SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs

The Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs is the ministry of the Government of France that handles France's foreign relations. Since 1855, its headquarters have been located at 37 Quai d'Orsay, close to the National Assembly; the term Quai d'Orsay is used as a metonym for the ministry. Its cabinet minister, the Minister of Europe and Foreign Affairs is responsible for the foreign relations of France; the current officeholder, Jean-Yves Le Drian, was appointed in 2017. In 1547, secretaries to the King became specialised, writing correspondence to foreign governments, negotiating peace treaties; the four French secretaries of state where foreign relations were divided by region, in 1589, became centralised with one becoming first secretary responsible for international relations. The Ancien Régime position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs became Foreign Minister around 1723, was renamed "Minister of Foreign Affairs" in 1791 after the French Revolution. All ministerial positions were abolished in 1794 by the National Convention and re-established with the Directory.

For a brief period in the 1980s, the office was retitled Minister for External Relations. As of 17 May 2017, it is designated as the Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs and led by Jean-Yves Le Drian, assisted by two secretaries of state Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne and Amélie de Montchalin. There are multiple services under its authority, along with that of some other ministers. Under the authority of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development, that of Cooperation and European Affairs, that of Foreign and European Affairs, there are numerous services directly related to the ministers. Here is a list of those services; the ministers' cabinet The office of cabinets, which gathers a personnel in charge of the administrative and logistics aspects of the three ministers' cabinets The budget control service General inspection of foreign affairs The prospective office The Protocole, upon which the President's protocole cell relies on The Crisis management Department 140 Ministries of Foreign Affairs on the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs website.

Official site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Official treaty database of France Dictionnaire historique des institutions, mœurs et coutumes de la France, Adolphe Chéruel, L. Hachette et cie, 1855 "Ministries 1700–1870", Rulers.org

Jonathan Kaufman

Jonathan Kaufman is a Pulitzer Prize winning reporter and author, Director of the Northeastern University School of Journalism and professor of Journalism. Prior to joining Northeastern, Kaufman was an Executive Editor at Bloomberg News, overseeing more than 300 reporters and editors. Under his leadership, Kaufman's team at Bloomberg won numerous awards including a 2015 Pulitzer Prize, several George Polk Awards, the Overseas Press Club Award, a Gerald Loeb Award, the Osborn Elliott Prize of the Asia Society, the Education Writers Association Grand Prize. Prior to Bloomberg, Kaufman was a senior editor and Beijing Bureau Chief at The Wall Street Journal and a reporter and Berlin Bureau Chief at the Boston Globe where he was part of a team that won a Pulitzer Prize on racism and job discrimination in Boston. Kaufman's specialties are the role of Jews around the world. Kaufman is the author of three books. Broken Alliance: The Turbulent Times Between Blacks and Jews in America won the National Jewish Book Award.

It was hailed by African-American and white reviewers as gripping and fair and is still used in college classrooms. A Hole in the Heart of the World: Being Jewish in Eastern Europe was a finalist for the National Jewish Book Award. Reviews called it “deeply engrossing,” and “beautifully written.”Kaufman has a third book set to be published by Viking in 2020 called "The Last Kings of Shanghai." Masters: Regional Studies of East Asia, Harvard University Bachelors: English, Yale College Pulitzer Prize for Special Local Reporting, 1984, for a series in The Boston Globe on racism and job discrimination in Boston. Pulitzer Prize Finalist for Local Reporting, 1985, for a series in The Boston Globe on neighborhood activists in Boston. National Jewish Book Award for Broken Alliance, 1989. National Headliner Award, 1997, for a series in The Wall Street Journal on the changing nature of work and worker’s lives. Unity in Media Award, 1999, for articles in the Wall Street Journal on the impact of incarceration on black families.

American Jewish Committee Present Tense Award for Best Book on Current Affairs for Broken Alliance, 1989. Finalist, National Jewish Book Award for A Hole in the Heart of the World, 1997. Columbia University School of Journalism School Award for Coverage of Race and Ethnicity, 2008, for a portfolio of stories on how race and gender have impacted the presidential primary races. Columbia University School of Journalism School Award for Coverage of Race and Ethnicity, 1999, for articles in the Wall Street Journal on the impact of incarceration on black families. Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism, 2015, for a Bloomberg News series on corporate tax dodging. Asia Society/Osborn Elliott Award for Coverage of Asia, 2015, for a Bloomberg series on companies in India killing villagers and others through pollution and environmental abuse. Pulitzer Prize Finalist for Public Service, 2011, for a Bloomberg News series on financial abuses by for-profit colleges. Overseas Press Club Award, 2011, for a Bloomberg Businessweek story on Chinese students gaming the SATs to gain admittance to American colleges.

Gerald Loeb Award, 2011, for a Bloomberg series on financial abuses by for-profit colleges. George Polk Award, 2012, for a Bloomberg series on abuses in the student loan industry. George Polk Award, 2011, for a Bloomberg series on financial abuses by for-profit colleges

HMS Sapphire (1904)

HMS Sapphire was a Topaze-class protected cruiser built for the Royal Navy in the first decade of the 20th century. She saw active service in World War I and was sold for scrap in 1921. Rated as third-class cruisers, the Topaze-class ships had a length between perpendiculars of 360 feet, a beam of 40 feet and a draught of 16 feet, they displaced 3,000 long tons and their crew consisted of 313 officers and other ranks. Sapphire was fitted with a pair of four-cylinder vertical triple-expansion steam engines, each driving one shaft, using steam provided by 10 water-tube boilers; the engines were designed to produce a total of 9,800 indicated horsepower, intended to give a maximum speed of 21.75 knots. They carried a maximum of 700 long tons of coal which gave them a range of 7,000 nautical miles at 10 knots and 2,000 nautical miles at 20 knots; the main armament of the Topaze class consisted of a dozen quick-firing 4-inch guns. One gun each was mounted on the quarterdeck; the remaining ten guns were placed starboard amidships.

They carried eight QF 3-pounder Hotchkiss guns and two above water 18-inch torpedo tubes. The ships' protective deck armour ranged in thickness from.75 to 2 inches. The main guns were fitted with 1-inch gun shields and the conning tower had armour 3 inches thick, she was laid down in January 1904 at Palmers in their Jarrow shipyard, launched on 17 March 1904 and completed in February 1905. Sapphire was commissioned on 2 July 1914 at Chatham Dock, before moving out into Kethole Reach, in the estuary of the Medway. On 16 July, Sapphire set sail from Sheerness Docks, for Spithead, where she took part in the Royal Fleet Review on 20 July. On 8 January 1918, Sapphire arrived at Aden where Commander W. F. Sells joined from HMS Minto and took over command. Sapphire was sold for scrap on 9 May 1921. Chesneau, Roger & Kolesnik, Eugene M. eds.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-8317-0302-4. Corbett, Julian. Naval Operations to the Battle of the Falklands.

History of the Great War: Based on Official Documents. I. London and Nashville, Tennessee: Imperial War Museum and Battery Press. ISBN 0-89839-256-X. Friedman, Norman. British Cruisers of the Victorian Era. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-59114-068-9. Friedman, Norman. Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. Gardiner, Robert & Gray, eds.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5