Caracas Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela, centre of the Greater Caracas Area. Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range. Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 1,140 m above sea level, although there is some settlement above this range; the valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2,200-metre-high mountain range, Cerro El Ávila. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an estimated population of 4,923,201. Speaking, the centre of the city is still "Catedral", located near Bolívar Square though it is assumed that it is Plaza Venezuela, located in the Los Caobos neighbourhood. Chacaíto area, Luis Brión Square and El Rosal neighborhood are considered the geographic center of the Metropolitan Region of Caracas called "Greater Caracas". Businesses in the city include service companies and malls.
Caracas has a service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area. The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela are headquartered in Caracas. PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela. Caracas is Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters and shopping centers; some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas. Caracas has been considered one of the most important cultural, tourist and economic centers of Latin America; the Museum of Contemporary Art of Caracas is one of the most important in South America. The Museum of Fine Arts and the National Art Gallery of Caracas are noteworthy; the National Art Gallery is projected to be the largest museum in Latin America, according to its architect Carlos Gómez De Llarena. Caracas is home to two of the tallest skyscrapers in South America: the Parque Central Towers, it has a nominal GDP of 91,988 million dollars, a nominal GDP per capita of 18,992 and a PPP GDP per capita of 32,710 dollars.
Being the seventh city in GDP and the seventh metropolitan area in population of Latin America. Caracas has the highest per capita murder rate in the world, with 111.19 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. At the time of the founding of the city in 1567, the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, attempted to establish a plantation in the valley in 1562 after founding a series of coastal towns. Fajardo's settlement did not last long, it was destroyed by natives of the region led by Guaicaipuro. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives. On 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada laid the foundations of the city of Santiago de León de Caracas; the foundation − 1567 – "I take possession of this land in the name of God and the King" These were the words of Don Diego de Losada in founding the city of Caracas on 25 July 1567. In 1577, Caracas became the capital of the Spanish Empire's Venezuela Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel.
During the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela was raided by pirates. With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas was immune to such attacks. However, in 1595, around 200 English privateers including George Sommers and Amyas Preston crossed the mountains through a little-used pass while the town's defenders were guarding the more often-used one. Encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation; as the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas grew in importance, the city expanded. In 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela. José María España and Manuel Gual led an attempted revolution aimed at independence, but the rebellion was put down on 13 July 1797. Caracas was the site of the signing of a Declaration of independence on 17 August 1811. In 1812, an earthquake destroyed Caracas; the independentist war continued until 24 June 1821, when Bolívar defeated royalists in the Battle of Carabobo.
Caracas grew in economic importance during Venezuela's oil boom in the early 20th century. During the 1950s, Caracas began an intensive modernization program which continued throughout the 1960s and early 1970s; the Universidad Central de Venezuela, designed by modernist architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and declared World Heritage by UNESCO, was built. New working- and middle-class residential districts sprouted in the valley, extending the urban area toward the east and southeast. Joining El Silencio designed by Villanueva, were several workers' housing districts, 23 de Enero and Simon Rodriguez. Middle-class developments include Bello Monte, Los Palos Grandes, El Cafetal; the dramatic change in the economic structure of the country, which went from being agricultural to dependent on oil production, stimulated the fast development of Caracas, made it a magnet for people in rural communities who migrated to the capital city in an unplanned fashion searching for greater economic opportunity. This migration created the rancho belt of the valley of Caracas.
The flag of Caracas consists of a burgundy red field with the version of the Coat of Arms of the City. The red field symbolises the blood spilt by Caraquenian people in favour of independence and the highest ideals of the Venezuelan Nation. In the year 1994 as a result of the change of municipal authorities, it was decided to increase the size of the Caracas coat of arms and move it to the centre of the field; this version
Foreign policy of the Hugo Chávez administration
The foreign policy of the Hugo Chávez administration concerns the policy initiatives made by Venezuela under its former President, Hugo Chávez, towards other states. Chávez's foreign policy may be divided into that concerned with United States-Venezuela relations and that concerned with Venezuela's relations with other states those in Latin America and developing countries on other continents. In many respects the policies of the Chávez government were a substantial break from the previous administrations that governed Venezuela. Venezuela chaired the Group of 77 in 2002. Hugo Chávez refocused Venezuelan foreign policy on Latin American economic and social integration by enacting bilateral trade and reciprocal aid agreements, including his so-called "oil diplomacy". Chávez stated that Venezuela has "a strong oil card to play on the geopolitical stage... It is a card that we are going to play with toughness against the toughest country in the world, the United States."Chávez made Latin American integration the keystone of his administration's foreign policy.
Venezuela worked with its neighbors following the 1997 Summit of the Americas in many areas—particularly energy integration—and championed the OAS decision to adopt the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption being among the first to ratify it. Venezuela participates in the UN Friends groups for Haiti, it became a full member of the Mercosur trade bloc on the 31 July 2012, expanding its involvement in the hemisphere's trade integration prospects. The Venezuelan government advocates an end to Cuba's US-imposed isolation and a "multi-polar" world based on ties among developing countries. Exemplars of this prioritization have come in the cooperative multinational institutions Chávez helped found: Petrocaribe and TeleSUR. Bilateral trade relationships with other Latin American countries have played a major role in his policy, with Chávez increasing arms purchases from Brazil, forming oil-for-expertise trade arrangements with Cuba, funding an $300 million ex gratia oil pipeline built to provide discounted natural gas to Colombia, initiating barter arrangements that, among other things, exchange Venezuelan petroleum for cash-strapped Argentina's meat and dairy products.
Chavez's re-election in December 2006 was seen as a boost to Cuba. For those Latin American leaders who shared his Bolivarian socialist revolutionary vision of change, Evo Morales of Bolivia, Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua, the Castros of Cuba, Chavez was a visionary, a visionary, able to provide cheap or free oil under the PetroCaribe program. Despite Chavez's active foreign policy, a 2007 Pew Research poll showed that majorities in Bolivia, Mexico, Chile, a slim plurality in Argentina had little or no confidence in Chavez's handling of world affairs, along with 45% in Venezuela itself. In 2008 confidence in Chavez as a world leader declined to 26% in Argentina, 12% in Brazil, 6% in Mexico, according to Pew. Venezuelan opposition-leaning research center CIECA estimated in September 2008 that Venezuela had given 33 billion dollars to members of the ALBA group since its inception At the 2005 UN World Summit, Chávez on 15 September mocked and denounced what he perceived to be a neoliberal model of globalization, promulgated by the Washington Consensus, as a fundamentally fraudulent and malicious scheme.
Referring to such arrangements as Free Trade Area of the Americas, Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement, the North American Free Trade Agreement, Chávez stated that such "market-oriented policies, open market policies" were and continue to be... the fundamental cause of the great evils and the great tragedies suffered by the Third World". Chávez summarily denounced the global status quo as a mortal threat to humanity, demanding that a new approach be taken towards satisfying the UN Millennium Development Goals, he stated that both global warming and imminent hydrocarbon depletion were fundamentally threatening mankind's wellbeing. His speech concluded to raucous cheering from attending delegates. On the same trip, he visited the Bronx in New York City, during a speech delivered at a Bronx church on 17 September stated that, notwithstanding any grievances he may have with the Bush administration's foreign policy, he had "fallen in love with the soul of the people of the United States".
In October 2005 on his weekly program Aló Presidente, Chávez stated that recent catastrophes, including hurricanes, droughts and famines, occurring around the globe were Mother Nature's answer to the "world global capitalist model". In August 2006, Venezuela was seeking the candidacy of non-permanent UN Security Council seat. In the final contest between Guatemala and Venezuela, Guatemala's candidacy was backed by the United States while Venezuela was courting Africa, the Arab League and Russia; when submitting Venezuela's candidacy to the Arab League members, El Universal reports that a Foreign Ministry spokesperson said Venezuela "will support our Arab fellows against war and incursion of foreign countries". In the end, the compromise candidate was Panama. Chavez was scheduled to tour seven states: Russia, Libya, Ukraine and Belarus. On the tour, he was said to sign a raft of deals including nuclear energy, military supplies such as tanks, other agricultural deals. In Russia, he would sign an agreement to develop nuclear energy, the purchase of Russian tanks and a bi-national bank.
Ukraine and Belarus are both recipients of Venezuelan oil. Antigua and Barbuda enjoys close relations with Venezuela; as of June 2009 it became a formal member of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas international cooperation organization and the Caribbean oil alliance
National Assembly (Venezuela)
The National Assembly is the de jure legislature for Venezuela, first elected in 2000. It is a unicameral body made up of a variable number of members, who were elected by a "universal, direct and secret" vote by direct election in state-based voting districts, on a state-based party-list proportional representation system; the number of seats is constant, each state and the Capital district elected three representatives plus the result of dividing the state population by 1.1% of the total population of the country. Three seats are reserved for representatives of Venezuela's indigenous peoples and elected separately by all citizens, not just those with indigenous backgrounds. For the 2010-2015 period the number of seats was 165. All deputies serve five-year terms; the National Assembly meets in the Federal Legislative Palace in Caracas. In the midst of the ongoing constitutional crisis, a different body, the Constituent Assembly was elected in 2017, with the intent of re-writing the Venezuelan Constitution.
From that point forward, the two legislatures have operated in parallel, with the National Assembly forming the primary opposition to president Nicolás Maduro, with the Constituent Assembly being his primary supporters. On 23 January 2019, Juan Guaidó declared himself acting president, citing clauses of the 1999 Venezuelan constitution and his majority in the National Assembly; the National Assembly has become part of his transitional government. Under its previous 1961 Venezuelan Constitution, Venezuela had a bicameral legislature, known as the Congress; this Congress was composed of a Venezuelan Chamber of Deputies. The Senate was made up of two senators per state, two for the Federal District, a number of ex officio senators intended to represent the nation's minorities. In addition, former presidents were awarded lifetime senate seats. Senators were required to be Venezuelan-born citizens and over the age of 30; the members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by direct universal suffrage, with each state returning at least two.
Deputies had to be at least 21 years old. The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies were each led by a President, both performed their functions with the help of a Directorial Board; the President of Senate of Venezuela hold additional title of the President of Congress, was constitutional successor of the President of Venezuela in case of a vacancy. This succession took place in 1993. President Hugo Chávez was first elected in December 1998 on a platform calling for a National Constituent Assembly to be convened to draft a new constitution for Venezuela. Chávez's argument was that the existing political system, under the earlier 1961 Constitution, had become isolated from the people; this won broad acceptance among Venezuela's poorest classes, who had seen a significant decline in their living standards over the previous decade and a half. The National Constituent Assembly, consisting of 131 elected individuals, convened in August 1999 to begin rewriting the constitution. In free elections, voters gave all but six seats to persons associated with the Chávez movement.
The Venezuelan people approved the ANC's proposed constitution in a referendum on 15 December 1999. It came into effect the following 20 December. On 29 March 2017, the Supreme Court stripped the Assembly of its powers, ruling that all powers would be transferred to the Supreme Court; the previous year the Court found the Assembly in contempt for swearing in legislators whose elections had been deemed invalid by the court. The 2017 court judgement declared that the "situation of contempt" meant that the Assembly could not exercise its powers; the action transferred powers from the Assembly, which had an opposition majority since January 2016, to the Supreme Court, which has a majority of government loyalists. The move was denounced by the opposition with Assembly President Julio Borges describing the action as a coup d'état by President Nicolás Maduro. However, after public protests and condemnation by international bodies, the court's decision was reversed a few days on 1 April. On 4 August 2017, Venezuela convened a new Constituent Assembly after a special election, boycotted by opposition parties.
The new Constituent Assembly is intended to rewrite the constitution. The Constituent Assembly meets within the Federal Legislative Palace. On 18 August the Constituent Assembly summoned the members of the National Assembly to attend a ceremony acknowledging its legal superiority. In response, the Constitutional Assembly stripped the National Assembly of its legislative powers, assuming them for itself, it justified the move by claiming that the National Assembly had failed to prevent what it called "opposition violence" in the form of the 2017 Venezuelan protests. The constitutionality of this move has been questioned, it has been condemned by several foreign governments and international bodies. Under the new Bolivarian 1999 Constitution, the legislative branch of Government in Venezuela is represented by a unicameral National Assembly; the Assembly is made up of 165 deputies, who are elected by "universal, direct and secret" vote on
History of Venezuela
The history of Venezuela reflects events in areas of the Americas colonized by Spain starting 1522. However, in the Andean region of western Venezuela, complex Andean civilization of the Timoto-Cuica people flourished before European contact. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American colonies to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution, beginning with a 1999 Constituent Assembly to write a new Constitution of Venezuela.
This new constitution changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Archaeologists have discovered evidence of the earliest known inhabitants of the Venezuelan area in the form of leaf-shaped flake tools, together with chopping and plano-convex scraping implements exposed on the high riverine terraces of the Pedregal River in western Venezuela. Late Pleistocene hunting artifacts, including spear tips, come from a similar site in northwestern Venezuela known as El Jobo. According to radiocarbon dating, these date from 15,000 to 9,000 B. P. Taima-Taima, yellow Muaco, El Jobo in Falcón are some of the sites that have yielded archeological material from these times; these groups co-existed with megafauna like megateriums and toxodonts. Archaeologists identify a Meso-Indian period from 9,000–7,000 B. P. to 1000 B. P. In this period and gatherers of megafauna started to turn to other food sources and established the first tribal structures. Pre-Columbian Venezuela had an estimated population of one million.
In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina, Auaké, Caquetio and Timoto-Cuicas. The Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, they stored water in tanks. Their houses were made of stone and wood with thatched roofs, they were peaceful, for the most part, depended on growing crops. Regional crops included ullucos, they left behind works of art anthropomorphic ceramics, but no major monuments. They spun vegetable fibers to weave into mats for housing, they are credited with having invented a staple of Venezuelan cuisine. Beginning around 1,000 AD, archaeologists speak of the Neo-Indian period, which ends with the European Conquest and Colony period. In the 16th century, when Spanish colonization began in Venezuelan territory, the population of several indigenous peoples, such as the Mariches, declined. Native caciques, such as Guaicaipuro and Tamanaco, attempted to resist Spanish incursions, but the newcomers subdued them.
Historians agree that the founder of Caracas, Diego de Losada put Tamanaco to death. Christopher Columbus sailed along the eastern coast of Venezuela on his third voyage in 1498, the only one of his four voyages to reach the South American mainland; this expedition discovered the so-called "Pearl Islands" of Cubagua and Margarita off the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Spanish expeditions returned to exploit these islands' abundant pearl oysters, enslaving the indigenous people of the islands and harvesting the pearls intensively, they became one of the most valuable resources of the incipient Spanish Empire in the Americas between 1508 and 1531, by which time the local indigenous population and the pearl oysters had been devastated. The second Spanish expedition, led by Alonso de Ojeda, sailing along the length of the northern coast of South America in 1499, gave the name Venezuela to the Gulf of Venezuela—because of its perceived similarity to the Italian city. Spain's colonization of mainland Venezuela started in 1522.
Spain established its first permanent South American settlement in the what became the city of Cumaná. At the time of the Spanish arrival, indigenous people lived in groups as agriculturists and hunters - along the coast, in the Andean mountain range, along the Orinoco River. Klein-Venedig was the most significant part of the German colonization of the Americas, from 1528 to 1546, in which the Augsburg-based Welser banking family obtained colonial rights in the Province of Venezuela in return for debts owed by Charles I of Spain; the primary motivation was the search for the legendary golden city of El Dorado. The venture was led at first by Ambrosius Ehinger, who founded Maracaibo in 1529. After the deaths of first Ehinger and his successor Georg von Speyer, Philipp von Hutten continued exploration in the interior, in his absence from the capital of the province the crown of Spain claimed the right to appoint the governor. On Hutten's return to the capital, Santa Ana de Coro, in 1546, the Spanish governor Juan de Carvajal had Hutten and Bartholomeus VI.
Welser executed. Charles revoked Welser's charter. By the middle of the 16th century, not many more
Valencia is the capital city of Carabobo State, the third largest city in Venezuela. The city is an economic hub; the population of Valencia and the nearby metropolitan area reached 1,827,165 in 2010, it is expected to grow in the years to come. It is the largest city in the Valencia-Maracay metropolitan region, which with a population of about 4.5 million is the country's second largest after that of Caracas. Caracas lies some 172 kilometres away to the east; the area was inhabited in the fourth millennium BC. The inhabitants were hunters and gatherers who might have developed some elementary forms of agriculture. Between AD 200 and 1000 an important settlement was formed close to Lake Valencia. Around the year 1000, waves of migration started to come from the Orinoco river area arriving along the Pao river; the fusion of previous settlements with these new populations gave rise to the Vacencioide culture. People in the area belonged to Arawak groups, they were hunters and gatherers who fished and grew maize and cotton.
Their houses were built on artificial mounds in valleys that were flooded by water from Lake Valencia. Archaeologists have found pottery from that time. Valencia was founded by Captain Alonso Díaz Moreno on March 25, 1555 – as the locals are proud of reminding visitors, eight years before Caracas, it was the first Spanish settlement in central Venezuela and its official name was Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de Nueva Valencia del Rey. It was named after Valencia de Don Province of León, Spain; the encomiendas put the Indians living in the region under the control of the Spanish settlers. They started to displace the native population from the most fertile land, but they started intermarrying with them. Spanish conquistador Lope de Aguirre entered the city in 1561. In 1677 it was raided by French pirates, who burnt down its City Hall, thus destroying many important documents about the early settlement of Venezuela; the German scientist Alexander von Humboldt visited the city on his trip through the Americas.
He reported. On June 24, 1821, the battle of Carabobo was fought on the outskirts of the city, sealing the independence of Venezuela from imperial Spanish rule. Valencia became the capital of Venezuela in 1830, it ceased to be the capital soon afterward, becoming once more the seat of the national government in 1858 after the Monagas was toppled and the March Revolution took place. On November 15, 1892, the University of Valencia, future University of Carabobo, was founded; when dictator Juan Vicente Gómez died in 1935, Nueva Valencia del Rey was a small city. The oil revenues and industrialization that came along lead to a population explosion. Many immigrants, firstly from Europe and then from other Latin American countries, chose Nueva Valencia del Rey as the place to live in Venezuela; the first direct election of local governments took place in 1988. Valencia was one of the places where Hugo Chávez's proposal for the constitutional reform was rejected with the highest proportion of votes: around 59.21% of the population rejected it.
An Italian tribunal ruled that physicist Ettore Majorana who disappeared in 1938 was living in Valencia during the late Fifties. See here: Valencia is located in a central valley, surrounded by a mountain range called the Coastal Range. On the eastern outskirts of the city lies Lake Valencia, Venezuela's second-largest lake. To the West and Northeastern part there are mountains. To the south is an extension of the Venezuelan grasslands, the Llanos; the elevation of the city is 520 metres. Valencia, due to its latitude and closeness to the sea, has warm temperatures; the yearly average is 26 °C. The city is located 479 metres above sea level. Winds reduce the temperature in the afternoon; the Cabriales river has problems with pollution. The most important waste disposal centre of Greater Valencia and Carabobo is located southwest of Valencia proper, in the Municipio Libertador, in La Guásima. There, waste is burnt without any special equipment. City of Valencia Municipalities The City of Valencia is made of five municipalities: Valencia, Los Guayos and San Diego.
Venezuelan law specifies that every municipal government must have four main functions: executive, legislative and planning. The executive function is managed by the mayor of each municipality, in charge of representing the municipality's administration; the legislative branch is represented by the Municipal Council, composed of seven councillors for each municipality, charged with the deliberation of new decrees and local laws. The comptroller tasks are managed by the municipal comptroller's office. Planning is represented by the Local Public Planning Council, which manages development projects for the municipality; the main newspapers of the region are El Carabobeño and Notitarde, with a circulation going from 75,000 to 92,000. The main TV Stations in Valencia are Ecovisión and DAT TV The private Digital Newspaper of Carabobo State is Agencia Carabobeña de Noticias; the main centre of higher education in Nueva Valencia del Rey is the University of Carabobo, one of the most important public universities of Venezuela.
The direction of the University and some administrat
Battle of Carabobo
The Battle of Carabobo, on 24 June 1821, was fought between independence fighters, led by Venezuelan General Simón Bolívar, the Royalist forces, led by Spanish Field Marshal Miguel de la Torre. Bolívar's decisive victory at Carabobo led to the independence of Venezuela and establishment of the Republic of Gran Colombia. There were several events. Francisco de Miranda, famed patriot that tried to free many Latin American countries alongside Simón Bolívar, had taken control of Caracas from 1810 to 1812; the Spanish took back control and Miranda was handed to the royalists because Bolívar, in one of his most questionable decisions of his life, believed him to be traitor. Bolívar fled from Venezuela, after which he organized the Admirable Campaign in 1813 and re-established the Second Republic of Venezuela. Bolívar would lose Venezuela again in 1814 and he would re-establish the Venezuelan Republic one more time before uniting with the New Granada to form the Gran Colombia union. In 1820, an armistice was made between the Spanish, under General Pablo Morillo, the Patriots, under Bolívar.
During the years after he fled from Venezuela, Bolívar spent a lot of time regrouping his forces. He stationed his men on Lake Maracaibo, an area, occupied by the loyalists. Bolívar had numerical superiority over the loyalists but it would still be a challenge; the Royalists occupied the road leading from Valencia to Puerto Cabello. As Bolívar's force of 6,500 or 8,000 approached the Royalist position, Bolívar divided his force and sent half on a flanking maneuver through rough terrain and dense foliage. Bolívar led the attack through the center while Gen. José Antonio Páez went around to the right flank, but before they would do it, the two Spanish field guns fired on the lines. Gen. Miguel de la Torre, commander of the Spanish split his force and sent half to deal with this flank attack. Hitting the Patriots, led by the Apure Braves Battalion, with musket fire, the Royalists held back the assault. Though the Venezuelan infantry failed in their attack and retreated, the men of the British battalion, commanded by Colonel Thomas Ilderton Ferrier and including many former members of the famed King's German Legion, fought hard and succeeded in taking the hills.
Though outnumbered and low on supplies, the legion soldiers managed to maintain control of the tactically critical hills. By the battle's end, the legionary force had suffered 119 deaths. Col. Ferrier was among the dead. Bolívar praised the Legion troops and called them the "Saviors of my Fatherland", noting that they had distinguished themselves among other armies; as the Legion gained the top, the Apure Braves and 2 companies of the Tiralleurs Battalion reinforced them, pushed the enemy off, just as Pedro Camejo, lance in hand, was trying to rally the formations, only to be killed due to two shots to the chest from enemy gunfire, in front of General Páez. Páez, watching him in retreat, told him that he was a coward, to which, with his dying breath, Camejo responded: No, I am not! My general, I have to tell you goodbye, because now I am dead! The cavalry militia of royalist "Llanero" fled from battlefield as the Patriot infantry fought hard, the patriot cavalry led by Colonel Munoz broke through the Royalist lines on the center, marched towards the rear of de La Torre's force.
The Spanish infantry formed squares and fought to the end under the attack of the Patriot cavalry, but one battalion retreated in the face of the enemy. The rout was so bad that only some 400 of one infantry regiment managed to reach safety at Puerto Cabello. With the main Royalist force in Venezuela crushed, independence was ensured. Subsequent battles included a key naval victory for the independence forces on 24 July 1823 at the Battle of Lake Maracaibo and in November 1823 José Antonio Páez occupied Puerto Cabello, the last Royalist stronghold in Venezuela; the victory was a hard won one for the independence forces. Both Ambrosio Plaza and Manuel Cedeno, commanders of the 2nd and 3rd Divisions, were killed in the battle by the enemy. 24 June is celebrated as Battle of Carabobo Day. This day is called "Army Day" in Venezuela; every year during the month of June. It is a national celebration, televised and streamed on the Internet, it lasts all day with a military parade of the Venezuelan Army, showing to public all armaments, battalions, etc. of the ground forces, as the main highlight, during the midday hours.
This military parade doesn't have any sponsorship except by the Army. It’s the largest military parade in the country after the celebration of the birth of General Simón Bolívar on 24 July 1783 and the annual Independence Day parades of 5 July yearly. Held is a joint historical reenactment organized by the Carabobo State Government, the Ministry of Defense, the National Armed Forces, the Ministry of Education on the site of the battle in the morning, joined in by elementary and middle school students; the 2015 event was held for the first time on the Sunday nearest the anniversary, June 21. Ambrosio Plaza Nevado, Bolívar's dog, who died in the Battle of Carabobo. Prodi.com.ve: Animated Demo— Ian Fletcher Battlefield Tours: Bolívar's British Legion — by Ian Fletcher. Prodiseño Escuela de Comunicación Visual y Diseño.ve: Carabobo 1821— Pages of Glory on Simón Bolívar, T
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, using and repairing forests and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in natural stands; the science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, social and managerial sciences. Modern forestry embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation and community protection, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, preserving forests as "sinks" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other common terms are: a silviculturalist. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is used synonymously with forestry. Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, forestry has emerged as a vital applied science and technology.
Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area, wood is the most important renewable resource, forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year; the preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy and housing. The development of modern forestry is connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property. Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood, necessary for the Roman Empire. Large deforestations came with after the decline of the Romans; however in the 5th century, monks in the Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy.
Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the Visigoths in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of oak and pine forests. The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan, it was later written about by the Ming dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi. In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. Plant litter and resin extraction were important, as pitch was essential for the caulking of ships and hunting rights and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, for grazing animals in forests; the notion of "commons" refers to the underlying traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting.
Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near Leiria to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction. His successor Dom Dinis continued the forest exists still today. Forest management flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in Nuremberg, in 16th-century Japan. A forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; as timber rafting allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were connected. Large firs in the black forest were called "Holländer ``. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs; the crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries and livestock stables. Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland.
Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world maritime trade, a boom in housing construction in Europe and the success and further Berggeschrey of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of'Nachhaltigkeit', sustainability in forestry, is connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a mining administrator in Saxony, his book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the enclosure movement and the clearances favored enclosed private property; the Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons. At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a Holznot, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns; the practice of establishing tree plantations in the British Isles was promoted by John Evelyn, though it had acquired some populari