Department of Trade and Industry (United Kingdom)
The Department of Trade and Industry was a United Kingdom government department formed on 19 October 1970. It was replaced with the creation of the Department for Business and Regulatory Reform and the Department for Innovation and Skills on 28 June 2007; the department was first formed on 19 October 1970 with the merger of the Board of Trade and the Ministry of Technology, creating a new cabinet post of Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. The new department took over the Department of Employment's former responsibilities for monopolies and mergers. In January 1974, the department's responsibilities for energy production were transferred to a newly created Department of Energy. On 5 March that year, following a Labour Party victory in the February 1974 general election, the department was split into the Department of Trade, the Department of Industry and the Department of Prices and Consumer Protection. In 1983 the departments of Trade and Industry were reunited; the Department of Energy was re-merged back into the DTI in 1992, but various media-related functions transferred to the Department for National Heritage.
Until it was succeeded in June 2007 the DTI continued to set the energy policy of the United Kingdom. After the 2005 general election the DTI was renamed to the Department for Productivity and Industry, but the name reverted to Department of Trade and Industry less than a week after widespread derision, including some from the Confederation of British Industry; the DTI had a wide range of responsibilities. There were nine main areas covered by the DTI: Company Law Trade Business Growth Innovation Employment Law Regional Economic Development Energy Science Consumer Law. From 1999 to 2005 it led the national E-Commerce Awards with InterForum, a not for profit membership organisation that helped British businesses to trade electronically; this aimed to encourage Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises to develop their business through the use of E-Commerce technologies. It had responsibility for investigating misconduct by company directors, in which role Private Eye lampooned it as "the Department of Timidity and Inaction".
Avanti Energy in the United Kingdom Restricted Enforcement Unit United Kingdom budget Business Link – set up by the DTI in 1993 UK Trade & Investment – set up in 1999 Special Representative for International Trade and Investment Department of Trade and Industry DTI Website Archived on 6 June 2007 Friends of the Action Group DTI e-commerce awards Enterprise Initiative
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
1964 United Kingdom general election
The 1964 United Kingdom general election was held on 15 October 1964, five years after the previous election, thirteen years after the Conservative Party, first led by Winston Churchill, had entered power. It resulted in the Conservatives, now led by its fourth leader, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, narrowly losing the election to the Labour Party, led by Harold Wilson, with Labour having an overall majority of four seats, it resulted in Labour ending its thirteen years in opposition and led to Wilson to become, at the time, the youngest Prime Minister in more than 150 years. Both major parties had changed leadership in 1963. Douglas-Home shortly afterwards disclaimed his title under the Peerage Act 1963 in order to lead the party from the Commons. Macmillan had led the Conservative government since January 1957. Despite initial popularity and a resounding election victory in 1959, he had become unpopular in the early-1960s, while it was for a while thought that the Conservatives would win the scheduled 1964 general election, albeit with a reduced majority, the emergence of the Profumo affair in March 1963 and Macmillan's handling of the matter all but destroyed the credibility of his government.
While he survived a vote of no confidence in June 1963, polling indicated that the Conservatives would lose the next election if Macmillan remained in power, along with health issues, caused Macmillan to announce his resignation in the autumn of 1963. Douglas-Home faced a difficult task in rebuilding the party's popularity with just a year elapsing between taking office and having to face a general election. Wilson had begun to try to tie the Labour Party to the growing confidence of Britain in the 1960s, asserting that the "white heat of revolution" would sweep away "restrictive practices... on both sides of industry". The Liberal Party enjoyed a resurgence after a virtual wipeout in the 1950s, doubled its share of the vote at the expense of the Conservatives. Although Labour did not increase its vote share the fall in support for the Conservatives led to Wilson securing an overall majority of four seats; this proved to be unworkable, Wilson called a snap election in 1966. The pre-election campaign was prolonged, as Douglas-Home delayed calling a general election to give himself as much time as possible to improve the prospects of his party.
The election campaign formally began on 15 September 1964 when Douglas-Home saw the Queen and asked for a dissolution of Parliament. The campaign was dominated by some of the more voluble characters of the political scene at the time. While George Brown, deputy leader of the Labour Party, toured the country making energetic speeches, Quintin Hogg was a leading spokesman for the Conservatives; the image of Hogg lashing out at a Wilson poster with his walking stick was one of the most striking of the campaign. Many party speakers at televised rallies, had to deal with hecklers; the election night was broadcast live by the BBC, was presented for the fifth and final time by Richard Dimbleby, with Robin Day, Ian Trethowan, Cliff Michelmore and David Butler. NOP: Lab swing 3.5% Gallup: Lab swing 4% Research Services: Lab swing 2.75% Daily Express: Lab swing of 1.75% The election resulted in a slim majority of four seats for the Labour Party, so they were in government for the first time since 1951.
Labour achieved a swing of just over 3%, although its vote rose by only 0.2%. The main shift was the swing from the Conservatives to the Liberals of 5.7%. The Liberals won nearly twice as many votes as in 1959 because they had 150 more candidates. Wilson became Prime Minister; the four-seat majority was not sustainable for a full Parliament, Wilson called another general election in 1966. In particular the small majority meant the government could not implement its policy of nationalising the steel industry, due to the opposition of two of its backbenchers, Woodrow Wyatt and Desmond Donnelly; this was the only election in Britain's recent history when all seats were won by the three main parties: no minor parties, independents or splinter groups won any seats. It was the last election in which one party, namely the Conservative Party, contested every single seat; the Conservatives had held off on contesting certain Liberal-held seats as per local-level agreements to avoid vote-splitting, but ended that policy at this election.
The resultant splitting of votes helped grant Labour a majority, by throwing two Liberal-held seats in northern England to Labour. All comparisons are with the 1959 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party; such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1964; such circumstances are marked with a †. Both BBC and ITV provid
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976. Entering Parliament in 1945, Wilson was appointed a parliamentary secretary in the Attlee ministry and rose through the ministerial ranks. In opposition to the next Conservative government, he served as Shadow Chancellor and Shadow Foreign Secretary. Hugh Gaitskell Labour leader, died in 1963 and Wilson was elected leader. Narrowly winning the 1964 general election, Wilson won an increased majority in a snap 1966 election. Wilson's first period as Prime Minister coincided with a period of low unemployment and relative economic prosperity, though hindered by significant problems with Britain's external balance of payments. In 1969 he sent British troops to Northern Ireland. After losing the 1970 election to Edward Heath, he spent four years as Leader of the Opposition before the February 1974 election resulted in a hung parliament.
After Heath's talks with the Liberals broke down, Wilson returned to power as leader of a minority government until another general election in October, resulting in a narrow Labour victory. A period of economic crisis had begun to hit most Western countries, in 1976 Wilson announced his resignation as Prime Minister. Wilson's approach to socialism was moderate compared to others in his party at the time, emphasising programmes aimed at increasing opportunity in society, rather than on the controversial socialist goal of promoting wider public ownership of industry. Himself a member of the party's "soft left", Wilson joked about leading a cabinet made up of social democrats, comparing himself to a Bolshevik revolutionary presiding over a Tsarist cabinet, but there was arguably little to divide him ideologically from the cabinet majority. Overall, Wilson is seen to have managed a number of difficult political issues with considerable tactical skill, including such divisive issues for his party as the role of public ownership, membership of the European Community, the Vietnam War.
His stated ambition of improving Britain's long-term economic performance was left unfulfilled. He lost his energy and drive in his second premiership, accomplished little as the leadership split over Europe and trade union issues began tearing Labour apart. Wilson was born at 4 Warneford Road, Huddersfield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on 11 March 1916, he came from a political family: his father James Herbert Wilson was a works chemist, active in the Liberal Party, going as far as to be Winston Churchill's deputy election agent in his 1908 by election before joining the Labour Party. His mother Ethel was a schoolteacher before her marriage; when Wilson was eight, he visited London and a much-reproduced photograph was taken of him standing on the doorstep of 10 Downing Street. At the age of ten he went with his family to Australia, where he became fascinated with the pomp and glamour of politics. On the way home he told his mother, "I am going to be Prime Minister." Wilson won a scholarship to attend Royds Hall Grammar School, his local grammar school in Huddersfield in Yorkshire.
His father, working as an industrial chemist, was made redundant in December 1930, it took him nearly two years to find work. Wilson was educated in the Sixth Form at the Wirral Grammar School for Boys, where he became Head Boy. Wilson did well at school and, although he missed getting a scholarship, he obtained an exhibition. At Oxford, Wilson was moderately active in politics as a member of the Liberal Party but was influenced by G. D. H. Cole, his politics tutor, R. B. McCallum, considered Wilson as the best student he had, he graduated in PPE with "an outstanding first class Bachelor of Arts degree, with alphas on every paper" in the final examinations, a series of major academic awards. Biographer Roy Jenkins wrote: Academically his results put him among prime ministers in the category of Peel, Asquith, no one else. But...he lacked originality. What he was superb at was the quick assimilation of knowledge, combined with an ability to keep it ordered in his mind and to present it lucidly in a form welcome to his examiners.
He continued in academia, becoming one of the youngest Oxford dons of the century at the age of 21. He was a lecturer in Economic History at New College from 1937, a research fellow at University College. On New Year's Day 1940, in the chapel of Mansfield College, Oxford, he married Mary Baldwin who remained his wife until his death. Mary Wilson became a published poet, they had two sons and Giles. In their twenties, his sons were under a kidnap threat from the IRA because of their father's prominence. On the outbreak of the Second World War, Wilson volunteered for military service but was classed as a specialist and moved into the civil service instead. For much of
Board of Trade
The Board of Trade is a British government department concerned with commerce and industry within the Department for International Trade. Its full title is The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations, but is known as the Board of Trade, known as the Lords of Trade and Plantations or Lords of Trade, it has been a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom; the Board has gone through several evolutions, beginning with extensive involvement in colonial matters in the 17th Century, to powerful regulatory functions in the Victorian Era, to being dormant in the last third of 20th century. In 2017, it was revitalized as an advisory board headed by the International Trade Secretary who has nominally held the title of President of the Board of Trade, who at present is the only privy counsellor of the Board, the other members of the present Board filling roles as advisers; the board was first established as a temporary committee of England's Privy Council to advise on colonial questions in the early 17th century, when these settlements were forming.
The Board would evolve into a government department with considerable power and a diverse range of functions, including regulation of domestic and foreign commerce, the development and interpretation of the Acts of Trade and Navigation, the review and acceptance of legislation passed in the colonies. Between 1696 and 1782 the Board of Trade, in partnership with the various secretaries of state over that time, held responsibility for colonial affairs in British America; the newly created office of Home Secretary held colonial responsibility until 1801, when the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was established. Between 1768 and 1782 while with the Secretary of State for the Colonies, whose secretaryship was held jointly with the presidency of the Board of Trade, the latter position remained vacant. Following the loss of the American War of Independence, both the board and the short-lived secretaryship were dismissed by the king on 2 May 1782 and the board was abolished by the Civil List and Secret Service Money Act 1782.
Following the Treaty of Paris 1783, with the continuing need to regulate trade between its remaining colonies, the independent United States and all other countries, a new Committee of Council on Trade and Plantations was established by William Pitt the Younger. Mandated by an order in Council on 5 March 1784, the committee was reconstructed and strengthened by a second order, on 23 August 1786, under which it operated for the rest of its existence; the committee has been known as the Board of Trade since 1786, but this name was only adopted by an act of 1861. The new Board's first functions were consultative like earlier iterations, its concern with plantations, in matters such as the approval of colonial laws, more accomplished; as the industrial revolution expanded, the board's work became executive and domestic and from the 1840s a succession of acts of parliament gave it regulatory duties, notably concerning railways, merchant shipping, joint stock companies. This department was merged with the Ministry of Technology in 1970, to form the Department of Trade and Industry.
The Secretary of State for Trade and Industry was President of the Board of Trade. The full Board has met only once since the mid-20th century, during commemorations of the bicentenary of the Board in 1986. In 2016, the role of President of the Board of Trade was transferred to the Secretary of State for International Trade; the Board was reconstituted in October 2017. In 1622, at the end of the Dutch Twelve Years' Truce, King James I directed the Privy Council of England to establish a temporary committee to investigate the causes of various economic and supply problems, the decline in trade and consequent financial difficulties; this would be followed by a number of temporary committees and councils to regulate the colonies and their commerce. The Board's formal title remains "The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations". In 1634, Charles I appointed a new commission for regulating plantations, it was headed by the Archbishop of Canterbury with its primary goals to increase royal authority and the influence of the Church of England in the colonies with the great influx of Puritans to the New World.
Soon after however, the English Civil Wars erupted and initiated a long period of political instability in England and the resultant loss of productivity for these committees. Between 1643 and 1648 the Long Parliament would establish a parliamentary Commission for Plantations to take the lead in colonial and commercial affairs; this period saw the first regulation of Royal tonnage and poundage and begin the modernization of customs and excise as growing sources of government revenue. During the Interregnum and Commonwealth three acts of the Rump Parliament in 1650 and 1651 are notable in the historical development of England's commercial and colonial programs; these include the first Commission of Trade to be established by an Act of Parliament on 1 August 1650. The instructions to the named commissioners, headed by Henry Vane the Younger, included consideration of both domestic a
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
John Davies (businessman)
John Emerson Harding Harding-Davies, was a successful British businessman who served as Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry during the 1960s. He went into politics and served in the Cabinet of Edward Heath as the first Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, a position which he held from October 1970 to 4 November 1972. Davies from July to October 1970 was Minister of Technology, he became a Privy Councillor and, in 1972, was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster with special responsibilities for the co-ordination of British policy towards the European Communities. In 1979 Davies was to be made a life peer as Baron Harding-Davies, but died before the creation of the peerage passed the Great Seal. Peerage history was made when, by Royal Warrant bearing the date 27 February 1980, Queen Elizabeth II granted his widow Vera Georgina the title of Lady Harding-Davies. Davies was born in Blackheath, London on 8 January 1916, the second son of Arnold Thomas Davies a Chartered Accountant from Folkestone, by his wife Edith Minnie Harding only child of Captain Francis Dallas Harding - see Harding of Baraset - and Minnie Mary Malchus of Calcutta.
Davies went to St Edward's School, Oxford. He followed his father into accountancy as an articled clerk from 1934. Davies was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant and spent most of the war in the Combined Operations headquarters. From 1945 he worked for Combined Operations Experimental Establishment, received the MBE on demobilization in 1946. On 8 January 1943, he married Vera Georgina Bates, only child of George William Bates, Managing Director of Barratts Shoes, by his wife Elvina Rosa Taylor; the marriage produced two children. He joined the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company as an accountant in the marketing division, he qualified as a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in 1949. Davies worked for the company in London and Paris. In 1956, Davies was promoted to be General Manager for BP, in 1960 he was Director of BP Trading; the next year, Davies was appointed as Vice-Chairman and Managing Director of Shell-Mex and BP Ltd, becoming the youngest man to hold the post. This position put him in charge of a national chain of petrol stations.
He became a Director of Hill Samuel Group. Due to his position he was made a member of the grand council of the Federation of British Industry, chaired a committee on technical legislation, his conduct on that committee was regarded as impressive. The Federation merged with British Employers' Federation and the National Association of British Manufacturers in 1965 to form the Confederation of British Industry. Davies was appointed as its Director-General from that July, wanting the organisation to have a much higher profile than its predecessors, he supported initiatives such as the National Economic Development Council where government and trades unions met to discuss the economy, set up a joint CBI-TUC joint committee. He was supportive of British entry into the European Community when the government applied in 1967. Davies surprised some, such as Enoch Powell in May 1967, when he made a speech in California in which he observed that the Labour government's measures to keep pay and prices down were working.
As CBI chief, Davies had some quango appointments as a member of the British Productivity Council, the British National Export Council and the Council of Industrial Design. He was a member of the Public Schools Commission; however Davies was a Conservative by instinct and after the devaluation of the Pound sterling in November 1967, he became much more critical of the government. He would lambast Labour ministers on television, although he continued to work together with Ministers in private. Davies handed over the title of Director-General to Campbell Adamson in 1969. In 1969, Davies was recruited by Edward Heath to join his government. Heath was looking to lead a'businesslike' government and believed that senior business figures serving in senior posts would provide more expert management. Davies began to be more quotably critical, describing the "solemn and binding" accord between the government and the TUC as useful only in the lavatory, he failed to win the selection for the Conservative nomination at the Louth byelection of 1969, for Cities of London and Westminster for the general election.
However, with Central Office support, Davies was found a seat at Knutsford in Cheshire, which he won in the general election on 18 June 1970. That October, Davies was promoted to be Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, a new department set up by Heath, he introduced himself at the Conservative Party Conference with a speech which reiterated Heath's pre-election policy of refusing to intervene in industry. The phrase most associated with him was said in the House of Commons on 4 November, when Davies said: "We believe that the essential need of the country is to gear its policies to the great majority of people, who are not'lame ducks', who do not need a