The Ministry of International Trade and Industry was one of the most powerful agencies of the Government of Japan. At the height of its influence, it ran much of Japanese industrial policy, funding research and directing investment. In 2001, its role was taken over by the newly created Ministry of Economy and Industry. MITI was created with the split of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry in May 1949 and given the mission for coordinating international trade policy with other groups, such as the Bank of Japan, the Economic planning Agency, the various commerce-related cabinet ministries. At the time it was created, Japan was still recovering from the economic disaster of World War II. With inflation rising and productivity failing to keep up, the government sought a better mechanism for reviving the Japanese economy. MITI has been responsible not only in the areas of exports and imports but for all domestic industries and businesses not covered by other ministries in the areas of investment in plant and equipment, pollution control and power, some aspects of foreign economic assistance, consumer complaints.
This span has allowed MITI to integrate conflicting policies, such as those on pollution control and export competitiveness, to minimize damage to export industries. MITI has served as an architect of industrial policy, an arbiter on industrial problems and disputes, a regulator. A major objective of the ministry has been to strengthen the country's industrial base, it has not managed Japanese trade and industry along the lines of a centrally planned economy, but it has provided industries with administrative guidance and other direction, both formal and informal, on modernization, investments in new plants and equipment, domestic and foreign competition. The close relationship between MITI and Japanese industry has led to foreign trade policy that complements the ministry's efforts to strengthen domestic manufacturing interests. MITI facilitated the early development of nearly all major industries by providing protection from import competition, technological intelligence, help in licensing foreign technology, access to foreign exchange, assistance in mergers.
These policies to promote domestic industry and to protect it from international competition were strongest in the 1950s and 1960s. As industry became stronger and as MITI lost some of its policy tools, such as control over allocation of foreign exchange, MITI's policies changed; the success of Japanese exports and the tension it has caused in other countries led MITI to provide guidance on limiting exports of particular products to various countries. Starting in 1981, MITI presided over the establishment of voluntary restraints on automobile exports to the United States to allay criticism from American manufacturers and their unions. MITI was forced to liberalize import policies, despite its traditional protectionist focus. During the 1980s, the ministry helped to craft a number of market-opening and import promoting measures, including the creation of an import promotion office within the ministry; the close relationship between MITI and industry allowed the ministry to play such a role in fostering more open markets, but conflict remained between the need to open markets and the desire to continue promoting new and growing domestic industries.
As late as the 1980s, prime ministers were expected to serve a tenure as MITI minister before taking over the government. MITI worked with Japanese business interests, was responsible for keeping the domestic market closed to most foreign companies. MITI lost some influence when the switch was made to a floating exchange rate between the United States dollar and yen in 1971. Before that point, MITI had been able to keep the exchange rate artificially low, which benefited Japan's exporters. Intense lobbying from other countries the United States, pushed Japan to introduce more liberal trade laws that further lessened MITI's grip over the Japanese economy. By the mid-1980s, the ministry was helping foreign corporations set up operations in Japan; the decline of MITI was described by Johnstone:... by the early 1980s, when Western analysts first became aware of MITI, the ministry's glory days were over. In 1979 MITI lost its primary instrument of control over Japanese firms – allocation of foreign currency.
The power, that is, to decide who could – and who could not – import technologies.... MITI bureaucrats attempted to deny fledgling Sony the $25,000 the company needed to license transistor technology from Western Electric; however MITI still continued to benefit industry in semiconductors, where, to overcome resistance to a new technology, it forced every electronic company to have at least one CMOS project going. The declining significance of MITI to Japanese companies made it a less powerful agency within the bureaucracy, by the end of the 20th century, it was folded into a larger body. In 2001, it was reorganized into the Ministry of Economy and Industry. Important MITI agencies include: National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology Japan External Trade Organization Japan Patent Office Naohiro Amaya Fifth generation computer Economy of Japan This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.
– Japan Chalmers A. Johnson. MITI and the Japanese Miracle. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1206-9. MITI and the Japanese Miracle. Bob Johnstone. We were burning: the forging of the electronic age. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-09118-8. METI website
Veronica Scott is an American television personality, fashion designer, entrepreneur. Scott is best known for being featured in the Current TV reality show The Fuchsia Girls, which follows her personal and professional life as she pursues a career in the fashion industry. Scott co-owns the fashion company and design house Fuchsia with business partner Lawren Pope. Scott was born in 1986 in Texas, to Johnnie Lee Scott, Jr. and Rebecca Scott. Scott, multiracial, is of Hispanic and African American descent, she has one brother, Johnnie Lee Scott III, eight years younger than her. Scott attended River Oaks Elementary in Houston from kindergarten to the fifth grade. Scott began college at private Houston Baptist University as an international business major for three quarters, she moved from Houston to San Diego and enrolled at the private University of San Diego School of Business Administration. Today, Scott resides in San Diego with Fuchsia co-owner Lawren Pope. Scott’s lack of art and design schooling has been somewhat of a controversy with a few fashion industry seniors.
In a 2008 interview with fashion editor Elizabeth Stein, Scott notes that she has been somewhat "snubbed by certain members of the fashion industry, for not doing any time at a FIDM or Parsons." According to Troy Anderson, staff writer of Los Angeles Daily News, NBIZ magazine, Scott has always known that she wanted to own a fashion retail business and “expressed an interest in fashion design as early as age 6." This interest led to the future collaboration with Pope, whom Scott met seven years at Westside High School. At age 14, Scott teamed with Pope to open the fashion company Fuchsia. Six months they released their first collection of ready-to-wear cocktail attire at a self-produced runway show in Spring, Texas. Scott premiered the video footage of the fashion show on the Fuchsia official site, scoring the interest of several local media journalists. Most of Fuchsia’s early income and public interest can be attributed to this; as webmaster of the Fuchsia online boutique, Scott has designed and created every released version to date, of the Fuchsia Official Site and E-shop located at www.
FuchsiaOnline.com. Anderson, who profiled Scott for an article on E-Commerce noted that Scott prefers an internet store front to a physical boutique. Scott says that the online boutique works out great, "because we're still in college and we don't have to maintain a storefront 24/7." In 2007, Scott co-founded the 501 non-profit organization Save The Girls. Save The Girls provides cash scholarships, scholarship education, college application assistance to schools and individual students in need. In 2008, Scott took on the position of chair at the organization. Save The Girls sponsors the Grace House in Chisinau, Moldova. In July 2008, Scott traveled on a mission trip for the first time to Moldova with the non-profit Justice and Mercy. During her visit to the Grace House – a transitional home for female graduates of the Internat Orphanage- Scott requested emergency aid funds from Save the Girls to improve the poor living conditions of the girls living in the home. On her return to the U. S. Scott moved to keep funding the Grace House as a Save the Girls project.
Scott is producing a new web shop for the girls of the Grace House to sell handmade jewelry and clothing. All profits fund the Grace House project. Official website Official Fuchsia site The Fuchsia Girls official website Save The Girls official website
Akainacephalus is a genus of herbivorous ankylosaurid dinosaur from the Campanian age Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah. The type and only species is Akainacephalus johnsoni, known from the most complete ankylosaur specimen discovered from southern Laramidia, including a complete skull, tail club, a number of osteoderms, limb elements and part of its pelvis, among other remains. In 2008, in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Kane County, Utah, an ankylosaurian skeleton was discovered at a site first located by Scott Richardson, an employee of the Bureau of Land Management. In 2009, the excavation was completed by a team headed by R. Irmis; the skull of the skeleton was during four years prepared by volunteer Randy Johnson, a retired chemist. In January 2014, the skull was investigated by means of a CAT-scan. In 2018, the type species Akainacephalus johnsoni was named and described by Dutch paleontologist Jelle P. Wiersma and Randall Benjamin Irmis; the generic name combines a Greek ἄκαινα, akaina, "spike", a reference to the spiky head armour, with κεφαλή, kephalè, "head".
The specific name honours Randy Johnson as preparator. The holotype, UMNH VP 20202, was found in a layer of the Kaiparowits Formation dating from late Campanian; the age of the layer was determined at 75.97 million years by zircon dating. The holotype consists of a partial skeleton with skull, it contains lower jaws, including the predentary. It represents about 45% of the skeletal elements, it is part of the collection of the Natural History Museum of Utah in Salt Lake City. The describing authors indicated several distinguishing traits; some of these are autapomorphies, unique derived characters. The supraorbital bosses are massive in side view, forming a high back-swept ridge extending sideways over the eye socket, while encompassing the front top corner and the rear edge of the eye socket; the cheek horns are triangular, pointing vertically to below. On the frontal bones, a central large flat hexagonal osteoderm is present; the zone spanning the frontal bones and nasal bones is covered by symmetrically positioned packed, pyramid-shaped and conical caputegulae.
The nasal bones exhibit a distinct central row of conical caputegulae, symmetrically separated from the osteoderms above and to the sides of them. At the rear of the skull, the part of the foramen magnum formed by the basioccipital is located obliquely above and in front of the occipital condyle; the head armour of Akainacephalus is strikingly similar to that of Nodocephalosaurus, a related form found in southern Laramidia, in New Mexico. The description therefore compared the two genera in order to prove that Akainacephalus was a valid taxon. Akainacephalus and Nodocephalosaurus share certain traits such as pyramid-shaped osteoderms on the snout and flaring armour above the nostrils. There are, however differences. With Akainacephalus, the osteoderms of the front and rear supraorbitals form a single back-swept high structure. In N. kirtlandensis, these remain separate elements of far smaller size. Akainacephalus has a much smaller squamosal horn, its cheek horn points straight to below as an enormous triangle, while that of Nodocephalosaurus curves to behind like a smaller curved fin.
A comparison is complicated by the fact that the skull of Nodocephalosaurus is only known. Besides, with the holotype of Akainacephalus the squamosal horns have broken off, making it impossible to determine their exact shape, the skull as a whole has been compressed from front to rear, creating a kink from which snout and rear are appending, narrowing and raising the area around the eye socket. However, Nodocephalosaurus was found in the Kirtland Formation, in layers that are three million years younger, which precludes the taxa from being identical; the front snout bones, the premaxillae, form a U-shaped, upper beak, wider than long. The sides of the snout are not covered by armour; the number of maxillary teeth, per side, has been estimated at a minimum of sixteen. The bony nostrils are oriented to the side of the snout; the nostril is rather small and not subdivided into smaller openings. The quadrate bone is inclined, causing the jaw joint to be positioned, visible in side view, in front of the cheek horn point, which has not been reported in other ankylosaurids.
Akainacephalus' phylogenetic analysis reveals it to form a clade with fellow Laramidian ankylosaurid Nodocephalosaurus. Additional data from cladistic analysis shows that Akainacephalus and Nodocephalosaurus are more related to Asian ankylosaurid genera such as Saichania and Tarchia than to North American genera such as Euoplocephalus and Ankylosaurus itself; the discovery indicates a strong case for provincialism between dinosaur populations in Northern and Southern Laramidia. Furthermore, the discovery of Akainocephalus indicates at least two faunal migrations between Asia and North America, created when dropping sea levels allowed migrations between the continents via the Beringian Land Bridge. During the Late Cretaceous period, the site of the Kaiparowits Formation was located near the western shore of the Western Interior Seaway, a large inland sea that split North America into two landmasses, Laramidia to the west and Appalachia to the east; the plateau where dinosaurs lived was an ancient floodplain dominated by large channels and abundant wetland peat swamps, ponds an
Eugenio María de Hostos Community College of The City University of New York is a public community college in the South Bronx, New York City. It is part of the City University of New York system and was created by an act of the Board of Higher Education in 1968 in response to demands from the Hispanic/Puerto Rican community, urging for the establishment of a college to serve the people of the South Bronx. In 1970, the college admitted its first class of 623 students at the site of a former tire factory. Several years the college moved to a larger site nearby at 149th Street and Grand Concourse; the college operates a location at the prow building of the Bronx Terminal Market. Hostos is the first institution of higher education on the mainland to be named after a Puerto Rican, Eugenio María de Hostos, an educator and patriot. A large proportion of the student population is Hispanic, thus many of the courses at Hostos are offered in Spanish, the college provides extensive English and ESL instruction to students.
The Hostos Center for the Arts & Culture is a performing arts center contained within the college campus. It consists of a museum-grade art gallery, a 367-seat Repertory Theater, a 900-seat Main Theater, presenting artists of national and international renown, it has been showcasing theater and music artists for 33 years, with the mission "to be a cultural force in the Bronx and throughout the New York metropolitan area." The college is composed of 10 different academic departments offering 27 associate-level degrees. Hostos is notable for being the only CUNY campus offering a degree in Game Design. Allied Health Behavioral and Social Sciences Business Education English Humanities Language & Cognition Library Mathematics Natural Sciences Hostos Community College teams participate as a member of the National Junior College Athletic Association; the Caimans are a member of the community college section of the City University of New York Athletic Conference, who's the most recent new member since the 2002-03 season.
Men's sports include soccer. Hostos Community College is affiliated with Hostos Lincoln Academy of Science, a middle school and high school with an early college program as part of the Early College Initiative at CUNY, it serves students grades 6 to 12, along with special education services. The school is a collaboration between the New York City Department of Education and City University of New York. High school students at the school enter the program during the summer prior to the start their tenth grade year and can earn up to 60 credits in order to graduate with a high school diploma and associates degree; the school was located on campus, but was moved to a school building near Melrose, shared by a few other schools, due to spacing issues. Official website Official athletics website
Knut Torbjørn Eggen was a Norwegian football coach and player, famous for his time in Rosenborg as a player, Moss and Fredrikstad as a coach. He was the son of Nils Arne Eggen. Eggen was born on 1 November 1960 in Orkdal, to football player Nils Arne Eggen and Karin Pauline Eggen, as the first of three children, he began his youth career in the local club Orkdal IL, before moving on to Rosenborg in 1978, where his father was the head coach. He won the league three times and the Norwegian Cup two times with Rosenborg, where he spent his entire professional career until he retired in 1991, aged 31, he competed for Norway at the 1984 Summer Olympics and was capped four times in total for Norway. After Eggen retired as a player, he started to work as an assistant coach in Rosenborg from 1992 to 1993, he moved to Aalesund in 1994, where he started his career as a head coach. After three years in Aalesund, he followed in his father's footsteps in Moss, where they won promotion to Tippeligaen in his first season.
Moss stayed in Tippeligaen under Eggen's command, after the 2001-season he became coach of another club from Østfold, the old giants, Fredrikstad FK. The old giants, with nine league championships and ten cup championships, had been playing at the third tier for nine straight seasons when Eggen was hired in 2001, they won promotion to the First Division in 2002 and Eliteserien in 2003. In 2005, former national team coach Egil Olsen was hired as head coach for Fredrikstad, while Knut Torbjørn Eggen stepped down to work as an assistant coach; when Olsen retired from the position at the end of the year, due to health issues, Eggen was once again promoted to his previous job. In 2006, he led the team to eighth place in the Premier Division, their highest placing so far, led the team to gold in the Norwegian Championship Cup that year, in what would be his final match with the club. After this successful season, Eggen quit his job in Fredrikstad in December 2006, after several major disagreements with new club director Morgan Andersen.
After leaving his job in Fredrikstad, Eggen was appointed as new club director in Rosenborg, after long-time director Rune Bratseth had resigned from the position. He only held that position for a year, before he returned to Moss FK to work in youth development as a coach in 2007. In 2008, he was appointed head of this department, he left this job in early 2010 to take over the coaching duties of the Norwegian under-19 national team. During his years, he worked as a commentator and match analyst with Norwegian TV channel Viasat 4 as part of the channel's coverage of the UEFA Champions League. Outside of football, Eggen was a teacher by education, he held a degree in football coaching, the only coach in the Premier Division to have such during his time there. Eggen struggled with anxiety disorder for most of his life, came public with his struggles in 1988, when he admitted that he did not play the Norwegian Cup final that year because of his anxiety issues, he did a number of interviews about living with the disease.
Eggen was found dead in his own home on 20 February 2012. No cause of death was made public at the time. However, in an interview with Verdens Gang in October 2013, his father Nils Arne Eggen told that Knut Torbjørn chose to end his own life after years of struggling with anxiety disorder which got progressively worse, that "In the end, his fear of living became greater than his fear of dying." RosenborgFirst Division: 1985, 1988, 1990 Norwegian Cup: 1988, 1990 FredrikstadNorwegian Cup: 2006
The big-headed Amazon River turtle known as the big-headed sideneck, is a species of turtle in the family Podocnemididae. The species is monotypic within the genus Peltocephalus; the specific name, dumerilianus, is in honor of French herpetologist André Marie Constant Duméril. P. dumerilianus is found in Brazil, French Guiana, Venezuela and Peru. Boulenger GA. Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, Crocodiles in the British Museum. New Edition. London: Trustees of the British Museum.. X + 311 pp. + Plates I-III.. Schweigger. "Prodromus Monographia Cheloniorum ". Königsberger Archiv für Naturwissenschaft und Mathematik 1: 271-368, 406-458