School of Medicine and St Bartholomews Hospital in London and his education was expensive for his family, and he insisted on re-paying his parents once he had begun his career.
In 1892, Addison graduated from the University of London as a Bachelor of Medicine, a year he qualified as a Medical Doctor and two years after that he was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. He combined private practice with academic research, and taught anatomy at Sheffield School of Medicine, in 1896 he became professor of anatomy at the newly formed University College of Sheffield, and edited the Quarterly Medical Journal from 1898 to 1901. In 1901, he moved to London again, teaching at Charing Cross Hospital and he published his research on anatomy and became Hunterian professor with the Royal College of Surgeons. Motivated by concern for the treatment of the poor, and that the effects of poverty on health could be only by governments, not by doctors. He was adopted as Liberal candidate for Hoxton, Shoreditch, in 1907, in August 1914, he was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education, under Jack Pease. His work here was largely concerned with improving the health and welfare of children, Addison became Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Munitions in May 1915.
Addison introduced a degree of intervention in the free market known as War Socialism to prompt faster munitions production, ammunition supply-lines dictated the tempo of the war, especially in the first year of fighting, so stability and productivity within this industry were of the utmost importance. Raymond Unwin an influential civil servant from this time injected some of the late Victorian/utopian/Fabian philosophy of garden suburbs and ideals from the cheap cottages movement launched in 1905. With hindsight, this may be seen as something of a prototype of the housing that followed in the post-war period. The Ministry of Munitions was a new Ministry and headed by Lloyd George to rapidly improve, working conditions were improved in the new, state-owned industry, and Addison created and implemented schemes that greatly increased the efficiency of production. He became a Privy Counsellor and was promoted to Minister of Munitions when Lloyd George became Minister of War in July 1916 and he supported Lloyd George against the Prime Minister, H. H.
Asquith, at the end of 1916, and continued into the new coalition cabinet. In July 1917, he became a Minister Without Portfolio with responsibility for analysing the problems that Britain would face after the war and he worked with Arthur Greenwood to develop programmes for sweeping social reforms
The peninsula forms the northern bank of the Dardanelles, a strait that provided a sea route to the Russian Empire, one of the Allied powers during the war. Intending to secure it, Russias allies Britain and France launched an attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula. The naval attack was repelled and after eight months fighting, with casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt. The campaign was one of the greatest Ottoman victories during the war, in Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nations history, a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled. In 1908, a group of officers, known as the Young Turks. The new régime implemented a program of reform to modernise the political and economic system. An enthusiastic supporter, Germany provided significant investment, German diplomats subsequently found increasing influence, despite Britain previously being the predominant power in the region, while German officers assisted in training and re-equipping the army.
Despite this support, the resources of the Ottoman Empire were depleted by the cost of the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913. In December 1913, the Germans sent a mission to Constantinople. The geographical position of the Ottoman Empire meant that Russia and her allies France, during the Sarajevo Crisis in 1914, German diplomats offered Turkey an anti-Russian alliance and territorial gains in Caucasia, north-west Iran and Trans-Caspia. The pro-British faction in the Cabinet was isolated due to the British ambassador taking leave until 18 August, as the crisis deepened in Europe, Ottoman policy was to obtain a guarantee of territorial integrity and potential advantages, unaware that the British might enter a European war. This action strained diplomatic relations between the two empires and the German government offered SMS Goeben and SMS Breslau to the Ottoman navy as replacements, by allowing the German ships to enter the Dardanelles, the Ottomans confirmed their links to Germany. In September, the British naval mission to the Ottomans, which had established in 1912 under Admiral Arthur Limpus, was recalled due to increasing concern that Turkey would soon enter the war.
Rear Admiral Wilhelm Souchon of the Imperial German Navy took over command of the Ottoman navy, the German naval presence and the success of German armies on all fronts, gave the pro-German faction in the Ottoman government enough influence to declare war on Russia. On 27 October and Breslau, having been renamed Yavûz Sultân Selîm and Midilli, sortied into the Black Sea, bombarded the Russian port of Odessa and sank several Russian ships. The Ottomans refused an Allied demand that they expel the German missions and on 31 October 1914, Russia declared war on Turkey on 2 November. The next day, the British ambassador left Constantinople and a British naval squadron off the Dardanelles bombarded the outer defensive forts at Kum Kale, a shell hit a magazine, knocked the guns off their mounts and killed 86 soldiers. Fighting began in Mesopotamia, following a British landing to occupy the oil facilities in the Persian Gulf, the Ottomans prepared to attack Egypt in early 1915, aiming to occupy the Suez Canal and cut the Mediterranean route to India and the Far East
Serbian Campaign of World War I
The Serbian Campaign of World War I was fought from late July 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded the Kingdom of Serbia at the outset of World War I, until the wars conclusion in November 1918. The front ranged from the Danube River to southern Macedonia and back north again, the Serbian Army declined severely towards the end of the war, falling from about 420,000 at its peak to about 100,000 at the moment of liberation. The Kingdom of Serbia lost more than 1,200,000 inhabitants during the war, according to estimates prepared by the Yugoslav government in 1924, Serbia lost 265,164 soldiers, or 25% of all mobilized people. By comparison, France lost 16. 8%, Germany 15. 4%, Russia 11. 5%, Austria-Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of 1908–09 by annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which it had occupied since 1878. This angered the Kingdom of Serbia and its patron, the Pan-Slavic, Russian political manoeuvring in the region destabilised peace accords that were already unravelling in what was known as the powder keg of Europe.
In 1912 and 1913, the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League of Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro and the fracturing Ottoman Empire. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire by creating an independent Principality of Albania and enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia and this began a period of diplomatic manoeuvring among Austria-Hungary, Russia and Britain called the July Crisis. When Serbia agreed to eight of the ten demands, Austria-Hungary declared war on 28 July 1914. The dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia escalated into what is now known as World War I, and drew in Russia, Germany and the United Kingdom. Within a week, Austria-Hungary had to face a war with Russia, Serbias patron, the result was that Serbia became a subsidiary front in the massive fight that started to unfold along Austria-Hungarys border with Russia. Serbias strategy was to hold on as long as it could and hope the Russians could defeat the main Austro-Hungarian Army, with or without the help of other allies.
Serbia constantly had to worry about its hostile neighbor to the east, with which it had fought several wars, the standing peacetime Austro-Hungarian army had some 36,000 officers and non-commissioned officers and 414,000 soldiers. During the mobilization, this number was increased to a total of 3,350,000 men of all ranks and this vast manpower allowed the Austro-Hungarian army to replace its losses regularly and keep units at their formation strength. According to some sources, during 1914 there were on average 150,000 men per month sent to replace the loses in the field army, during 1915 these numbers rose to 200,000 per month. However, with the beginning of the Russian general mobilization, Armeeoberkommando decided to move the 2nd Army to Galicia to counter Russian forces, the Austro-Hungarian defeats suffered during the first invasion of Serbia forced AOK to transfer two divisions from the 2nd Army permanently to Potioreks force. By 12 August, Austria-Hungary had amassed over 500,000 soldiers on Serbian frontiers, with the departure of the major part of the 2nd Army to the Russian front, this number fell to some 285,000 of operational troops, including garrisons.
Apart from land forces, Austria-Hungary deployed its Danube River flotilla of six monitors, many Austro-Hungarian soldiers were not of good quality. About one-quarter of them were illiterate, and most of the conscripts from the subject nationalities did not speak or understand German or Hungarian
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker