Elections in France
France is a representative democracy. Public officials in the legislative and executive branches are either elected by the citizens or appointed by elected officials. Referendums may be called to consult the French citizenry directly on a particular question one which concerns amendment to the Constitution. France elects on its national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature; the president is elected for a five-year term, directly by the citizens. The Parliament has two chambers; the National Assembly has 577 members, elected for a five-year term in single seat-constituencies directly by the citizens. The Senate has 348 members, elected for six-year terms. 328 members are elected by an electoral college consisting of elected representatives from each of 96 departments in metropolitan France, 8 of which are elected from other dependencies, 12 of which are elected by the French Assembly of French Citizens Abroad which has replaced the High Council of French Citizens Abroad a 155-member assembly elected by citizens living abroad.
In addition, French citizens elect a variety of local governments. There are public elections for some non-political positions, such as those for the judges of courts administering labour law, elected by workers and employers, or those for judges administering cases of rural land leases. France does not have a fully-fledged two-party system; however French politics has ordinarily displayed some tendencies characterizing a two-party system in which power alternates between stable coalitions, each being led by a major party: on the left, the Socialist Party, on the right, Les Républicains and its predecessors. This pattern was upset in 2017, when neither of those parties' candidates reached the second round of the presidential election and the newly-formed party En Marche! gained both the presidency and a comfortable majority in the National Assembly. Elections are conducted according to rules set down in the Constitution of France, organisational laws, the electoral code. Voting is not compulsory.
Elections are held on Sundays. The campaigns end at midnight the Friday before the election; the voting stations open at 8 am and close at 6 pm in small towns or at 8 pm in cities, depending on prefectoral decisions. By law, publication of results or estimates is prohibited prior to that time; the first estimate of the results are thus known at 8 pm, Paris time. It has been alleged. For this reason, since the 2000s, elections in French possessions in the Americas, as well as embassies and consulates there, are held on Saturdays as a special exemption; the next election will take place in 2022. Current President Emmanuel Macron is eligible for re-election in that year. With the exception of senatorial election, for which there is an electoral college, the voters are French citizens over the age of 18 registered on the electoral rolls. People are automatically registered on reaching the age of 18. For municipal and European, but not national elections, citizens aged 18 or older of other European Union countries may vote in France.
Registration is not compulsory. Citizens may register either in their place of residence or in a place where they have been on the roll of taxpayers for local taxes for at least 5 years, but not in more than one place. Citizens living abroad may register at the consulate responsible for the region. Only citizens registered as voters can run for public office. There are exceptions to the above rules. Convicted criminals may be deprived of their civic rights, which include the right to vote, for a certain period of time depending on the crime. In particular, elected officials who have abused public funds may be deprived of the right to run for national public office for as long as 10 years; the application of such rules in the case of certain politicians has been controversial. Voting by proxy is possible when the citizen cannot attend the polling station The citizen designates a proxy, who must be a voter from the same commune; the designation of the proxy must be made before a capable witness: a judge, a judicial clerk, or an officier of judicial police, or, outside France, before an ambassador or consul.
In the case of handicapped or ill people, an officer of judicial police or delegate thereof can be sent to the home of the citizen to witness the designation. The procedure is meant to avoid pressures on voters. In all elections where there is a single official to be elected for a given area, including the two major national elections, two-round runoff voting is used. For elections to the European Parliament and some local elect
Administrative divisions of France
The administrative divisions of France are concerned with the institutional and territorial organization of French territory. These territories are located in many parts of the world. There are many administrative divisions, which may have political, electoral, or administrative objectives. All the inhabited territories are represented in the National Assembly and Economic and Social Council and their citizens have French citizenship; the French republic is divided into 18 regions: 12 in 6 elsewhere. They are traditionally divided between the Metropolitan regions, located on the European continent, the Overseas regions, located outside the European continent. Both form the most integrated part of the French Republic; as of 1 January 2016, metropolitan France is divided into the following: 13 regions, including Corsica. The regions are subdivided into 96 departments; the departments are subdivided into 322 arrondissements. The arrondissements are subdivided into 1,995 cantons; the cantons are subdivided into 36,529 communes.
Three urban communes are further divided into municipal arrondissements. There are 20 arrondissements of Paris, 16 arrondissements of Marseille, 9 arrondissements of Lyon; the city of Marseille is divided into 8 municipal sectors. Each sector is composed of two arrondissements. There are 710 associated communes independent communes which were merged with larger communes but have retained some limited degree of autonomy. Furthermore, as of January 2009, there exist 2,585 intercommunal structures grouping 34,077 communes, with 87.4% of the population of metropolitan France living in them. These intercommunal structures are: 16 Urban communities 167 Agglomeration communities 2,397 Commune communities 5 Syndicates of New Agglomeration, a category being phased out Five Overseas Regions, which have the same status as metropolitan regions; the Overseas Regions are following: Martinique Guadeloupe French Guiana Réunion MayotteEach overseas region is coextensive with an overseas department, again with the same status as departments in metropolitan France.
The first four overseas departments were created in 1946 and preceded the four overseas regions, Mayotte became a DOM in 2011. The dual structure overseas region/overseas department, with two separate assemblies administering the same territory, results from the extension of the regional scheme to the overseas departments in the 1970s; each overseas region/department may transform into a single structure, with the merger of the regional and departmental assemblies, but voters in Martinique and Guadeloupe rejected this in two referendums in 2003. In Réunion the creation of a second department for the southern part of the island has been debated for some time; the overseas departments are subdivided into 12 arrondissements. The 12 arrondissements are further subdivided into 153 cantons with Mayotte having another 19 cantons The 172 cantons are composed of 129 communes. Furthermore, as of 1 January 2009, there exist 16 intercommunal structures in the overseas departments, grouping 89 communes, with 83.2% of the population of the overseas departments living in them intercommunal structures.
These intercommunal structures are: 7 Agglomeration communities 9 Commune communities The French Republic includes five overseas collectivities with a semi-autonomous status: Saint-Martin Saint-Barthélemy Saint-Pierre and Miquelon French Polynesia Wallis and FutunaSaint-Martin is a new overseas collectivity created on 22 February 2007. It was previously a commune inside the Guadeloupe department; the commune structure was abolished and Saint-Martin is now one of only three permanently inhabited territories of the French Republic with no commune structure. There are no cantons or arrondissements. Saint-Barthélemy is a new overseas collectivity created on 22 February 2007, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe department. The commune structure was abolished and Saint-Barthélemy is now one of only three permanently inhabited territories of the French Republic with no commune structure. There are no arrondissements either. Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is divided into 2 communes with no cantons. French Polynesia (designate
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is a French politician serving as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 2017. He was Minister of the Economy and Digital Affairs from 2014 to 2016. Macron was born in Amiens and studied philosophy at Paris Nanterre University, completed a Master's of Public Affairs at Sciences Po and graduated from the École nationale d'administration in 2004, he worked as a senior civil servant at the Inspectorate General of Finances and became an investment banker at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was appointed Deputy Secretary General to the President by François Hollande in May 2012, he was appointed Minister of Economy and Digital Affairs in August 2014 under the Second Valls government, where he pushed through business-friendly reforms. He resigned in August 2016 to launch a bid in the 2017 presidential election. After being a member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009, Macron ran in the election under the banner of a centrist political movement he founded in April 2016, En Marche!.
He won the election on 7 May 2017 with 66.1% of the vote in the second round. At age 39, Macron became the youngest President of France in history and appointed Édouard Philippe to be Prime Minister. In the June 2017 legislative elections, Macron's party, renamed "La République en marche", together with its ally the Democratic Movement, secured a majority in the National Assembly. Born in Amiens, Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is the son of Françoise, a physician, Jean-Michel Macron, professor of neurology at the University of Picardy; the couple were divorced in 2010. Macron has two siblings, born in 1979 and Estelle, born in 1982. Françoise and Jean-Michel's first child was born stillborn. Raised in a non-religious family, he was baptized a Roman Catholic at his own request at age 12, although he is agnostic today; the Macron family legacy is traced back to the village of Authie in Hauts-de-France. One of Macron's paternal great-grandfathers, George William Robertson, was English, was born in Bristol, United Kingdom.
His maternal grandparents and Germaine Noguès, are from the Pyrenean town of Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Gascony. Macron visited Bagnères-de-Bigorre to visit his grandmother Germaine, whom he called "Manette". Macron associates his enjoyment of reading and his left-ward political leanings to Germaine, after coming from a modest upbringing of a stationmaster father and a housekeeping mother, became a teacher a principal, died in 2013. Macron was educated at the Jesuit Lycée la Providence in Amiens before his parents sent him to finish his last year of school at the elite Lycée Henri-IV in Paris, where he completed the high school curriculum and the undergraduate program with a "Bac S, Mention Très bien". At the same time he was nominated for the "Concours Général" in French literature and received his diploma for his piano studies at Amiens Conservatory, his parents sent him off to Paris due to their alarm at the bond he had formed with Brigitte Auzière, a married teacher with three children at Jésuites de la Providence, who became his wife.
In Paris, he failed to gain entry to the École normale supérieure twice. He instead studied Philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense, obtaining a DEA degree. Around 1999 Macron worked as an editorial assistant to Paul Ricoeur, the French Protestant philosopher, writing his last major work, La Mémoire, l'Histoire, l'Oubli. Macron worked on the notes and bibliography. Macron became a member of the editorial board of the literary magazine Esprit. Macron did not perform national service. Born in December 1977, he belonged to the last year. Macron obtained a master's degree in public affairs at the Sciences Po, majoring in "Public Guidance and Economy" before training for a senior civil service career at the selective École nationale d'administration, training at an embassy in Nigeria and in an office in Oise before graduating in 2004. After graduating from ENA in 2004, Macron became an Inspector in the Inspection générale des finances, a branch of the Finance Ministry. Macron was mentored by Jean-Pierre Jouyet, the then-head of the IGF.
During his time as an Inspector of Finances, Macron gave lectures during the summer at the "prep'ENA" at IPESUP, an elite private school specializing in preparation for the entrance examinations of the Grandes écoles, such as HEC or Sciences Po. In 2006, Laurence Parisot offered him the job of managing director for Mouvement des Entreprises de France, the largest employer federation in France, but he declined. In August 2007, Macron was appointed deputy rapporteur for Jacques Attali's "Commission to Unleash French Growth". In 2008, Macron paid €50,000 to buy himself out of his government contract, he became an investment banker in a highly-paid position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. In March 2010, he was appointed to the Attali Commission as a member. In September 2008, Macron left his job as an Inspector of Finances and took a position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was inspired to leave the government due to the election of Nicolas Sarkozy to the presidency, he was offered the job by François Henrot.
His first responsibility at Rothschild & Cie Banque was assisting with the acquisition of Cofidis by Crédit Mutuel Nord Europe. Macron formed a relationship with a businessman on the supervisory board of Le Monde. In 2010, Macron
French Fifth Republic
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. The Fifth Republic emerged from the collapse of the Fourth Republic, replacing the former parliamentary republic with a semi-presidential, or dual-executive, system that split powers between a Prime Minister as head of government and a President as head of state. De Gaulle, the first French President elected under the Fifth Republic in December 1958, believed in a strong head of state, which he described as embodying l'esprit de la nation; the Fifth Republic is France's third-longest political regime, after the hereditary and feudal monarchies of the Ancien Régime and the parliamentary Third Republic. The trigger for the collapse of the French Fourth Republic was the Algiers crisis of 1958. France was still a colonial power, although conflict and revolt had begun the process of decolonization. French West Africa, French Indochina, French Algeria still sent representatives to the French parliament under systems of limited suffrage in the French Union.
Algeria in particular, despite being the colony with the largest French population, saw rising pressure for separation from the Metropole. The situation was complicated by those in Algeria, such as European settlers and many native Jews, who wanted to stay part of France; the Algerian War was not just a separatist movement. Further complications came when a section of the French Army rebelled and backed the "Algérie française" movement to defeat separation. Charles de Gaulle, who had retired from politics a decade before, placed himself in the midst of the crisis, calling on the nation to suspend the government and create a new constitutional system. De Gaulle was carried to power by the inability of the parliament to choose a government, popular protest, the last parliament of the Fourth Republic voting for their dissolution and the convening of a constitutional convention; the Fourth Republic suffered from a lack of political consensus, a weak executive, governments forming and falling in quick succession since 1946.
With no party or coalition able to sustain a parliamentary majority, Prime Ministers found themselves unable to risk their political position with unpopular reforms. De Gaulle and his supporters proposed a system of strong presidents elected for seven-year terms; the President, under the proposed constitution, would have executive powers to run the country in consultation with a prime minister whom he would appoint. On 1 June 1958, Charles de Gaulle was appointed head of the government; these plans were approved by more than 80% of those who voted in the referendum of 28 September 1958. The new constitution was signed into law on 4 October 1958. Since each new constitution established a new republic, France moved from the Fourth to the Fifth Republic; the new constitution contained transitional clauses extending the period of rule by decree until the new institutions were operating. René Coty remained President of the Republic. On 21 December 1958, Charles de Gaulle was elected President of France by an electoral college.
The provisional constitutional commission, acting in lieu of the Constitutional Council, proclaimed the results of the election on 9 January 1959. The new president began his office on that date; the 1958 constitution replaced the French Union with the French Community, which allowed fourteen member territories to assert their independence. 1960 became known as the "Year of Africa" because of this wave of newly independent states. Algeria became independent on 5 July 1962; the president was elected by an electoral college, but in 1962 de Gaulle proposed that the president be directly elected by the citizens, held a referendum on the change. Although the method and intent of de Gaulle in that referendum were contested by most political groups except for the Gaullists, the change was approved by the French electorate; the Constitutional Council declined to rule on the constitutionality of the referendum. The president is now elected every five years, changed from seven by a constitutional referendum in 2000, to reduce the probability of cohabitation due to former differences in the length of terms for the National Assembly and Presidency.
The President is elected in one or two rounds of voting: if one candidate gets a majority of votes in the first round that person is president-elect. Two major changes balances. Traditionally, France operated according to parliamentary supremacy: no authority was empowered to rule on whether statutes passed by Parliament respected the constitutional rights of the citizens. In 1971, the Constitutional Council, arguing that the preamble of the Constitution referenced the rights defined in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and the preamble of the 1946 Constitution, concluded that statutes must respect these rights and declared unconstitutional a statute because it violated freedom of association. However, only the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, the President of each house of Parliament could ask for a constitutional rev
Richard Ferrand is a French politician serving as President of the National Assembly since 2018. He has been the member of the National Assembly for Finistère's 6th constituency since 2012. A longtime member of the Socialist Party, he was the General Secretary of La République En Marche! from October 2016 and became leader of the La République En Marche! group of the National Assembly in June 2017. Richard Ferrand was born on 1 July 1962 in France. Ferrand graduated high school in Bünde and studied German and Law at Toulouse 1 University Capitole and Université Paris-Descartes where he became a PS member at the age of 18. After leaving university, Ferrand worked as a journalist for multiple publications including Center Presse, Auto Moto, Vie publique, La Dépêche du Midi and Le Monde. In 1991, Ferrand became the communications advisor for Kofi Yamgnane, the then- secretary of state to the Minister of Social Affairs and Integration. Richard Ferrard joined the Socialist Party in 1980 and was elected as the councillor in the township of Carhaix-Plouguer in 1998 as his first elected office.
In the municipal elections in 2001 and 2008, Ferrand lost in both times, obtaining 31% of the vote in 2008. In the 2010 regional elections, he was one of the PS nominees for the Finistère department, he became councillor for the region on 21 March 2010 and has since chaired the socialist and related group. In 2007, Ferrand ran for Finistère's 6th constituency under the PS banner, he lost to Christian Ménard. In 2012, Ferrand ran in the same constituency for PS where he got 32.2% of the vote in the first round and 58.3% of the vote in the second round. In the National Assembly, Ferrand was a member of the SER group and sits on the Social Affairs Committee, he has never worked in the agricultural or agri-food sector, but is co-chairman of the agricultural and agro-food industries group. He involves himself in social issues and the use of cheaper labour than available. While on the Social Affairs Committee, Ferrand was an EU-appointed rapporteur on resolutions around workers and the use of cheaper European labor.
In his report, he stated that European workers feel detached due to the lack of social cohesion and the use of cheaper labour to replace them. He advocates measures to limit the replacement of workers. Despite Ferrand's opposition to the Bonnets Rouges movement against the eco-tax, started by the Fillon government and further expanded upon by the Ayrault government, he took a stand against the expansions, saying they underline the complexity of the tax system, he supports amendments to the eco-tax. After there was a postponement of the eco-tax and other Breton politicians asked Minister of Energy, Ségolène Royal to rethink the tax plan. On 3 October 2014, the Prime Minister Manuel Valls appointed him along with the minister of economy, Emmanuel Macron to work on a plan to reform regulations based around labour, he was tasked with looking at the "legal framework that restricts labour from developing" while paying attention to the different situations from many different regions. After consulting many trade unions and other associations, he submitted the report that stresses that reforming the regulated labor market is needed but "reform, don't break, this includes twenty-eight proposals that are aimed at promoting young people's access to the job market."This reform was put to the National Assembly where it was amended by the members of the assembly which resulted in the "Act for Growth and Equal Opportunity" or the Macron law, lobbied against by unions and other organizations.
Ferrand was appointed as the general rapporteur, one of the biggest reforms within the first five years of President Hollande's term with over 300 articles and sectors such as: transport, labor courts and qualified professions being reformed. More than one hundred and eleven hours went into debate in the National Assembly over the reform; the text was adopted including measures that were not there but added during parliamentary debate such as: Letting commercial stores open on Sundays, liberalization of transport services and encouraging qualified professions to allow young people into the profession. On 16 October 2016, Ferrand was appointed General Secretary of En Marche! by Emmanuel Macron, someone he worked with when he was the minister for Economy. The following month, Ferrand resigned from leading the PS group in the regional council for Finistère, confirmed that he quit the PS on 9 May 2017. On 24 June 2017, it was announced that Ferrand was elected leader of La République En Marche! group in the National Assembly with 306 votes and 2 abstentions.
Media related to Richard Ferrand at Wikimedia Commons
Foreign alliances of France
The foreign alliances of France have a long and complex history spanning more than a millennium. One traditional characteristic of the French diplomacy of alliances has been the "Alliance de revers", aiming at allying with countries situated on the opposite side or "in the back" of an adversary, in order to open a second front encircling the adversary and thus re-establish a balance of power. Another has been the alliance with local populations, against other European colonial powers. Over the centuries, France has been looking for Eastern allies, as a counterbalance to Continental enemies. Throughout French history, this was the case against Austria-Hungary, Spain or Prussia: the Abbasid–Carolingian alliance, the Franco-Hungarian alliance and Franco-Ottoman alliance, the Franco-American alliance, the Franco-Russian Alliance. In particular, the desire to counter German power has been a major motivating force leading France to create Eastern alliances. Soon after the Second World War, good relations between France and the Soviet Union were again seen by Charles de Gaulle as an "Alliance de revers" to counter Germany.
France has a strong tradition of alliance with autochthonous populations in order to resist a powerful opponent. In the American continent, France was the first to identify that cooperation with local tribes would be strategically significant, before England started to adopt this strategy. An important Franco-Indian alliance centered on the Great Lakes and the Illinois country took place during the French and Indian War; the alliance involved French settlers on the one side, the Abenaki, Menominee, Mississauga, Sioux, Huron-Petun, Potawatomi etc... on the other. The French mixed and inter-married with the Indians, which facilitated exchanges and the development of such alliances. Through these alliances with the Indians, the French were able to maintain for over 150 years a strong position in the New World at the expense of the British, who had much more difficulties in making Indian allies. In India, the French General Dupleix was allied to Murzapha Jung in the Deccan, Chanda Sahib in the Carnatic Wars, in the conflict against Robert Clive.
The French succeeded in the 1746 Battle of Madras, the French and Indians fought together and vanquished Anwaruddin in 1749, but failed in the Battle of Arcot in 1751 and surrendered in 1752. The French again had a success at the capture of Fort St. David in 1758 under Lally, but were defeated at Masulipatam and Wandewash. In 1782, Louis XVI sealed an alliance with the Peshwa Madhu Rao Narayan; as a consequence Bussy moved his troops to Isle de France and contributed to the French effort in India in 1783. Suffren became the ally of Hyder Ali in the Second Anglo-Mysore War against British rules in India, in 1782–1783, fighting the British fleet on the coasts of India and Ceylon. Between February 1782 until June 1783, Suffren fought the English admiral Sir Edward Hughes, collaborated with the rulers of Mysore. Suffren fought in the Battle of Sadras on February 17, 1782, the Battle of Providien on April 12 near Trincomalee, the Battle of Negapatam on July 6 off Cuddalore, after which Suffren seized upon the anchorage of Trincomalee compelling the small British garrison to surrender.
An army of 3,000 French soldiers collaborated with Hyder Ali to capture Cuddalore. The Battle of Trincomalee took place near that port on September 3; these battles can be seen as the last battles of the Franco-British conflict that encompassed the American War of Independence, would cease with the signature of the Treaty of Versailles establishing peace and recognizing America independence. Some French alliances were purely tactical and short term during the period of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon Bonaparte had launched the French Invasion of Egypt in 1798 and fought against the Ottomans to establish a French presence in the Middle East, with the ultimate dream of linking with a Muslim enemy of the British in India, Tippu Sahib, in order to oust the British from the Indian subcontinent. After having failed a first time, Napoleon entered into a Franco-Ottoman alliance and a Franco-Persian alliance in order to create an overland access for his troops to India. Following the visit of the Persian Envoy Mirza Mohammed Reza-Qazvini to Napoleon, the Treaty of Finkenstein formalized the alliance on 4 May 1807, in which France supported Persia's claim to Georgia, promising to act so that Russia would surrender the territory.
In exchange, Persia was to fight Great Britain, to allow France to cross the Persian territory to reach India. Hamel, Catherine. La commémoration de l’alliance franco-russe: La création d’une culture matérielle populaire, 1890-1914.