Vilayat Mukhtar oglu Guliyev is an Azerbaijani politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan from 1999 to 2004. He was elected to the Azeri parliament in 1996 as a supporter of President Heydar Aliyev, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Aliyev, for short term under his son, from October 1999 until April 2004, when he was replaced by Elmar Mammadyarov. Guliyev was born on November 1952 in a town of Agjabedi, Azerbaijan. Having completed high school, he enrolled at Azerbaijan State University in 1970 and graduated with a degree in Philology in 1975, he worked as a teacher at a local school in Beylagan Rayon of Azerbaijan. At the same time, he was admitted to Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences for doctoral studies. In 1978-1981, Guliyev worked as the head of department and as deputy director of the Academy's Institute of Literature and Languages named after Nizami. From 1992 through 1993, he was a professor at Atatürk University in Turkey and in 1994 was appointed Chief Scientist at the National Academy of Sciences.
In 1996, Guliyev was elected to the National Assembly of Azerbaijan. In October 1999, he was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs by President Heydar Aliyev. In 2004, Guliyev was appointed Ambassador of Azerbaijan to Poland, he has since played a significant role in facilitating military cooperation of signing of military-technical memorandum with Poland and sparking interest of Polish government in transportation of Azerbaijani oil and gas to Poland and Ukraine through Odessa-Brody-Gdansk pipeline. In 2010, Guliyev was appointed Ambassador of Azerbaijan to Hungary. In 1990, Guliyev obtained PhD in Philology, he authored over 300 publications. Guliyev wrote over 12 books. Main subject of his research was analysis of literature and history of its application in relations between Azerbaijan, Russia and Turkey in 19th-20th centuries. Vilayat Guliyev is fluent in Russian, Arabic and Persian. Guliyev has two children. One of his children, Shamil Guluzade works at Baku International Sea Trade Port.
Elmar Mammadyarov Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Mammad Yusif Jafarov
Mammad Yusif Jafarov Hajibaba oglu was an Azerbaijani statesman. Jafarov was born on March 14, in Azerbaijan, he was the younger brother of Ali Isgender Jafarzadeh. After completion of his secondary education, Jafarov studied in at Moscow State University graduating with a cum laude degree in law in 1912. While in Moscow, he was one of the organizers of regular ethnic Azerbaijani concerts and co-founders of Azerbaijani diaspora organizations. In 1912, when Fourth Duma of Russian Empire convened in Saint Petersburg, Mammad Yusif Jafarov was elected by the Muslim population of Baku and Erivan governorates to represent them in state parliament. In Saint Petersburg, he joined Constitutional Democratic Party. While in the Duma, he criticized Tsar's government for their unjust colonization policy in Azerbaijan. On March 9 after Russia's February Revolution, the interim government established the Transcaucasian Committee of the Duma. Jafarov was one of the members of the committee managed the economic operations.
On November 15, 1917, he was appointed Commissar of Industry and Trade of Transcaucasian Commissariat. When Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was proclaimed on May 28, 1918, Jafarov was appointed the Minister of Industry and Trade within the new Cabinet of Azerbaijan established by Prime Minister Fatali Khan Khoyski; when the first cabinet was dissolved, he left his post and served as a diplomatic representative of Azerbaijan in the Georgian government. On March 14, 1919, Jafarov was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan by the new government of Prime Minister Nasib Yusifbeyli. Jafarov is credited for his extensive work in disseminating the information about Azerbaijan in the international community. In October 1919, he joined the Musavat party. In December of the same year, Jafarov resigned. In February 1920, he was appointed Deputy Speaker of Parliament of Azerbaijan. Due to absence of the Speaker Alimardan Topchubashov, at the Versailles Peace Conference and achieved the de facto recognition of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in January by the Council of Allied Powers, Jafarov served as the acting speaker and head of government until April 27, 1920 when Azerbaijan was occupied by Bolshevik 11th Red Army and ADR ceased to exist.
He signed the documents of peaceful surrender of Azerbaijani government to Bolsheviks. During the Soviet rule of Azerbaijan SSR, Jafarov retired from politics and worked as legal counselor at Azerbaijani wine making and cotton-wool trusts, he died on May 1938 in Baku. Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Azerbaijani National Council
Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936. It embraced Armenia and Georgia; as they were separated from Russia by the Caucasus Mountains, they were known traditionally as the Transcaucasian Republics. Created ostensibly to consolidate the economic situation of the region, the TSFSR was useful in consolidating Bolshevik control over the states, it was one of the four republics to sign the treaty establishing the Soviet Union in 1922. Armenian: Անդրկովկասի Խորհրդային Սոցիալիստական Դաշնային ՀանրապետությունAndrkovkasi Khorhrdayin Soc‘ialistakan Dashnayin Hanrapetut‘yunAzerbaijani: Загафгазија Сосиалист Федератив Совет РеспубликасыZaqafqaziya Sosialist Federativ Sovet RespublikasıGeorgian: ამიერკავკასიის საბჭოთა ფედერაციული სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკაAmierk'avk'asiis Sabch'ota Pederatsiuli Sotsialist'uri Resp'ublik'aRussian: Закавказская Социалистическая Федеративная Советская Республика Zakavkazskaya Sotsalisticheskaya Federativnaya Sovetskaya Respublika The roots of a Transcaucasian condominium state trace back to the dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1918, following the October Revolution, when the provinces of the Caucasus seceded and formed their own state called the Transcaucasian Federation.
Competing ethno-national interests and confrontation with the Ottoman Empire in World War I led to the dissolution of the Transcaucasian Federation only two months in April 1918. The three successor states: the First Republic of Armenia, the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, the Democratic Republic of Georgia, lasted until the end of the Russian Civil War, being fought across the mountains, when they were invaded by the Red Army and sovietized. Following the proposal by Vladimir Lenin the three now Soviet Republics, the Armenian and Georgian SSRs, were united into the Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia on March 12, 1922. In the same year, on December 13, the First Transcaucasian Congress of Soviets transformed this federation of states into a unified federal state and renamed it into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, though keeping formally the autonomy of its constituent republics; the congress adopted the constitution, appointed the Central Executive Committee, the Council of People's Commissars.
Mamia Orakhelashvili, a Georgian Bolshevik leader, became the first chairman of the Transcaucasian SFSR Council of People's Commissars. Tbilisi was the capital of the republic; the republic became a founding member of the Soviet Union on December 30 along with the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR. In December 1936, the Transcaucasian SFSR was dissolved and divided again among the Georgian and Azerbaijani SSRs. After the Red Army invasion of Georgia, hitherto an autonomous province within the Democratic Republic of Georgia, was declared a Soviet Republic, the SSR of Abkhazia, in March 1921 by the Abkhaz Revolutionary committee; however the republic's relations with Georgia and Russia were not formally settled. On December 16, 1921, Abkhazia signed a treaty of alliance with the Georgian SSR, which defined its status as a treaty republic and established a military and financial union between the two Soviet republics, subordinating the SSR of Abkhazia to the Georgian SSR. Thus, through Georgia, Abkhazia joined the TSFSR and was on an equal footing with the other republics of the federation.
On February 19, 1931, Abkhazia's republican status was downgraded to that of an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Georgian SSR. The Adjar ASSR was established on July 16, 1921 within the Georgian SSR as a consequence of the Treaty of Kars; the treaty marking the end of the Caucasus Campaign in World War I provided for the division of the former Batum Oblast of the Kutais Governorate of the Russian Empire between Georgia and Turkey. According to the agreement the northern half with significant Georgian Muslim population would become part of the Soviet Georgia but granted autonomy. Another autonomous republic was established in July 1920 in Nakhchivan, an area bordering Armenia and Iran, claimed by Armenians and Azerbaijanis. After the occupation of the region by the Red Army, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was declared with "close ties" to the Azerbaijani SSR; the Treaty of Moscow and the Treaty of Kars affirmed the establishment of the autonomous republic as part of the Soviet Azerbaijan.
Before 1923, Georgia and Azerbaijan issued each its own postage stamps. The Transcaucasian Federation began issuing its own stamps on September 15, 1923, superseded the separate republics' issues on October 1; the first issues consisted of some of the stamps of Russia and Armenia overprinted with a star containing the five-letter acronym of the Federation inside the points. Massive inflation having set in, this was followed by an issue of the Federation's own designs, four values of a view of oil fields, four with a montage of Soviet symbols over mountains and oil derricks, values ranging from 40,000 to 500,000 rubles; the 40,000 rubles and 75,000 rubles were surcharged to 700,000 rubles. On October 24, the stamps were re-issued with values from 1 to 18 gold kopecks. Starting in 1924, the Federation used stamps of the Soviet Union. Most of the stamps of the Federation are not rare today, with 1998 prices in the US$1–2 range, although the overprints on Armenian stamps range up to US$200; as might be expected from a short period of usage, used stamps are less common th
An ambassador is an official envoy a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and temporary diplomatic assignment. The word is often used more liberally for persons who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions and fields of endeavor such as sales. An ambassador is the ranking government representative stationed in a foreign capital; the host country allows the ambassador control of specific territory called an embassy, whose territory and vehicles are afforded diplomatic immunity in the host country. Under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, an ambassador has the highest diplomatic rank. Countries may choose to maintain diplomatic relations at a lower level by appointing a chargé d'affaires in place of an ambassador; the equivalent to an ambassador exchanged among members of the Commonwealth of Nations are known as High Commissioners.
The "ambassadors" of the Holy See are known as Apostolic Nuncios. The term is derived from Middle English ambassadour, Anglo-French ambassateur of Latin origin from the word Ambaxus-Ambactus, meaning servant or minister; the first known usage of the term was recorded around the 14th century. The foreign government to which an ambassador is assigned must first approve the person. In some cases, the foreign government might reverse its approval by declaring the diplomat a persona non grata, i.e. an unacceptable person. This kind of declaration results in recalling the ambassador to their home nation. In accordance with the Congress of Vienna of 1815 and the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, the ambassador and embassy staff are granted diplomatic immunity and personal safety while living abroad. Due to the advent of modern technologies, today's world is a much smaller place in relative terms. With this in mind, it is considered important that the nations of the world have at least a small staff living in foreign capitals in order to aid travelers and visitors from their home nation.
As an officer of the foreign service, an ambassador is expected to protect the citizens of their home country in the host country. Another result of the increase in foreign travel is the growth of trade between nations. For most countries, the national economy is now part of the global economy; this means increased opportunities to trade with other nations. When two nations are conducting a trade, it is advantageous to both parties to have an ambassador and a small staff living in the other land, where they act as an intermediary between cooperative businesses. One of the cornerstones of foreign diplomatic missions is to work for peace; this task can grow into a fight against international terrorism, the drug trade, international bribery, human trafficking. Ambassadors help stop these acts; these activities are important and sensitive and are carried out in coordination with the Defense Ministry of the state and the head of the nation. The rise of the modern diplomatic system was a product of the Italian Renaissance.
The use of ambassadors became a political strategy in Italy during the 17th century. The political changes in Italy altered the role of ambassadors in diplomatic affairs; because many of the states in Italy were small in size, they were vulnerable to larger states. The ambassador system was used to protect the more vulnerable states; this practice spread to Europe during the Italian Wars. The use and creation of ambassadors during the 15th century in Italy has had long-term effects on Europe and, in turn, the world's diplomatic and political progression. Europe still uses the same terms of ambassador rights as they had established in the 16th century, concerning the rights of the ambassadors in host countries as well as the proper diplomatic procedures. An ambassador was used as a representative of the state in which they are from to negotiate and disseminate information in order to keep peace and establish relationships with other states; this attempt was employed in the effort to maintain peaceful relations with nations and make alliances during difficult times.
The use of ambassadors today is widespread. States and non-state actors use diplomatic representatives to deal with any problems that occur within the international system. Ambassadors now live overseas or within the country in which it is assigned to for long periods of time so that they are acquainted with the culture and local people; this way they are more politically effective and trusted, enabling them to accomplish goals that their host country desires. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 formalized the system of diplomatic rank under international law: Ambassadors are diplomats of the highest rank, formally representing the head of state, with plenipotentiary powers. In modern usage, most ambassadors on foreign postings as head of mission carry the full title of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. "Ordinary" ambassadors and non-plenipotentiary status are used, although they may be encountered in certain circumstances. The only difference between an extraordinary ambassador and an ordinary ambassador is that while the former's mission is permanent, the latter serves only for a specific purpose.
Among European powers, the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary was regarded as the personal representative of the Sovereign. The custom of dispatching ambassadors to the h
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic known as Azerbaijan People's Republic or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic. The ADR was founded by the Azerbaijani National Council in Tiflis on 28 May 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire, its established borders were with Russia to the north, the Democratic Republic of Georgia to the north-west, the First Republic of Armenia to the west, Iran to the south. It had a population of 2.86 million. Ganja was the temporary capital of the Republic; the name of "Azerbaijan" which the leading Musavat party adopted, for political reasons, prior to the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran. Under the ADR, a government system was developed in which a Parliament elected on the basis of universal and proportionate representation was the supreme organ of state authority.
Fatali Khan Khoyski became its first prime minister. Besides the Musavat majority, Ittihad, Muslim Social Democrats as well as representatives of Armenian, Polish and German minorities gained seats in the parliament; some members supported Pan-Turkist ideas. Among the important accomplishments of the Parliament was the extension of suffrage to women, making Azerbaijan one of the first countries in the world, the first majority-Muslim nation, to grant women equal political rights with men. Another important accomplishment of the ADR was the establishment of Baku State University, the first modern-type university founded in Azerbaijan. From 1813 and 1828, as a result of Qajar Iran's forced cession through the Treaty of Gulistan and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the territory of modern-day Azerbaijan, in turn what was the short-lived ADR, had become part of the Russian Empire. By 1917, when both Russian revolutions took place the territory of the actual Azerbaijan had been part of the empire's Transcaucasian administrative region for more than 100 years, alongside the rest of the Transcaucasus since Iran's cession.
It was a multinational region of the Russian Empire, where 3 independent states were born later: Armenia and Azerbaijan. The population of the latter was in major part Muslims and, why it is referred to as Muslim territory when talking about this period of history. After the February revolution of 1917 in Russia on March 22, 1917, the Special Transcaucasian Committee Ozakom was established to fill the administrative gap following the abdication of the Tsar; the members of Ozakom were the members of the State Council and representatives of the Armenian and Azerbaijan political elite. Ozakom announced that in the following months the most important issues, i.e. national, religious and social, were to be solved by the Transcaucasian Constituent Assembly. In the course of April and May 1917 several Muslim Assemblies took place. Like many ethnic minorities of Transcaucasia, Azeris aimed at secession from Russia after the February Revolution. Two general opinions were expressed by the representatives of the Muslim community: pan-Turkish, meaning joining with Turkey, federalization.
The Transcaucasian region got an opportunity to decide its destiny, taking the course of federalization. In accordance with the new structure, the Transcaucasian region was to have a independent internal policy, leaving to the new Russian government only foreign policy and army, custom. After the October revolution of 1917 the Transcaucaisan government had to change its policy as Russia was now involved in the Civil War; the Transcaucausians did not accept the Bolshevik revolution. In February, 1918 the Transcaucasian Council started its work in Tbilisi, this was the first serious step towards complete independence of the Caucasian nations; the “Sejm” consisted of 125 deputies and represented 3 leading parties: Georgian mensheviks, Azerbaijan Muslims and Armenian “dashnaks”. Bolsheviks refused to join the Sejm and established their own government of the local Soviet in Baku: the so-called Baku Commune; the Commune was formed by 85 Social Revolutionaries and Left Social Revolutionaries, 48 Bolsheviks, 36 Dashnaks, 18 Musavatists and 13 Mensheviks.
Stepan Shaumyan, a Bolshevik, Prokopius Dzhaparidze, a leftist SR, were elected Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners of the Commune of Baku. The Russian Caucasus Army was degrading after the collapse of the Russian Empire; the Russian forces were substituted by new Armenian bodies. Given the circumstances, the Transcaucasian Sejm signed the Armistice of Erzincan with the Ottoman Empire on December 5, 1917. On March 3, 1918, the Bolshevik government in Russia signed the Brest-Litovsk Treaty with Germany. One of the terms was the loss of the regions of Kars and Ardahan to the Ottoman Empire; the terms of the Treaty revealed a deep conflict between Georgians and Armenians on one side and the Muslims on another. The peace talks between the Sejm and Turkey started in March, 1918, in Trapezond did not have any results; the Ottoman Empire delivere
Khalaf Khalafov Aly oglu, is the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs at the Government of Azerbaijan since 1997. Khalafov was born in Jil village of Chambarak, Armenia SSR on September 21, 1959, he has been graduated from Kiev State University in 1982. After the graduation he worked as an inspector - division chief at the Ministry of Internal Affairs at the Azerbaijani government. In 1990-1991, Khalafov studied at Diplomatic Academy of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR. Khalafov started his political career at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan as a second secretary at the Consular Department in 1991. In 1992, he was attained the chief of the Legal Department at the ministry. Khalafov was retained in his post until 1997, when at the same year he was appointed the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan, his diplomatic rank is Plenipotentiary. Khalaf Khalafov has two children. Other than his mother tongue Azerbaijani, he speaks fluent Russian. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Elmar Mammadyarov Maharram oglu, born July 2, 1960) is an Azerbaijani diplomat who has served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan since 2004. Mammadyarov speaks Russian, English and Turkish. Mammadyarov was born in Baku, Azerbaijan on July 2, 1960, his father, Maharram Mammadyarov, was born in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. He studied at the School of International Relations and International Law of the Kiev State University in 1977-1982, he continued his education at the Diplomatic Academy of the MFA of USSR in 1988-1991 and obtained a PhD in History. In 1989-1990 Mammadyarov was appointed as exchange scholar at the Center for Foreign Policy Development of the Brown University. Mammadyarov started his diplomatic career in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijani SSR in 1982, he served there as second and first secretary until 1988. In 1991-1992 he was the Director of the State Protocol Division. In 1992-1995, Mammadyarov worked in the Permanent Mission of Azerbaijan to the United Nations in New York.
Upon completion of his duties he returned to Baku and in 1995-1998 was the deputy director of the Department of International Organizations in the Ministry. In 1998-2003 he served as counselor at the Embassy of Azerbaijan to the United States. In 2003 Mammadyarov was appointed as Ambassador to Italy. Since April 2, 2004 he is Minister of Foreign Affairs. Since he was appointed as foreign minister, Mammadyarov involved in multiple political activities. During his position, Azerbaijan took over Chairmanship of the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers from Austria for six months in 2014. On June 23, he presented communication to PACE. In his overview, he stressed on combating manipulation of sports competitions. Elmar Mammadyarov is chairperson of National Commission of the Republic of Azerbaijan for UNESCO. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan Mammadyarov meets Chinese delegation Elmar Mammadyarov: "We are rather speaking of a poll" Azerbaijan: Armenia Denies Agreeing To Leave Seven Occupied Districts