Héctor José Cámpora
Héctor José Cámpora was a dentist and Peronist politician. A major figure of left-wing Peronism Cámpora served as the 38th President of Argentina from 25 May until 13 July 1973 in order to arrange for Perón to run for president in an election he subsequently won. Cámpora, affectionately known as el Tío, was born as Héctor José Cámpora Demaestre on March 26, 1909, in the city of Mercedes, in the Province of Buenos Aires, he earned a degree in dentistry in Córdoba University and practiced his profession in his hometown before moving to nearby San Andrés de Giles. Cámpora knew General Juan Perón when the latter visited San Andrés de Giles as minister of labour in 1944. After Perón was elected president in 1946, Cámpora led an independent coalition of labourists and radicals and won a seat in the house of representatives, which he presided during the period 1948–1952, he was commissioned for a diplomatic trip through 17 countries as plenipotentiary ambassador in 1953. He was arrested and indicted for corruption and embezzlement by the Revolución Libertadora which overthrew Perón in 1955.
After fleeing the country in 1956, he returned three years when all the charges were dropped. Perón chose him as his "personal delegate" in 1971, he ran for president in 1973 to circumvent the veto on Perón's participation in the election, issued by Argentine dictator General Alejandro Lanusse. His running-mate was Vicente Solano Lima. Despite Cámpora's own left-leaning tendencies, Solano Lima belonged to the Popular Conservative Party. Cámpora won the March 1973 election with 49.6% of the votes. The Radical leader, Ricardo Balbín, had arrived second with 21.3%, but it was enough to include him in the runoff with Cámpora, as absolute majority was necessary to avoid a second ballot. However, he resigned his right in order to avoid a political crisis, recognized his defeat. Cámpora assumed his functions on 25 May 1973, in the presence of Chilean President Salvador Allende and Cuban President Osvaldo Dorticós. A million persons gathered on the Plaza de Mayo to acclaim the new President. One of Cámpora's first presidential actions was a granting of amnesty to members of terrorist organizations who had carried out political assassinations and terror attacks against military and police personnel and, tried and sentenced to prison by judges.
On 28 May Argentina restored diplomatic relations with Cuba, which received Argentine aid – such as food and industrial products – to break the United States embargo against Cuba. During Cámpora's first months of government, approximatively 600 social conflicts and factory occupations had taken place; the revolutionary left had however suspended armed struggle, joining itself to the participatory democracy process, which created alarms in the Peronist right-wing bureaucracy. Cámpora's ideology set him against the right-wing tendencies of Peronism; when Perón returned to Argentina on June 20, 1973, his plane had to be redirected to a military airport because of fighting between armed Peronist factions that had massed to greet his arrival at Buenos Aires's main airport. This event, known as the Ezeiza Massacre, left more than 300 wounded. José Ber Gelbard, president of the CGE, a small and medium-sized enterprise association, was designated as minister of economics. Gelbard tried to establish a "social pact" among the CGT workers and the "National Bourgeoisie", including a price freeze and widespread salary hikes.
On July 13, 1973, Cámpora resigned to allow Juan Perón to return to power. New elections were held on September twelve days after the Chilean coup. Cámpora was designated as Argentine ambassador to México. After the March 1976 coup d'état that displaced Perón's successor, wife Isabel Martínez, Cámpora sought refuge at the Mexican embassy in Buenos Aires. Three years after being diagnosed with cancer, he was allowed to fly to México. Cámpora died in Cuernavaca a few months after his arrival, in December 1980. Peronism Montoneros Movimiento Nacionalista Tacuara Ezeiza massacre Enciclopedia Libre Universal en Español - Héctor José Cámpora. Original version in Spanish, released under GNU FDL
Roberto Eduardo Viola
Roberto Eduardo Viola was an Argentine military officer who served as president of Argentina from March 29 to December 11, 1981 as a military dictatorship. He was born as Roberto Eduardo Viola Prevedini on October 13, 1924. Viola appointed Lorenzo Sigaut as finance minister, it became clear that Sigaut were looking for ways to reverse some of the economic policies of Videla's minister José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz. Notably, Sigaut abandoned the sliding exchange rate mechanism and devalued the peso, after boasting that "they who gamble on the dollar, will lose". Argentines braced for a recession after the excesses of the plata dulce years, which destabilized Viola's position. Viola was the victim of infighting within the armed forces. After being replaced as Navy chief, Eduardo Massera started looking for a political space to call his own enlisting the enforced and unpaid services of political prisoners held in concentration camps by the regime; the mainstream of the Junta's support was opposed to Massera's designs and to any attempt to bring about more "populist" economic policies.
Viola found his maneuvering space reduced, was ousted by a military coup in December 1981, led by the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Lieutenant General Leopoldo Galtieri, who soon became President. The official explanation given for the ousting was Viola's alleged health problems. Galtieri swiftly appointed Roberto Alemann as finance minister and presided over the build-up and pursuit of the Falklands War. After the collapse of the military regime and the election of Raúl Alfonsín in 1983, Viola was arrested, judged for human rights violations committed by the military junta during the Dirty War, sentenced to 17 years in prison, his health deteriorated in prison. He died on 30 September 1994, two weeks before his 70th birthday. National Reorganization Process
President of Argentina
The President of Argentina known as the President of the Argentine Republic, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on December 10, 2015; the Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; the Head of State continued to be the King. These Viceroys were natives of the country. By the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires.
It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State, the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person; this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet a presidential system. In 1816, Congress composed a Constitution; this established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826; this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution.
This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, the closest to, the Chairman of Foreign Relations the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires; the last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country. In 1852, Rosas was deposed, a constitutional convention was summoned; this constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed with no possibility of reelection; the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President, it is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents.
They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, remains more uncertain; the President of the Nation has the following powers: Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country. Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions. Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, has them published; the Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, not try to rules governing criminal matters, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers.
The head of and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose compos
Carlos Saúl Menem Akil is an Argentine politician, President of Argentina from July 8, 1989 to December 10, 1999. He has been a Senator for La Rioja Province since December 10, 2005. Born in Anillaco, Menem became a Peronist during a visit to Buenos Aires, he led the party in his home province of La Rioja, was elected governor in 1973. He was deposed and detained during the 1976 Argentine coup d'état, was elected governor again in 1983, he defeated the Buenos Aires governor Antonio Cafiero in the primary elections for the 1989 presidential elections, which he won. Hyperinflation forced outgoing president Raúl Alfonsín to resign early, shortening the presidential transition. Menem supported the Washington Consensus, tackled inflation with the Convertibility plan in 1991; the plan was complemented by a series of privatizations, was a success. Argentina re-established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom, suspended since the 1982 Falklands War, developed special relations with the United States.
The country suffered two terrorist attacks. The Peronist victory in the 1993 midterm elections allowed him to force Alfonsín to sign the Pact of Olivos for the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution; this amendment allowed Menem to run for re-election in 1995. A new economic crisis began, the opposing parties formed a political coalition that won the 1997 midterm elections and the 1999 presidential election. Menem ran for the presidency again in 2003, but faced with a defeat in a ballotage against Néstor Kirchner, he chose to pull out of the ballotage handing the presidency to Kirchner, he was elected senator for La Rioja in 2005. At 88, he is the oldest living former Argentine president. Carlos Saúl Menem was born in 1930 in Anillaco, a small town in the mountainous north of La Rioja Province, Argentina, his parents, Saúl Menem and Mohibe Akil, were Syrian nationals from Yabroud who had emigrated to Argentina. He attended elementary and high school in La Rioja, joined a basketball team during his university studies.
He visited Buenos Aires in 1951 with the team, met the president Juan Perón and his wife Eva Perón. This influenced Menem to become a Peronist, he studied law at the National University of Córdoba, graduating in 1955. After President Juan Peron's overthrow in 1955, Menem was incarcerated, he joined the successor to the Peronist Party, the Justicialist Party. He was elected president of its La Rioja Province chapter in 1973. In that capacity, he was included in the flight to Spain that brought Perón back to Argentina after his long exile. According to the Peronist politician Juan Manuel Abal Medina, Menem played no special part in the event. Menem was elected governor in 1973, he was deposed during the 1976 Argentine coup d'état that deposed the president Isabel Martínez de Perón. He was accused of corruption, having links with the guerrillas of the Dirty War, he was detained on March 25, kept for a week at a local regiment, moved to a temporary prison at the ship "33 Orientales" in Buenos Aires. He was detained alongside former ministers Antonio Cafiero, Jorge Taiana, Miguel Unamuno, José Deheza, Pedro Arrighi, the unionists Jorge Triaca, Diego Ibáñez, Lorenzo Miguel, the diplomat Jorge Vázquez, the journalist Osvaldo Papaleo, the former president Raúl Lastiri.
He shared a cell with Juan Perón's personal physician. During this time he helped the chaplain Lorenzo Lavalle, despite being a Muslim. In July he was sent to a permanent prison, his wife Zulema rejected his conversion to Christianity. His mother died during the time he was a prisoner, dictator Jorge Rafael Videla denied his request to attend her funeral, he was released on July 29, 1978, on the condition that he live in a city outside his home province without leaving it. He settled in Mar del Plata. Menem met Admiral Eduardo Massera, who intended to run for president, had public meetings with personalities such as Carlos Monzón, Susana Giménez, Alberto Olmedo; as a result, he was forced to reside in Tandil. He had to report daily to Chief of Police Hugo Zamora; this forced residence was lifted in February 1980. He returned to Buenos Aires, to La Rioja, he resumed his political activities, despite the prohibition, was detained again. His new forced residence was in Formosa Province, he was one of the last politicians to be released from prison by the National Reorganization Process.
Military rule ended in 1983, the radical Raúl Alfonsín was elected president. Menem ran for governor again, was elected by a clear margin; the province benefited from tax regulations established by the military, which allowed increased industrial growth. His party got control of the provincial legislature, he was re-elected in 1987 with 63% of the vote; the PJ was divided in two factions, the conservatives that still supported the political doctrines of Juan and Isabel Perón, those who proposed a renovation of the party. The internal disputes ceased in 1987. Menem, with his prominent victory in his district, was one of the leading figures of the party, disputed its leadership. Antonio Cafiero, elected governor of Buenos Aires Province, led the renewal of the PJ, was considered their most candidate for the presidency. Menem, on the other hand, was seen as a populist leader. Using a big tent approach, he got support from several unrelated political figures; as a result, he defeated Cafiero in the primary elections.
He sought alliances with Bunge and Born, union leaders, former members of Montoneros, the AAA, people from the church, "Carapintadas", etc. He promise
Juan Carlos Onganía
Juan Carlos Onganía Carballo was de facto President of Argentina from 29 June 1966 to 8 June 1970. He rose to power as military dictator after toppling the president Arturo Illia in a coup d'état self-named Revolución Argentina. While preceding military coups in Argentina were aimed at establishing temporary, transitional juntas, the Revolución Argentina headed by Onganía aimed at establishing a new political and social order, opposed both to liberal democracy and to communism, which gave to the Armed Forces of Argentina a leading role in the political and economic operation of the country; the political scientist Guillermo O'Donnell named this type of regime "authoritarian-bureaucratic state", in reference both to the Revolución Argentina, the Brazilian military regime, Augusto Pinochet's regime and Juan María Bordaberry's regime in Uruguay. While Chief of the Army in 1963, Onganía helped crush the 1963 Argentine Navy Revolt by mobilizing troops that seized rebelling Navy bases. However, he demonstrated a disregard for civil authority when he refused to call off his troops after a ceasefire agreement had been approved by President José María Guido and his cabinet, was only convinced to follow orders after a tense meeting.
As military dictator, Onganía suspended political parties and supported a policy of Participacionismo, by which representatives of various interest groups such as industry and agriculture, would form committees to advise the government. However these committees were appointed by the dictator himself. Onganía suspended the right to strike and supported a corporatist economic and social policy, enforced in Cordoba by the appointed governor, Carlos Caballero. Onganía's Minister of Economy, Adálbert Krieger Vasena, decreed a wage freeze and a 40% devaluation, which adversely impacted the state of the Argentine economy, favoring foreign capital. Krieger Vasena suspended collective labour conventions, reformed the Fossil Fuels Law which had established a partial monopoly of the Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales state enterprise and signed a law facilitating the expulsion of tenants in cases of non-payment of rent. Onganía's rule signified an end to university autonomy, achieved by the University Reform of 1918.
A month into his administration, he was responsible for the violation of university autonomy in the so-called La Noche de los Bastones Largos in which he ordered police to invade the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires. Students and professors were arrested. Many were forced to leave the country, beginning a "brain drain" that adversely affects Argentine academia to this day. Onganía ordered repression on all forms of "immoralism", proscribing miniskirts, long hair for boys, all avant-garde artistic movements; this moral campaign favorized the radicalization of the middle classes, who were over-represented in universities. In 1969, Ongania dedicated the country to the Immaculate Heart of Mary; this position was opposed by the other factions in the military, which felt that its influence in government would be diminished. At the end of May 1968, General Julio Alsogaray dissented from Onganía, rumors spread about a possible coup d'état, Alsogaray leading the conservative opposition to Onganía.
At the end of the month, Onganía dismissed the leaders of the Armed Forces: Alejandro Lanusse replaced Julio Alsogaray, Pedro Gnavi replaced Benigno Varela, Jorge Martínez Zuviría replaced Adolfo Alvarez. Ongania's ruthless government was weakened by a popular uprising of workers and students that took place in the whole of the country, in particular in the interior, in cities such as Córdoba in 1969 or Rosario; the dominant military faction, led by General Lanusse, demanded. When he refused, he was toppled by a military junta. Jorge Rafael Videla Argentine military officer who would succeed Ongania. 31 yrs after
National Congress of Argentina
The Congress of the Argentine Nation is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina. Its composition is bicameral, constituted by a 72-seat Senate and a 257-seat Chamber of Deputies; the Congressional Palace is located at the western end of Avenida de Mayo. The Kilometre Zero for all Argentine National Highways is marked on a milestone at the Congressional Plaza, next to the building; the Argentine National Congress is the Chamber of Deputies. The ordinary sessions span is from March 1 to November 30. Senators and deputies enjoy parliamentary immunity during their mandates, which may be revoked by their peers if a senator or deputy is caught in flagrante, in the midst of committing a crime; the Congress is in charge of setting customs, which must be uniform across the country. It rules the Central Bank of Argentina, manages internal and external debt payment, the value of national currency, it rules the legal codes on Civil, Penal, Minery and Social Welfare affairs, all of which cannot be in contradiction with the respective provincial codes.
Any changes on national or provincial limits, or the creation of new provinces, ought to be allowed by the Congress. The Congress is entitled to approve or reject every international treaty that Argentina signs with other states or international organizations; when approved, the treaties acquire priority over ordinary legislation. Declarations of war and the signing of peace, as well as the mobilization of the national troops, within or outside of the Argentine territory must be allowed by the Congress. From 1976 to 1983, the Congressional Palace of Argentina housed the CAL, a group of officers from the three Armed Forces. Commissioned to review and discuss laws before they were issued by the Executive Branch, they served a succession of de facto military presidents during the National Reorganization Process. In practice, this became a mechanism to detect and discuss the differences between the three commanders-in-chief of the Army and Air Force regarding a specific project; the CAL was established by the Acta del Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, the guiding document for the military government established after the coup d'état of March 24, 1976.
Following a 1994 reform of the Constitution, the Senate was expanded from 48 members to 72 members, whereby the party garnering second place in elections for Senator would be assured the third seat for the corresponding province. Opening of regular sessions of the National Congress of Argentina Argentine National Congress Palace List of current Argentine Senators List of current Argentine Deputies Politics of Argentina List of legislatures by country "National Constitution of Argentina". Constitution of Argentina. Archived from the original on 2004-06-17; the official website of Congress Satellite picture by Google Maps
Ministry of the Treasury (Argentina)
The Ministry of the Treasury of the Argentine Nation is a ministry and the treasury of the Argentine federal government. The current Minister of the Treasury is Nicolás Dujovne; the Argentine Ministry of the Treasury has, since the building's 1939 inaugural, been based in a 14-story Rationalist office building designed by local architect Carlos Pibernat. The Economy Ministry building was built on a 0.57 ha Montserrat neighborhood lot facing the Casa Rosada presidential office building to the north, the Defense Ministry to the east – a government building designed by Pibernat. The building's lobby was decorated with murals painted by the architect's brother, Antonio Pibernat, a post-impressionist painter influenced by the naturalist Barbizon School; the post has existed on a formal basis since the 1826 inaugural of Bernardino Rivadavia, who named lawmaker Salvador María del Carril as the nation's first official Ministro de Hacienda. The office became among the most powerful in Argentine Government during the generation after 1880, when English Argentine investment, foreign trade, immigration spurred development.
Customs collections and the Central Bank were among the responsibilities placed under the Economy Ministry's aegis, successive ministers' policies were enacted through presidential decrees. Its influence grew further when it absorbed the cabinet post of Minister of Public Works in 1991, to help facilitate Economy Minister Domingo Cavallo's privatizations initiative, and, in turn, divested oversight over the nation's goods-producing sectors with the 2008 designation of the Production Ministry by President Cristina Kirchner, in a bid to improve strained relations with the country's agrarian sector following the 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector over export tariffs; the Ministry of the Treasury was appropriated a US$1.7 billion operational budget in 2009, employed over 4,000 staffers. Argentina Economy of Argentina Ministry of Economy - Official ministry portal Argentina.gov.ar - Official national portal Gobierno Electrónico - Official government website Presidencia de la Nación - Official presidential website