Argentina and Brazil's relationship are both close and historical, encompasses all possible dimensions: economy, culture and tourism. From war and rivalry to friendship and alliance, this complex relationship has spanned more than two centuries. After achieving independence from the Iberian crowns in the early nineteenth century and Brazil inherited a series of unresolved territorial disputes from their colonial powers; the most serious breach in the relationship was the Cisplatine War, led by the Brazilian invasion and annexation of the Banda Oriental. Despite the numerous periods of muted hostility, the Argentine–Brazilian relationship was not defined by open hostility for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There was competition on many levels, their respective defense policies reflected mutual suspicion, but the Brazilian economic rise in the 1980s led to the accommodation of Argentina as a secondary regional power and increasing cooperation. With the creation of the Brazilian–Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials in 1991, the two countries turned their nuclear competition into cooperation through mutual confidence.
A high volume of trade and migration between Argentina and Brazil has generated closer ties after the implementation of Mercosur in 1991. Today, the strategic relationship between Argentina and Brazil is considered to be "at the highest point in history". Argentine foreign policy has given special emphasis in "deepening the strategic alliance with Brazil in all its aspects". Argentina has been "an absolute priority" for Brazilian foreign policy. Argentina and Brazil are neighbouring countries of South America, two of the most important economies in South America; the two countries combined represent 63% of the total area of South America, 60% of its population and 61% of its GDP. Argentina and Brazil share the Río de la Plata basin– an area where Portuguese and Spanish conquistadors collided in their ambition to conquer new land for their respective crowns. After achieving independence from the Iberian crowns in the early nineteenth century, the Argentine Republic and the Brazilian Empire inherited a series of unresolved territorial disputes from their colonial powers, involving Paraguay and Uruguay, the other two nations of the Río de la Plata basin.
It was during this time that the Cisplatine War, the first armed conflict between both countries, started. From 1825 to 1828 the forces of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata outfought those of the Brazilian Empire, until the signing of the Treaty of Montevideo that gave independence to Uruguay from both countries. Given the high cost of the war for both sides and the burdens it imposed on trade between the United Provinces and the United Kingdom, the latter pressed the two belligerent parties to engage in peace negotiations in Rio de Janeiro. Under British and French mediation, the United Provinces of River Plate and the Empire of Brazil signed the 1828 Treaty of Montevideo, which acknowledged the independence of the Cisplatine Province under the name Eastern Republic of Uruguay. Troops of both countries would face each other once again during the Platine War, when a coalition of Brazil and Argentine rebels managed to defeat Rosas. Another war happened during the 1870s when Brazil refused to accept Argentina's desire to take all the Chaco region for itself after the end of the Paraguayan War when both countries were allies against Paraguay.
Brazil did not settle disputes with Argentina over its precise national boundaries until the early twentieth century. It had settled with Uruguay in 1851, with Peru in 1851 and 1874, with Colombia in 1853, with Venezuela in 1859, with Bolivia in 1867 and with Paraguay in 1872, but not with Argentina, French Guyana and Suriname. However, it had consolidated most of its vast territory under a single authority by the middle of the nineteenth century, achieved as the result of the work of the empire's political elite. In contrast, the Argentine Republic's nineteenth century experience was marked by infighting between contending factions—those favoring a federalist republic—struggling against the strong centralist tendencies of the city of Buenos Aires. Argentina's unification and territorial consolidation under a single authority was completed by the 1880s. Despite this inheritance of unresolved territorial disputes and numerous periods of muted hostility, the Argentine–Brazilian relationship was not defined by open hostility for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
There was competition on many levels, their respective defense policies reflected mutual suspicion, but their bilateral relationship was not adversarial. After the mid-1850s, neither country resorted to coercion or the use of force to resolve territorial disputes, during the only general war that took place in the Plata region– the Paraguayan War – Argentina and Brazil were allied against Paraguay. In Brazil, the liberal revolution of 1930 overthrew the oligarchic coffee plantation owners and brought to power an urban middle class that and business interests that promoted industrialization and modernization. Aggressive promotion of new industry turned around the economy by 1933. Brazil's leaders in the 1920s and 1930s decided that Argentina's implicit foreign policy goal was to isolate Portuguese-speaking Brazil from Spanish-speaking neighbors, thus facilitating the expansion of Argentine economic and political influence in South America. Worse, was the fear that a more powerful Argentine Army would launch a surprise attack on the weaker Brazilian Army.
To counter this threat, President Getúlio Vargas forged closer links with th
Argentina–Holy See relations
Argentina–Holy See relations are the foreign relations between Argentina and the Holy See. The current pope, Pope Francis, was the former Archbishop of Buenos Aires. Argentina, a Spanish colony as part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, lost its relation with the Holy See during the Argentine War of Independence. Both countries reestablished diplomatic relations on 17 April 1840, during the administration of Juan Manuel de Rosas. Argentina has an embassy to the Holy See, the Holy See has an embassy in Buenos Aires. Pope John Paul II made two pastoral visits; the first was in June 1982. The second was in April 1987. Vatican officials, including Pope John Paul II and Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Agostino Casaroli acted as mediators to help resolve Argentina's dispute with Chile over the Beagle Channel. After the two countries went to war over the area in 1978, John Paul II became interested in resolving the dispute, which led to discussions between Chile and Argentina being mediated by the Vatican, Argentine Foreign Minister Dante Caputo and Chilean Foreign Minister Jaime Del Valle issuing a joint statement of peace and friendship with the intent of developing a final treaty to resolve sovereignty in the channel.
In early 2008, Argentine President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner appointed Alberto Iribarne to be Argentina's ambassador to the Holy See. The Vatican refused to accept him as an ambassador. After ten months of poor relations between the two countries, during which Argentina refused to appoint a new candidate and the Vatican refused to accept Iribarne, Argentina conceded and appointed Juan Pablo Cafiero to the post, which the Vatican ratified. In March 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Archbishop of Buenos Aires was elected Pope. Apostolic Nuncio to Argentina Roman Catholicism in Argentina Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations and Cult: list of bilateral treaties with the Holy See Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations and Cult: direction of the Argentine embassy to the Holy See Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations and Cult: direction of the Holy See’s embassy in Buenos Aires Nunciature to Argentina page at catholic-hierarchy.org Apostolic Nunciature of Argentina page at gcatholic.org
Argentine-Chinese relations are foreign relations between Argentine Republic and People's Republic of China. Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 19, 1972; until Argentina only recognized the Republic of China. Argentina has 2 Consulates-General in Hong Kong and Shanghai. China has an embassy in Buenos Aires. China’s Zhou Enlai, during Mao Zedong’s leadership, steered the initial China-Latin America relations by encouraging friendly connections that led to diplomatic relations; the development of diplomatic relations of China and Latin America was in the interest of developing cultural and economic ties. Organizations without ties to the governments of Latin American countries were created to help strengthen these ties between China and Latin America. Starting from 1970, until 1974, China developed diplomatic relations with 12 of Latin America’s countries. Five of them in the early part of the four-year span being Argentina, Chile and Venezuela. Five more Latin American countries were recognized as foreign constituents of China in the years of the 1980s.
For China and Latin America to expand on their diplomatic relations, China generated four interrelated concepts – “peace, mutual support, mutual benefit, collaborative development." One of Argentina's main export is soybean related products. The Argentinian government in 2002 led by Eduardo Duhalde enforced high taxes of soybean exports, Néstor Kirchner's following administration doubled that amount. In November 2004, Kirchner went to Beijing to address China and Argentina's cooperation in future investments and exchanges. Two factors on economic influence within Argentina is China's emigration, exports and imports. 64% of the farmable land in Argentina is reserved for soybean production. Since 2010, Argentina has become a main exporter of soybean oil; the soybean meal and soybean oil percentages of Argentina range from over 40% and 60% of global production. In order to grow Argentina's collective income, soybeans are charged 35% of their worth. Argentina's financial sector has experienced changes within their soybean exports since the early 2000s.
With China’s influence in Latin America during this early period, countries a part of the Mercosur organization experienced changes within their trade evaluations. The rate of soybean production of five South American countries a part of Mercosur witnessed a 221.4% growth from 1995 to 2010. Argentina is one of China's main trading partners in South America. Before 2008, the amount of exports Argentina sent to China accounted to be US $5.796 billion, the imports from China to Argentina totaled to be US $7.649 billion. The trade exchange between Argentina and China showed an 80% export of soybean products to China from Argentina, Chinese industrial exports totaling to be 98.9% of Argentina's imports. During the economic crisis of 2008, with the minor loss in profits in imports and exports worldwide, China managing to maintain consistency economically, China was recognized as a world power which directly effected the relationship with Argentina. In 2008, when Argentinian trades to China reached US $6,379 million, the exports of soybean products to China from Argentina stopped.
Processed soybean products were prohibited in the Chinese market due to China's own competitive soybean crushing industry. Argentina's total investment in soybean exports was US $143 million in the past two decades and increased to US $5.55 billion. This event led to Argentina's bilateral trade deficit from 2007 to 2014 amounting to US $24,164 million. During these two decades, Argentina's economic strategies have been ideal to soybean production which expanded from 1995's, 12 million tons, to 2010's, 52.6 million tons. During Argentina's trade deficit, not all of Argentina's soybean products were exported to China, leading to a growth in Argentina's trading partners. In 2012, India was an important importer of Argentine soy oil, followed by China, some European countries and Peru. In 2013, Argentina was ranked third in global soybean production, after Brazil and the United States; the amount of soybean production within Argentina totaled to be 18% worldwide. When trade between China and Argentina increased after the initial deficit, China started to direct their attention towards Argentina's local markets, infrastructures.
China invested in large projects in Argentina such as roads and shipping ports to increase export profitability to China. Chinese interest in Argentina has been focused on areas of manufacturing connected to exports to China such as oil, railroads to transport products across different areas of the country, the soybean industry. In 2010, Chinese investments influenced the Economic Commission for Latin America which influenced the economy in Argentina. One of China's influences has been through supplying industrial items to Argentina's growing economy such as: cellular and television equipment, computer mainframes. In 2010 Argentina's National Census listed 11,804 Chinese immigrants living within its borders - 75.6% of this number were immigrants from the People's Republic of China. Foreign immigrants are allowed to stay in the country as either "permanent residents", refugees, or "temporary" residents due to the 2004 Argentinian Migration Act; the National Directorate of Migration confirmed that 17,505 Chinese citizens had their permanent residency requests approved between 2004 and 2013.
After this period, the NDM published their completed anal
Foreign relations of Argentina
This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Argentina. At the political level, these matters are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Relations known as the Cancillería, which answers to the President; the Minister of Foreign Relations, since June 2016, is Chancellor Jorge Faurie. Owing to its geographical remoteness, local authorities in what is today Argentina developed an early sense of autonomy. Based on economic needs, during colonial times their pragmatism led to a flourishing unofficial market in smuggled goods, out of the then-small port of Buenos Aires, in blatant contravention of the Spanish mercantilist laws. With the Enlightened despotism of the late-eighteenth-century Bourbon kings and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, trade increased as the political importance of the port-city of Buenos Aires soared; the urgency for a complete liberalization of commerce remained a powerful political cause for Criollos and Mestizos, further stimulated by the politically egalitarian and revolutionary ideals spread by the French and Anglo-American revolutions.
The actual experience of defending without Spanish aid the viceroyalty from a foreign invader during the 1806–1807 British invasions of the Río de la Plata, triggered a decisive quest for greater autonomy from the colonial metropolis. Between 1808 and 1810, the Napoleonic French Empire invaded Spain, after deposing King Ferdinand VII and taking him prisoner. A Spanish resistance formed an emergency government, the Supreme Central and Governing Junta of the Kingdom in order to govern themselves and the Spanish Empire in the absence of Ferdinand VII. But, when the Supreme Central Junta dissolved itself on 29 January 1810, under extreme pressure from Napoleonic forces, most of the main cities of Spanish America refused to acknowledge its successor, a Regency Council, as the legitimate depositary of sovereignty, they proceed to name their own local juntas, as a means to exercise government in the absence of the prisoner king. On 25 May 1810, a Criollo-led cabildo abierto formally assumed the authority from Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros.
However, the ensuing United Provinces of South America declared itself independent on 9 July 1816, after Ferdinand VII was restored in 1815. During the Independence Wars no sovereign state recognized the United Provinces; until the fall of the Royalist stronghold of Lima in 1821, the Battle of Ayacucho of 1824, territorial integrity was sustained by the military brilliance of Generals José de San Martín and Manuel Belgrano, the continuous efforts of northern provinces defenders Martín Miguel de Güemes and Juana Azurduy, among many others. However, during this same period, internecine power conflicts among diverse leaders, ideological and economical struggles developed between Buenos Aires Province and much of the rest of the United Provinces, with many of the Provinces bonding themselves into a Federal League, inspired by Federalist José Gervasio Artigas' leadership. In practice, each side treated the other's grievances as a "foreign policy" matter; the Unitarian Constitution of 1819 was rejected by the provinces, a state of anarchy ensued following the Battle of Cepeda.
The only cause that could regain unity among the hostile factions was the 1825 invasion of what today is Uruguay on the part of Brazilian Empire. Uruguay known as the Province of the Eastern Bank of the Uruguay River, was considered a somewhat breakaway Province, since Montevideo served as the seat of the Royalist Viceroy Francisco Javier de Elío during its war on the May Revolution; the war crisis led to a new Constitution and a first semblance of a united national government, at the same time it represented the first foreign policy crisis of the young nation, as it forced the nation into war with Brazil. The common cause the crisis provided did lead to enough institutional stability to have the British Empire recognize Argentina and led to the election of the first President of Argentina; the opportunity for unity, was wasted because the new President, Bernardino Rivadavia, pushed a new Constitution more biased towards Buenos Aires' agenda than the failed 1819 document. The war with Brazil, went badly.
Land battles were won, early on, despite some heroic feats on the part on Irish-born Admiral Guillermo Brown, the war dragged on, resulting in bankruptcy. This and the hated new constitution led to the end of the first republic by 1828. 26 September 1828 treaty itself became another foreign policy crisis, as it triggered a violent coup d'état by generals opposed to what they saw as a unilateral surrender. The murder of the man responsible for the treaty, Buenos Aires Governor Manuel Dorrego, itself led to a countercoup that brought with it the promise of a lasting peace; the countercoup brought in a new governor for the Buenos Aires Province, who would in time become the leading figure of a loose confederation of Argentine Provinces. Juan Manuel de Rosas made it his mission to stabilize Argentina in a confederacy under the tutelage of Buenos Aires Province; this led to repression, massacres of Native
Argentine-Paraguayan relations are foreign relations between Argentina and Paraguay. Diplomatic relations between those 2 neighbors were established in 1811, with the signing of an agreement on Friendship and Trade. Both countries were at war between 1864 and 1870, never fought each other since. Argentina has an embassy in 2 Consulates-General. Paraguay has an embassy in 7 consulates. Both countries are full members of Mercosur, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, Rio Group, Group of 77, Latin American Economic System and Latin American Integration Association. Foreign relations of Argentina Foreign relations of Paraguay Paraguayan War Paraguayan immigration to Argentina List of Treaties ruling relations Argentina and Paraguay until 1976 List of Treaties ruling relations Argentina and Paraguay from 1977 until present Argentine embassy in Asuncion Paraguayan Ministry of Foreign Relations about relations with Argentina
Argentine-French relations are foreign relations between Argentina and France. Diplomatic relations were established in 1829. Argentina has an embassy in Paris and France has an embassy in Buenos Aires. Argentina became an independent nation during the Peninsular War, a conflict between France and Spain. Argentina was a Spanish territory by that time, as the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, thus at war with France, but the war never left Europe and the Viceroyalty was never attacked directly by French armies; the French attack to Spain indirectly started the Argentine War of Independence, France recognized Argentina as an independent nation by the end of 1830. France attempted the French blockade of the Río de la Plata during the War of the Confederation, attempting to remove Juan Manuel de Rosas from power; the blockade lasted for some more years after the defeat of the Peru–Bolivian Confederation by Argentina and Chile. France would attempt another blockade, this time allied with Britain, but Rosas defeated it as well.
Both states are members of the G-20. Relations between France and Argentina are rooted in this country's independence, proclaimed on July 9, 1816 at the Congress of Tucuman, the French political ideals of the Enlightenment were inspiring movement, born in Buenos Aires on May 25, 1810. In the same century, ties between the two countries are strengthened by the influx of French to Argentina, which attracts nearly 250,000 people between 1880 and 1910 Basques, Béarn and aveyroneses migrants. At the same time, France is a model to Argentina for its implementation in many areas in the area of law, college and medicine; the history of Argentina is so intimately linked to that of France from its origins: a symbolic way, the liberator Jose de San Martin lived much longer in France than in Argentina, spent many years in exile in Paris and the Paris region before ending his days in Boulogne-sur-Mer, where he died on August 17, 1850. Throughout these two centuries, a unique relationship will build between France and Argentina, whose amplitude can be illustrated by the diversity and intensity of the exchanges between the two countries: education, arts and construction of large infrastructures.
"Golden Years", who see big names in architecture, as Paul Parter, René Sergent or Norbert Maillart, build some of the most beautiful buildings in the city, are translated with a strong influence of French taste of the time, which marked the landscape of Buenos Aires. The aristocracy of the "breadbasket of the world" had strong ties to France for their thinking and their way of life. Buenos Aires won this well-deserved title of "Paris of Latin America." The first wave of Frenchs who arrived in the country came from the southern regions of Aquitaine and the Pyrenees. They embarked in Bordeaux to America; the French Basques constituted a numerically important group. While most French immigrants were integrated into urban life in Buenos Aires and major cities of the country, there were agricultural colonization projects; the most important took place in Chaco Province. There were French settlers, along with Germans and Swiss, in the Esperanza colony, founded in 1865 by Aaron Castellanos. Another group of French immigrants settled in Misiones.
Bilateral exchanges reached 1.7 million euros in 2013. Capital goods account for 60% of French exports in Argentina, products related to the automotive sector more than a third. Imports of Argentine products in France totaled 463 million euros in 2013; these are concentrated in the products of agriculture and food industries. The surplus in the trade balance of France amounted to 774 million euros in 2013. France was, in 2013, the sixth supplier of Argentina. With a stock of FDI of 2.4 million euros in 2012, France is one of the first investors in Argentina and implanted 250 French companies and groups active in the Argentine growth. This is noticeable in the automotive sector, wholesale distribution, the food industry or energy equipment. Argentina the 3rd regional destination for the French exports, behind Brazil and Mexico, but ahead of Chile and, in total, our third trade partner. French immigrants contributed outstanding features to the Argentina culture in the resumption of the production of yerba mate, wine production, sugar.
Santiago de Liniers, one of the great heroes of Argentina's history, was French. Three Argentine presidents were of French origin: Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, Carlos Pellegrini and Hipolito Yrigoyen. Institutions of the French community, including the French Hospital, still active, the socialist group Les Egaux, one of the founders of the Argentine labor movement. French immigrants as Amadeo Jacques and Paul Groussac had a direct impact on education and Argentine culture; some Argentine cities, such as Pigüé above, were originated by colonies of French immigrants, generated an Argentine-French local culture. Carlos Gardel was a native of Languedoc and Provence, the eastern tip of Occitania, became the liberator Hipólito Bouchard who spread the design of the Argentina flag Central America and captured the realistic teaches at the Battle of San Lorenzo. Buenos Aires is a city of diverse architectural influences fr
Argentina–Croatia relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Argentina and Croatia. Both nations are members of the United Nations. Diplomatic relations were established on April 13, 1992. Croatia has consulates in Cordoba and San Miguel de Tucumán. Argentina is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest. Alongside Albania, Argentina is Croatia's biggest ally outside Europe. From 1991 to 1995, Argentina under President Carlos Menem was selling arms to Croatia during the Croatian War of Independence, at the time illegal because SFR Yugoslavia was under the UN arms embargo. There are around 250.000 Croats in Argentina. Croatian Argentine List of Treaties ruling relations Argentina and Croatia Croatian Foreign Ministry: List of Bilateral Treaties between with Argentina Croatian embassy in Buenos Aires