Alexander Mackenzie (politician)
Alexander Mackenzie, was a Scottish-Canadian politician who served as the second prime minister of Canada, in office from 1873 to 1878. Mackenzie was born in Logierait, Scotland, he left school at the age of 13, following his father's death, trained as a stonemason. Mackenzie immigrated to Canada, his masonry business prospered, allowing him to pursue other interests – such as the editorship of a pro-Reformist of a newspaper called "the Lambton Shield." Mackenzie was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada in 1861, as a supporter of George Brown. In 1867, Mackenzie was elected to the new House of Commons of Canada for the Liberal Party, he became leader of the party in mid-1873, a few months succeeded John A. Macdonald as prime minister, following Macdonald's resignation in the aftermath of the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie and the Liberals won a clear majority at the 1874 election, he was popular among the general public for his humble background and apparent democratic tendencies.
As prime minister, Mackenzie continued the nation-building programme, begun by his predecessor. His government established the Supreme Court of Canada and Royal Military College of Canada, created the District of Keewatin to better administer Canada's newly acquired western territories. However, it made little progress on the transcontinental railway, struggled to deal with the aftermath of the Panic of 1873. At the 1878 election, Mackenzie's government suffered a landslide defeat, he remained leader of the Liberal Party for another two years, continued on as a member of parliament until his death, due to a stroke. Mackenzie was born on 28 January 1822 in Logierait, Scotland, the son of Mary Stewart and Alexander Mackenzie Sr. who were married in 1817. The site of his birthplace is known as Clais-'n-deoir "The Hollow of the Weeping", where families said their goodbyes as the convicted were led to nearby Gallows Hill; the house he was born in was built by his father and is still standing in 2019.
He was the third of ten boys. Alexander Mackenzie Sr. was a carpenter and ship's joiner who had to move around for work after the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. Mackenzie's father died on 7 March 1836 and at the age of thirteen Alexander Mackenzie Jr. was thus forced to end his formal education in order to help support his family. He apprenticed as a stonemason and met his future wife, Helen Neil, in Irvine, where her father was a stonemason; the Neils were Baptist and shortly thereafter, Mackenzie converted from Presbyterianism to Baptist beliefs. Together with the Neils, he immigrated to Canada in 1842 to seek a better life. Mackenzie's faith was to link him to the influential temperance cause strong in Canada West where he lived, a constituency of which he was to represent in the Parliament of Canada; the Neils and Mackenzie settled in Ontario. The limestone in the area proved too hard for his stonemason tools and, not having money to buy new tools, Mackenzie took a job as a labourer constructing a building on Princess Street.
The contractor on the job claimed financial difficulty and so Mackenzie accepted a promissory note for summer wages. The note proved to be worthless. Subsequently, Mackenzie won a contract building a bomb-proof arch at Fort Henry, he became a foreman on the construction of Kingston's four Martello Towers - Murney Tower, Fort Frederick, Cathcart Tower, Shoal Tower. He was a foreman on the construction of the Welland Canal and the Lachine Canal. While working on the Beauharnois Canal a one-ton stone crushed one of his legs, he never regained the strength in that leg. It was while in Kingston that Mackenzie became a vocal opponent of religious and political entitlement and corruption in government. Mackenzie married Helen Neil in 1845 and with her had three children, with only one girl, surviving infancy, he and Helen moved to Sarnia, Ontario in 1847 and Mary was born in 1848. They were soon joined from Scotland by his mother, he began working as a general contractor, earning a reputation for being a hard working, honest man as well as having a working man's view on fiscal policy.
Mackenzie helped construct many jails across southern Ontario. A number of these still stand today including the Sandwich Courthouse and Jail now known as the Mackenzie Hall Cultural Centre in Windsor and the Kent County Courthouse and Jail in Chatham, Ontario, he bid, unsuccessfully, on the construction of the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa in 1859. Helen died in 1852 succumbing to the effects of excessive doses of mercury-based calomel used to treat a fever while in Kingston. In 1853, he married Jane Sym. Mackenzie involved himself in politics from the moment he arrived in Canada, he fought passionately for the elimination of all forms of class distinction. In 1851 he became the Secretary for the Reform Party for Lambton. After convincing him to run in Kent/Lambton, Mackenzie campaigned relentlessly for George Brown, owner of the Reformist paper The Globe in the 1851 election, helping Brown to win his first seat in the Legislative Assembly. Mackenzie and Brown remained the closest of colleagues for the rest of their lives.
In 1852 Mackenzie became editor of the Lambton Shield. As editor, Mackenzie was a little too vocal, leading the paper to a lawsuit for libel against the local conservative candidate; because a key witness claimed Cabinet Confidence and would not te
2nd Canadian Ministry
The Second Canadian Ministry was the cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie. It governed Canada from 7 November 1873 to 8 October 1878, including the last two months of the 2nd Canadian Parliament as well as all of the 3rd; the government was formed by the Liberal Party of Canada. Prime Minister 7 November 1873 – 17 October 1878: Alexander Mackenzie Minister of Agriculture 7 November 1873 – 15 December 1876: Luc Letellier de St-Just 15 December 1876 – 26 January 1877: Isaac Burpee 26 January 1877 – 17 October 1878: Charles Alphonse Pantaléon Pelletier Minister of Customs 7 November 1873 – 17 October 1878: Isaac Burpee Minister of Finance 7 November 1873 – 17 October 1878: Richard John Cartwright Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs 7 November 1873 – 17 October 1878: The Minister of the Interior 7 November 1873 – 7 October 1876: David Laird 7 October 1876 – 24 October 1876: Richard William Scott 24 October 1876 – 17 October 1878: David Mills Minister of Inland Revenue 7 November 1873 – 8 July 1874: Télesphore Fournier 8 July 1874 – 9 November 1876: Félix Geoffrion 9 November 1876 – 8 June 1877: Toussaint Antoine Rodolphe Laflamme 8 June 1877 – 8 October 1877: Joseph-Édouard Cauchon 8 October 1877 – 17 October 1878: Wilfrid Laurier Minister of the Interior 7 November 1873 – 7 October 1876: David Laird 7 October 1876 – 24 October 1876: Richard William Scott 24 October 1876 – 17 October 1878: David Mills Minister of Justice 7 November 1873 – 1 June 1874: Antoine-Aimé Dorion 1 June 1874 – 8 July 1874: Sir Albert James Smith 8 July 1874 – 19 May 1875: Télesphore Fournier 19 May 1875 – 8 June 1877: Dominick Edward Blake 8 June 1877 – 17 October 1878: Toussaint Antoine Rodolphe Laflamme Attorney General of Canada 7 November 1873 – 17 October 1878: The Minister of Justice 7 November 1873 – 1 June 1874: Antoine-Aimé Dorion 1 June 1874 – 8 July 1874: Sir Albert James Smith 8 July 1874 – 19 May 1875: Télesphore Fournier 19 May 1875 – 8 June 1877: Dominick Edward Blake 8 June 1877 – 17 October 1878: Toussaint Antoine Rodolphe Laflamme Leader of the Government in the Senate 7 November 1873 – 14 December 1876: Luc Letellier de St-Just 14 December 1876 – 17 October 1878: Richard William Scott Minister of Marine and Fisheries 7 November 1873 – 17 October 1878: Sir Albert James Smith Minister of Militia and Defence 7 November 1873 – 30 September 1874: William Ross 30 September 1874 – 21 January 1878: William Berrian Vail 21 January 1878 – 17 October 1878: Alfred Gilpin Jones Postmaster General 7 November 1873 – 19 May 1875: Donald Alexander Macdonald 19 May 1875 – 9 October 1875: Télesphore Fournier 9 October 1875 – 17 October 1878: Lucius Seth Huntington President of the Privy Council 7 November 1873 – 20 January 1874: Alexander Mackenzie 20 January 1874 – 9 October 1875: Lucius Seth Huntington 9 October 1875 – 7 December 1875: Alexander Mackenzie 7 December 1875 – 8 June 1877: Joseph Édouard Cauchon 8 June 1877 – 18 January 1878: Dominick Edward Blake 18 January 1878 – 17 October 1878: Alexander Mackenzie Minister of Public Works 7 November 1873 – 17 October 1878: Alexander Mackenzie Receiver General 7 November 1873 – 17 October 1878: Thomas Coffin Secretary of State of Canada 7 November 1873 – 9 January 1874: David Christie 9 January 1874 – 17 October 1878: Richard William Scott Registrar General of Canada 7 November 1873 – 17 October 1878: The Secretary of State of Canada 7 November 1873 – 9 January 1874: David Christie 9 January 1874 – 17 October 1878: Richard William Scott Minister without Portfolio 7 November 1873 – 14 February 1874: Dominick Edward Blake 7 November 1873 – 9 January 1874: Richard William Scott Government of Canada.
"Second Ministry". Guide to Canadian Ministries since Confederation. Privy Council Office. Retrieved 1 July 2010
7th Canadian Ministry
The Seventh Canadian Ministry was the cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Sir Charles Tupper. It governed Canada from 1 May to 8 July 1896, it was formed after the 7th Canadian Parliament was dissolved, lost the 8th Canadian federal election, so it never faced a parliament. The government was formed by the old Conservative Party of Canada. Prime Minister 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Sir Charles Tupper Minister of Agriculture 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Walter Humphries Montague Controller of Customs 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: John Fisher Wood Minister of Finance 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: George Eulas Foster Receiver General of Canada 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: The Minister of Finance 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: George Eulas Foster Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: The Minister of the Interior 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Hugh John Macdonald Controller of Inland Revenue 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Edward Gawler Prior Minister of the Interior 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Hugh John Macdonald Minister of Justice 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Arthur Rupert Dickey Attorney General of Canada 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: The Minister of Justice 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Arthur Rupert Dickey Leader of the Government in the Senate 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Mackenzie Bowell Minister of Marine and Fisheries 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: John Costigan Minister of Militia and Defence 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: David Tisdale Postmaster General 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Louis-Olivier Taillon President of the Privy Council 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Auguste-Réal Angers Minister of Public Works 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Alphonse Desjardins Minister of Railways and Canals 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: John Graham Haggart Secretary of State of Canada 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Sir Charles Tupper Registrar General of Canada 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: The Secretary of State of Canada 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Sir Charles Tupper Minister of Trade and Commerce 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: William Bullock Ives Minister without Portfolio 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Donald Ferguson 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: John Jones Ross 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Sir Frank Smith Solicitor-General 1 May 1896 - 11 July 1896: Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper Government of Canada.
"Seventh Ministry". Guide to Canadian Ministries since Confederation. Privy Council Office. Retrieved 2010-07-01
8th Canadian Ministry
The Eighth Canadian Ministry was the cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier. It governed Canada from 11 July 1896 to 5 October 1911, including all of the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th Canadian Parliaments; the government was formed by the Liberal Party of Canada. Prime Minister 11 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: Sir Wilfrid Laurier Minister of Agriculture 11 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: Sydney Arthur Fisher Minister of Customs 30 June 1897 - 10 October 1911: William Paterson Secretary of State for External Affairs 19 May 1909 - 10 October 1911: Charles Murphy Minister of Finance 11 July 1896 - 20 July 1896: Vacant 20 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: William Stevens Fielding Receiver General of Canada 11 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: The Minister of Finance 11 July 1896 - 20 July 1896: Vacant 20 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: William Stevens Fielding Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs 11 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: The Minister of the Interior 11 July 1896 - 17 July 1896: Vacant 17 July 1896 - 17 November 1896: Richard William Scott 17 November 1896 - 28 February 1905: Clifford Sifton 28 February 1905 - 13 March 1905: Vacant 13 March 1905 - 8 April 1905: Sir Wilfrid Laurier 8 April 1905 - 10 October 1911: Frank Oliver Minister of Inland Revenue 30 June 1897 - 22 June 1900: Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière 22 June 1900 - 19 January 1904: Michel-Esdras Bernier 19 January 1904 - 6 February 1906: Louis-Philippe Brodeur 6 February 1906 - 10 October 1911: William Templeman Minister of the Interior 11 July 1896 - 17 July 1896: Vacant 17 July 1896 - 17 November 1896: Richard William Scott 17 November 1896 - 28 February 1905: Clifford Sifton 28 February 1905 - 13 March 1905: Vacant 13 March 1905 - 8 April 1905: Sir Wilfrid Laurier 8 April 1905 - 10 October 1911: Frank Oliver Minister of Justice 11 July 1896 - 18 November 1897: Sir Oliver Mowat 18 November 1897 - 8 February 1902: David Mills 8 February 1902 - 4 June 1906: Charles Fitzpatrick 4 June 1906 - 10 October 1911: Sir Allen Bristol Aylesworth Attorney General of Canada 11 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: The Minister of Justice 11 July 1896 - 18 November 1897: Sir Oliver Mowat 18 November 1897 - 8 February 1902: David Mills 8 February 1902 - 4 June 1906: Charles Fitzpatrick 4 June 1906 - 10 October 1911: Allen Bristol Aylesworth Minister of Labour 19 May 1909 - 2 June 1909: Vacant 2 June 1909 - 10 October 1911: William Lyon Mackenzie King Leader of the Government in the Senate 11 July 1896 - 18 November 1897: Sir Oliver Mowat 18 November 1897 - 7 February 1902: David Mills 7 February 1902 – 20 January 1909: Richard William Scott 20 January 1909 - 10 October 1911: Richard John Cartwright Minister of Marine and Fisheries 11 July 1896 - 25 September 1901: Sir Louis Henry Davies 25 September 1901 - 15 January 1902: Vacant 15 January 1902 - 11 November 1902: James Sutherland 11 November 1902 - 26 December 1905: Raymond Préfontaine 26 December 1905 - 6 January 1906: Vacant 6 January 1906 - 6 February 1906: Sir Wilfrid Laurier 6 February 1906 - 11 August 1911: Louis-Philippe Brodeur 11 August 1911 - 10 October 1911: Rodolphe Lemieux Minister of Militia and Defence 11 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: Sir Frederick William Borden Minister of Mines 27 April 1907 - 3 May 1907: Vacant 3 May 1907 - 10 October 1911: William Templeman Minister of the Naval Service 4 May 1910 - 11 August 1911: Louis-Philippe Brodeur 11 August 1911 - 10 October 1911: Rodolphe Lemieux Postmaster General 11 July 1896 - 16 October 1905: Sir William Mulock 16 October 1905 - 4 June 1906: Allen Bristol Aylesworth 4 June 1906 - 19 August 1911: Rodolphe Lemieux 19 August 1911 - 10 October 1911: Henri Sévérin Béland President of the Privy Council 11 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: Sir Wilfrid Laurier Minister of Public Works 11 July 1896 - 22 October 1902: Joseph-Israël Tarte 22 October 1902 - 11 November 1902: Vacant 11 November 1902 - 4 May 1905: James Sutherland 4 May 1905 - 22 May 1905: Vacant 22 May 1905 - 30 August 1907: Charles Smith Hyman 30 August 1907 - 10 October 1911: William Pugsley Minister of Railways and Canals 11 July 1896 - 20 July 1896: Vacant 20 July 1896 - 21 July 1903: Andrew George Blair 21 July 1903 - 15 January 1904: William Stevens Fielding 15 January 1904 - 3 April 1907: Henry Emmerson 3 April 1907 - 9 April 1907: Vacant 9 April 1907 - 10 October 1911: George Perry Graham Secretary of State of Canada 11 July 1896 - 9 October 1908: Richard William Scott 9 October 1908 - 10 October 1911: Charles Murphy Registrar General of Canada 11 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: The Secretary of State of Canada 11 July 1896 - 9 October 1908: Richard William Scott 9 October 1908 - 10 October 1911: Charles Murphy Minister of Trade and Commerce 11 July 1896 - 10 October 1911: Sir Richard John Cartwright Minister without Portfolio 11 July 1896 - 12 January 1902: Richard Reid Dobell 21 August 1896 - 19 July 1899: Christophe-Alphonse Geoffrion 30 September 1899 - 15 January 1902: James Sutherland 25 February 1902 - 6 February 1906: Charles Smith Hyman 5 February 1904 - 22 May 1905: William Templeman Controller of Customs 11 July 1896 - 30 June 1897: William PatersonController of Inland Revenue 11 July 1896 - 30 June 1897: Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de LotbinièreSolicitor General of Canada 11 July 1896 - 10 February 1902: Charles Fitzpatrick 10 February 1902 - 29 January 1904: Henry George Carroll 29 January 1904 - 4 June 1906: Rodolphe
Conservative Party of Canada (1867–1942)
The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. Known as the "Liberal-Conservative Party", it dropped "Liberal" from its name in 1873, although many of its candidates continued to use this name; as a result of World War I and the Conscription Crisis of 1917, the party joined with pro-conscription Liberals to become the "Unionist Party", led by Robert Borden from 1917 to 1920, the "National Liberal and Conservative Party" until 1922. It reverted to "Liberal-Conservative Party" until 1938, when it became the "National Conservative Party", it ran in the 1940 election as "National Government" though it was in opposition. The party was always referred to as the "Conservative Party" or Tories; the roots of the party are in the pre-Confederation coalition government of 1854 comprising the Parti bleu of George-Étienne Cartier, along with Ontario Liberals and Conservatives led by Sir John A. Macdonald, it was out of this coalition that the Liberal-Conservative Party was formed and it was this period that formed the basis for Confederation in 1867.
Macdonald became the leader of the Conservative Party and formed the first national government in 1867. The party brought together ultramontane Quebec Catholics, pro-tariff businessmen, United Empire Loyalist Tories and Orangemen. One major accomplishment of Macdonald's first government was the creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway which led to the Pacific Scandal that brought down the government in 1873; the Conservatives under Macdonald returned to power in 1878 by opposing the Liberal Party's policy of free trade or reciprocity with the United States and promoting, the National Policy which sought to promote business and develop industry with high tariff protectionist measures as well as settle and develop the west. The principal difference between the Conservatives and the Liberals in this period and well into the twentieth century was that Conservatives were in favour of imperial preference and strong political and legal links with Britain while Liberals promoted free trade and continentalism and greater independence from Britain.
Macdonald died in 1891 and, without his leadership, the Conservative coalition began to unravel under the pressure of sectarian tensions between Catholic French Canadians and British imperialists who tended to be anti-French and anti-Catholic. The government's mis-handling of the grievances that aroused the Red River Rebellion and the North-West Rebellion, its hanging of their leader Louis Riel), the Manitoba Schools Question exacerbated tensions within the Conservative Party and suppressed much of the support among Quebecois for the Conservative party, a problem only smoothed over by the 1980s. Free trade between Canada and the U. S. was the major issue of the 1911 election. Sir Wilfrid Laurier's Liberals, in favour of increased trade with the U. S. were swept from power. Robert Borden led a new Tory administration that emphasised a revitalised National Policy and continued strong links to Britain. Borden had built a base in Quebec by allying with anti-Laurier Quebec nationalists, but, in government, tensions between Quebec nationalists and English Canadian imperialists made any grand coalition untenable.
World War I created a further strain as most Quebecers were unenthusiastic about Canadian involvement in what they saw as a foreign, British, while Borden's supporters, most living in English Canada, supported Canada's war effort and its policy of conscription of men for the war. The attempt to turn the Conservatives into a hegemonic party by merging with Liberal-Unionists failed as most Liberals either joined the new Progressive Party of Canada or rejoined the Liberals under its new leader William Lyon Mackenzie King. One critical issue in this split was free trade - farmers were hostile to Tory tariff policy and free trade was a key issue in the creation of the Progressives while the Conscription Crisis destroyed any remaining Conservative base in Quebec for generations leaving the Tories with less support than they had before the Union government. Borden's successor, Arthur Meighen formally attempted to make the Unionist coalition permanent by creating the "National Liberal and Conservative Party" but most Liberals ended up returning to their old party and some Conservatives balked at what they saw as an attempt to destroy the Conservative Party.
John Hampden Burnham, MP for Peterborough West, quit the government caucus to sit as an Independent Conservative and resigned his seat in order to contest it in a by-election on his position. Meighen's party was defeated by the Liberals in the election of 1921 coming in third behind the Progressives. At March 1922 caucus meeting the party voted to revert to its original name of the Liberal-Conservative Party; the Liberals were reduced to a minority government in the 1925 election. The Conservatives won a plurality of seats in the House of Commons, but King was able to stay in power with the support of the Progressives and form a minority government. King's government was defeated in a vote in the House of Commons within months and Prime Minister King asked Governor-General Byng to call a new election but Byng refused and asked Meighen to form a government. Meighen's government was defeated three days after taking office by a vote in the Commons, leaving no choice but a new election; the general election produced a Liberal victory.
David Laird, born in New Glasgow, Prince Edward Island into a Presbyterian family noted for its civic activism. His father Alexander had been a long time Reformer and Liberal MLA. David became a Liberal MLA for Belfast, he established and edited the Patriot. After opposing confederation, he led in the talks by which Prince Edward Island became a province of Canada, he became a Liberal member of the Canadian parliament in the government of Alexander Mackenzie. He guided the passage of the Indian Act into Canadian law, he was the first resident Lieutenant Governor of Canada. He was the fifth Lieutenant Governor in charge of the territory, he negotiated several aboriginal treaties. Though David Laird adopted the paternalistic views of his time in working with aboriginals, colleagues noted his consistent hard work and honesty in his dealings as a federal official; the indigenous peoples respected him as a man "who did not speak with a forked tongue." David Laird was born in Prince Edward Island, the son of Alexander Laird and Janet Orr.
David's parents had emigrated from Renfrewshire, Scotland to Prince Edward Island in 1819. His father was a successful member of the Island's executive council, his older brother Alexander held an elected seat in the Islands legislated assembly. On June 30, 1864, David married Mary Louise Owen in Georgetown, her brother, Lemuel Cambridge Owen, served as the Island's Post Master. David and Mary Louise had six children: David Rennie, Mary Alice, Arthur Gordon, William Charles, James Harold, Fanny Louise. David Laird attended the Presbyterian Theological Seminary in Truro, Nova Scotia after which he planned to become a minister, he became a newspaper publisher and editor instead. He subsequently returned to Scotland. In 1859, he founded a newspaper known as The Evangelical Witness. In 1865, its name changed to the Patriot; the first issue of The Protestant and Evangelical Witness in July 1859 proclaimed its purpose as "exposing the errors and noting the wiles and workings of popery." Laird tactfully reassured individual Catholic that he had not ill will toward them but his concern was only "the system by which they are enslaved."
David Laird opposed Canadian confederation. However, in spite of this opposition, he was sent to Ottawa in 1873 to negotiate the admission of Prince Edward Island to the new Dominion. David Laird served on the Charlottetown City Council, its Board of Education, Board of Works, he was a Governor of the Prince of Wales College, he represented the electoral district of Belfast in the Prince Edward Island Legislative Assembly from 1871 to 1873. For the next four years he represented Queen's County in the Canadian federal House of Commons from 1873 to 1876; as the leader of the Prince Edward Island Liberal Members of Parliament, he refused to support Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald during the "Pacific Scandal". Thus, he helped bring down the Conservative government. Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie succeeded Macdonald. Mackenzie appointed David Laird Minister of the Interior, he served as such from 1873 to 1876. Laird served as a trustee and elder in the Presbyterian church, he was a member of the Auxiliary Bible Society, a vice-president of the Young Men’s Christian Association and Literary Institute.
During his term in parliament he served as Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, Minister of the Interior. During his tenure as Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, he championed the Indian Act through the Parliament, a legislation that would enable the government to realize its ultimate goal of paternalistically civilizing the natives of Canada, he earned the name'He Whose Tongue is Not Forked'. In 1874, Laird paved the way for the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway and Dominion Telegraph by negotiating the Qu'Appelle Lakes Treaty with local First Nations groups in southern Saskatchewan, to procure land for the railway and telegraph lines. Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie and Hewitt Bernard drafted the legislation for the North-West Territories Act in 1875. In 1876, Mackenzie appointed Laird as Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Territories, he was responsible for the negotiations that brought the Blackfoot Confederacy together to sign Treaty 7. In 1899 he negotiated Treaty 8 in the Athabasca district in the NWT.
Laird ordered the capital to be moved from Fort Livingstone to Battleford. Laird held this office until 1881. During 1870s Buffalo became scarce on the Canadian Prairies. Laird warned the federal government of the problem: The threatened early extinction of the Buffalo is a question of grave importance to the North West Territories of the Dominion; the flesh of that animal forms the principal means of subsistence of several of the Indian tribes, as well as a large number of the Half-breeds. The traffic in Buffalo peltries enters into the trade of the country, enables the natives to procure many of the necessaries of life. By 1879 they had disappeared completely; this created a desperate situation for the Plains Indians. The federal government empowered Dewdney to develop a plan to meet the crisis. A council met at Battleford in late August 1879; this council resolved: That the Conference having maturely considered the state of the Indians in the North-West Territories, the sources from which they can supply themselves with food, is of opinion that the fears entertained of an approaching famine are only too well grounded, that unless a large supply of provisions is furnished by Government, for issue during the coming winter, a great number of Indians will be with
Alexander Campbell (Canadian senator)
Sir Alexander Campbell was an English-born, Upper Canadian statesman and a father of Canadian Confederation. Born in Hedon, Yorkshire, he was brought to Canada by his father, a doctor, when he was one year old, he was educated in French in the grammar school at Kingston, Ontario. Campbell studied law and was called to the bar in 1843, he became a partner in John A. Macdonald's law office. Campbell was a Freemason of No. 3 of Kingston. When the government was moved to Quebec in 1858, Campbell resigned, he was elected to the Legislative Council in 1858 and 1864, served as the last Commissioner of Crown Lands 30 March 1864 – 30 June 1867. He attended the Charlottetown Conference and the Quebec City Conference in 1864, at Confederation was appointed to the Senate of Canada, he held a number of ministerial posts in the Cabinet of Sir John A. Macdonald and was the sixth Lieutenant Governor of Ontario from 1887 to 1892. In 1883, he built his home on Metcalfe Street, now known as "Campbell House", he died in office in Toronto in 1892, was buried at Cataraqui Cemetery in Kingston, Ontario.
Campbell Crescent in Kingston, a street in the Portsmouth municipal district, is named in his honour. In 1855, Campbell married Georgina Frederica Locke, daughter of Thomas Sandwith of Beverley, a niece of Humphrey Sandwith III of Bridlington, he left two sons and three daughters "Alexander Campbell". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016. Alexander Campbell – Parliament of Canada biography Humphrey Sandwith Works by Alexander Campbell at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Alexander Campbell at Internet Archive Works by Alexander Campbell at LibriVox Alexander Campbell fonds, Archives of Ontario