International Labour Organization
The International Labour Organization is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social justice and promote decent work by setting international labour standards. It was the first specialised agency of the UN; the ILO has 187 member states: 186 of the 193 UN member states plus the Cook Islands are members of the ILO. The tripartite structure is unique to the ILO where representatives from the government and employees debate and create labour standards; the International Labour Office is the permanent secretariat of the International Labour Organization. It is the focal point for International Labour Organization's overall activities, which it prepares under the scrutiny of the Governing Body and under the leadership of the Director-General; the Office employs some 2,700 officials from over 150 nations at its headquarters in Geneva, in around 40 field offices around the world. Among these officials, 900 work in technical cooperation projects. In 1969, the ILO received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving fraternity and peace among nations, pursuing decent work and justice for workers, providing technical assistance to other developing nations.
Fifty years to mark the organisation's centenary, it convened a Global Commission on the Future of Work, whose report, published in January 2019, made ten recommendations for governments to meet the unprecedented challenges of a changing world of work. Those included a universal labour guarantee, social protection from birth to old age and an entitlement to lifelong learning; the International Labour Organization has developed a system of international labour standards aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and dignity. The International Labour Organization, the oldest UN specialized agency, will celebrate its 100th anniversary in 2019. “Throughout the last century, international labour standards have guided countries, in the words of the 1919 ILO Constitution, “to adopt humane conditions of labour” with the understanding that a failure to do so would become “an obstacle in the way of other nations which desire to improve the conditions in their own countries”.
This 100 years will be an opportunity to celebrate the ILO's achievements and to reaffirm its position as the authoritative organization of the world of work. Throughout 2019, there will be different events taking place around the world that will highlight the achievements of the organization and the role it plays in everyone's lives; this will be an opportunity to reaffirm the ILO's core values and vision as it prepares for its second century of worked. Unlike other United Nations specialized agencies, the International Labour Organization has a tripartite governing structure that brings together governments and workers of 187 member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men; the structure of the ILO, where workers and employers together have an equal voice with governments in its deliberations, shows social dialogue in action. It ensures that the views of the social partners are reflected in ILO labour standards and programmes.
The Governing Body is the executive body of the International Labour Organization. It meets three times a year, in March and November, it takes decisions on ILO policy, decides the agenda of the International Labour Conference, adopts the draft Programme and Budget of the Organization for submission to the Conference, elects the Director-General, requests information from member states concerning labour matters, appoints commissions of inquiry and supervises the work of the International Labour Office. Juan Somavía was the ILO's Director-General from 1999 until October 2012; the ILO Governing Body re-elected Guy Rider as Director-General for a second five year-term in November 2016. This governing body is composed of 66 deputy members. Ten of the titular government seats are permanently held by States of chief industrial importance: Brazil, France, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States; the other Government members are elected by the Conference every three years.
The Employer and Worker members are elected in their individual capacity. The ILO organises once a year the International Labour Conference in Geneva to set the broad policies of the ILO, including conventions and recommendations. Known as the "international parliament of labour", the conference makes decisions about the ILO's general policy, work programme and budget and elects the Governing Body; each member State is represented by a delegation: two government delegates, an employer delegate, a worker delegate and their respective advisers. All of them have individual voting rights and all votes are equal, regardless the population of the delegate's member State; the employer and worker delegates are chosen in agreement with the most representative national organizations of employers and workers. The workers and employers' delegates coordinate their voting. All delegates are not required to vote in blocs. Delegate have the same rights, they can express themselves and vote as they wish; this diversity of viewpoints does not prevent decisions being adopted by large majorities or unanimously.
Heads of State and prime ministers participate in the Conference. International organizations, both governmental and others attend but as observers. Through Ju
Department for Work and Pensions
The Department for Work and Pensions is the largest government department in the United Kingdom, is responsible for welfare and pension policy. The department has four operational organisations: Jobcentre Plus administers working age benefits such as Jobseeker's Allowance, decides which claimants receive Employment and Support Allowance; the department was created on 8 June 2001 as a merger of the Department of Social Security, Employment Service and the policy groups of the Department for Education and Employment involved in employment policy and international issues. The department was tasked with creating Jobcentre Plus and the Pensions Service from the remains of the Employment Service and the Benefits Agency; the department is therefore responsible for pension policy. It aims "to help its customers become financially independent and to help reduce child poverty". In 2019 the department was found by an independent inquiry to have broken its own rules, in a case where a disabled woman killed herself in 2017 after her benefits were stopped when she missed a Work Capability Assessment because she had pneumonia.
Previous research published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health by Oxford University and Liverpool University had found that there were an additional 590 suicides between 2010 and 2013 in areas where such assessments were carried out. The researchers said that the DWP had introduced the policy of moving people off benefits without understanding the consequences; the DWP Ministers are: The Permanent Secretary is Peter Schofield. With the creation of the department in June 2001, the Pension Service was created, bringing together many different departments and divisions; the Pension Service is a'dedicated service for current and future pensioners'. The Pension Service consists of local Pension Centres and centrally-based centres, many of latter are based at the Tyneview Park complex in Newcastle upon Tyne. At Tyneview Park the following centres are found: Future Pension Centre provides state pension forecasts for people approaching retirement age. Newcastle Pension Centre dealt with the London area, the Home Counties, part of West Midlands.
Now the service is virtual. Pension Tracing Service helps track old pensions and pension schemes. International Pension Centre deals with all enquiries regarding the payment of state pension, bereavement benefits, incapacity benefits and other such benefits for those living abroad. Local Pension Centres deal with localised claims for retirement related benefits. Pension Centres are found all over the country. Benefits dealt with at local Pension Centres include: Pension Credit Winter Fuel Payments Cold Weather Payments The Disability and Carers Service offers financial support for those who are disabled and their carers, whether in or out of employment; the DCS have offices throughout the country and deal with the following benefits: Disability Living Allowance Attendance Allowance Carer's Allowance Vaccine Damage Payment Personal Independence PaymentThe department has been found to invite disabled people to interviews in buildings which are themselves not accessible to people with disabilities.
When the person does not attend the interview they deny the person disability benefits, causing malnutrition and destitution. The DWP systematically underpaid disabled claimants who were transferred from Incapacity Benefit to Employment and Support allowance risking hardship for claimants. A cross party committee of MP's, the Public Accounts Committee accused the DWP of a culture of indifference to claimants. Before 2008, The Pension Service and the Disability and Carers Service were two separate executive agencies. Both former agencies kept their corporate branding and provided services under their separate identities; the decision was made due to the two agencies sharing about half of the same customers. The status of PDCS as an executive agency was removed on 1 October 2011 with the functions being brought back inside the department. Prior to July 2012 the Child Support Agency was the operating arm of the Child Maintenance and Enforcement Commission. All are now operated wholly from within the department, with the names continuing as brand identifiers.
The department's public bodies include: the Health and Safety Executive the Pensions Ombudsman the Pensions RegulatorThe department has corporate buildings in London, Blackpool, Aberdeen, Newcastle upon Tyne and Sheffield. Jobcentre Plus, The Pension Service and the Disability and Carers Service operate through a network of around 1,000 Jobcentres, contact centres and benefit processing centres across the UK; the total annual budget of the department in 2011-12 is £151.6 billion, representing 28% of total UK Government spending. The department spends a far greater share of national wealth than any other department in Britain, by a wide margin; the department spends an average of £348
Ministry of Labour (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Labour was a British government department established by the New Ministries and Secretaries Act 1916. It morphed into the Department of Employment. Most of its functions are now performed by the Department for Pensions. After the New Ministries and Secretaries Act 1916 the Ministry of Labour took over Board of Trade responsibilities for conciliation, labour exchanges and industrial relations and employment related statistics. Following the First World War it supervised the resettlement of ex-servicemen. In the 1920s it took over all Board of Education work relating to youth employment and responsibility for training and employment of the disabled from the Ministry of Pensions, it supervised trade union regulations. Under the Trade Boards Act 1918 the Ministry enforced the minimum wage, helped establish joint industrial councils, set up the Industrial Court in 1919 for arbitration of industrial disputes, it proposed multiple Unemployment Insurance Acts amendments, administered benefits through employment exchanges, employed the unemployed through special works schemes, represented the UK at the International Labour Organization from 1919).
From 1939, the department was renamed the Ministry of Labour and National Service, reflecting new duties under the National Service Act 1939. It allocated people to work between the armed forces, civil defence and industry, to administer the Schedule of Reserved Occupations; the National Joint Advisory Council, comprising employers' and workers' representatives, was consulted. From 1941, one Deputy Secretary for the Ministry controlled peacetime work, another coordinated work on manpower statistics, armed forces recruitment, civilian war work and training and labour supply. In April 1945, functions relating to unemployment insurance and assistance were transferred to the Ministry of National Insurance, but the Ministry of Labour retained responsibility for employment exchanges. In June 1945, the Board of Trade was handed responsibility for industrial policy, except that concerning labour power. At the end of the War, the National Service Department wing was wound up and its functions passed to the Military Recruitment Department.
In 1959 the department became the Ministry of Labour once more. It was renamed the Department of Employment and Productivity in 1968, became the Department for Employment in 1970. Ministry of Labour Staff Association UK labour law Catalogue of the Ministry of Labour Staff Association archives, held at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick
Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution, is a way to resolve disputes outside the courts. The dispute will be decided by one or more persons, which renders the "arbitration award". An arbitration award is binding on both sides and enforceable in the courts. Arbitration is used for the resolution of commercial disputes in the context of international commercial transactions. In certain countries such as the United States, arbitration is frequently employed in consumer and employment matters, where arbitration may be mandated by the terms of employment or commercial contracts and may include a waiver of the right to bring a class action claim. Mandatory consumer and employment arbitration should be distinguished from consensual arbitration commercial arbitration. Arbitration can be either binding or non-binding. Non-binding arbitration is similar to mediation in. However, the principal distinction is that whereas a mediator will try to help the parties find a middle ground on which to compromise, the arbiter remains removed from the settlement process and will only give a determination of liability and, if appropriate, an indication of the quantum of damages payable.
By one definition arbitration is binding and non-binding arbitration is therefore technically not arbitration. Arbitration is a proceeding in which a dispute is resolved by an impartial adjudicator whose decision the parties to the dispute have agreed, or legislation has decreed, will be final and binding. There are limited rights of appeal of arbitration awards. Arbitration is not the same as: judicial proceedings, alternative dispute resolution, expert determination, mediation. Parties seek to resolve disputes through arbitration because of a number of perceived potential advantages over judicial proceedings. Companies require arbitration with their customers, but prefer the advantages of courts in disputes with competitors: In contrast to litigation, where one cannot "choose the judge", arbitration allows the parties to choose their own tribunal; this is useful when the subject matter of the dispute is technical: arbitrators with an appropriate degree of expertise can be chosen. Arbitration is faster than litigation in court.
Arbitral proceedings and an arbitral award are non-public, can be made confidential. In arbitral proceedings the language of arbitration may be chosen, whereas in judicial proceedings the official language of the country of the competent court will be automatically applied; because of the provisions of the New York Convention 1958, arbitration awards are easier to enforce in other nations than court verdicts. In most legal systems there are limited avenues for appeal of an arbitral award, sometimes an advantage because it limits the duration of the dispute and any associated liability; some of the disadvantages include: Arbitration agreements are sometimes contained in ancillary agreements, or in small print in other agreements, consumers and employees do not know in advance that they have agreed to mandatory binding pre-dispute arbitration by purchasing a product or taking a job. If the arbitration is mandatory and binding, the parties waive their rights to access the courts and to have a judge or jury decide the case.
If the arbitrator or the arbitration forum depends on the corporation for repeat business, there may be an inherent incentive to rule against the consumer or employee There are limited avenues for appeal, which means that an erroneous decision cannot be overturned. Although thought to be speedier, when there are multiple arbitrators on the panel, juggling their schedules for hearing dates in long cases can lead to delays. In some legal systems, arbitration awards have fewer enforcement options than judgments. Arbitrators are unable to enforce interlocutory measures against a party, making it easier for a party to take steps to avoid enforcement of member or a small group of members in arbitration due to increasing legal fees, without explaining to the members the adverse consequences of an unfavorable ruling. Discovery may be more limited in arbitration or nonexistent; the potential to generate billings by attorneys may be less than pursuing the dispute through trial. Unlike court judgments, arbitration awards themselves are not directly enforceable.
A party seeking to enforce an arbitration award must resort to judicial remedies, called an action to "confirm" an award. By their nature, the subject matter of some disputes is not capable of arbitration. In general, two groups of legal procedures cannot be subjected to arbitration: Procedures which lead to a determination which the parties to the dispute may not enter into an agreement upon: Some court procedures lead to judgments which bind all members of the general public, or public authorities in their capacity as such, or third parties, or wh
United Kingdom labour law
United Kingdom labour law regulates the relations between workers and trade unions. People at work in the UK benefit from a minimum charter of employment rights, which are found in various Acts, common law and equity; this includes the right to a minimum wage of £7.83 for over 25-year-olds under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998. The Working Time Regulations 1998 give the right to 28 days paid holidays, breaks from work, attempts to limit excessively long working hours; the Employment Rights Act 1996 gives the right to leave for child care, the right to request flexible working patterns. The Pensions Act 2008 gives the right to be automatically enrolled in a basic occupational pension, whose funds must be protected according to the Pensions Act 1995. To get fair labour standards beyond the minimum, the most important right is to collectively participate in decisions about how an enterprise is managed; this works through collective bargaining, underpinned by the right to strike, a growing set of rights of direct workplace participation.
Workers must be able to vote for trustees of their occupational pensions under the Pensions Act 2004. In some enterprises, such as universities, staff can vote for the directors of the organisation. In enterprises with over 50 staff, workers must be informed and consulted about major economic developments or difficulties; this happens through a increasing number of work councils, which must be requested by staff. However, the UK remains behind European standards in requiring all employees to have a vote for their company's board of directors, alongside private sector shareholders, or government authorities in the public sector. Collective bargaining, between democratically organised trade unions and the enterprise's management, has been seen as a "single channel" for individual workers to counteract the employer's abuse of power when it dismisses staff or fix the terms of work. Collective agreements are backed up by a trade union's right to strike: a fundamental requirement of democratic society in international law.
Under the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992 strikes are lawful if they are "in contemplation or furtherance of a trade dispute". As well as having rights for fair treatment, the Equality Act 2010 requires that people are treated unless there is a good justification, based on their gender, sexual orientation and age. To combat social exclusion, employers must positively accommodate the needs of disabled people. Part-time staff, agency workers, people on fixed-term contracts are treated equally compared to full-time or permanent staff. To tackle unemployment, all employees are entitled to reasonable notice before dismissal after a qualifying period of a month, after two years they can only be dismissed for a fair reason, are entitled to a redundancy payment if their job was no longer economically necessary. If an enterprise is bought or outsourced, the Transfer of Undertakings Regulations 2006 require that employees' terms cannot be worsened without a good economic, technical or organisational reason.
The purpose of these rights is to ensure people have dignified living standards, whether or not they have the relative bargaining power to get good terms and conditions in their contract. Labour law in its modern form is a creation of the last three decades of the 20th century. However, as a system of regulating the employment relationship, labour law has existed since people worked. In feudal England, the first significant labour laws followed the Black Death. Given the shortage of workers and consequent price rises the Ordinance of Labourers 1349 and the Statute of Labourers 1351 attempted to suppress sources of wage inflation by banning workers organisation, creating offences for any able-bodied person that did not work, fixing wages at pre-plague levels; this led to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, in turn suppressed and followed up with the Statute of Cambridge 1388, which banned workers from moving around the country. Yet conditions were improving. One sign was the beginning of the more enlightened Truck Acts, dating from 1464, that required that workers be paid in cash and not kind.
In 1772 slavery was declared to be illegal in R v Knowles, ex parte Somersett, the subsequent Slave Trade Act 1807 and Slavery Abolition Act 1833 enforced prohibition throughout the British Empire. The turn into the 19th century coincided with the start of the massive boom in production. People's relationship to their employers moved from one of status - formal subordination and deference - to contract whereby people were formally free to choose their work. However, freedom of contract did not, as the economist Adam Smith observed, change a worker's factual dependency on employers; as its height, the businesses and corporations of Britain's industrial revolution organised half the world's production across a third of the globe's surface and a quarter of its population. Joint Stock Companies, building railways and factories, manufacturing household goods, connecting telegraphs, distributing coal, formed the backbone of the laissez faire model of commerce. Industrialisation meant greater urbanisation, miserable conditions in the factories.
The Factory Acts dating from 1803 required minimum standards on hours and conditions of working children. But people were attempting to organise more formally. Trade unions were suppressed following the French Revolution of 1789 under the Combination Act 1799; the Master and Servant Act 1823 and subsequent updates stipulated that all workmen were subject to criminal penalties for disobedience, calling for strikes was punished as a
National Insurance is a tax system in the United Kingdom paid by workers and employers for funding state benefits. It was a contributory form of insurance against illness and unemployment, provided retirement pensions and other benefits. Citizens pay National Insurance contributions to become eligible for State Pension and other benefits. Anyone 16 years old and above are mandated to pay National Insurance provided the employee earns more than £162 a week or the individual is self-employed and makes a profit of £6,205 or more annually, it is necessary to obtain a National Insurance number before starting to pay contributions. NI was first introduced by the National Insurance Act 1911 and expanded by the Labour government in 1948; the system was subjected to numerous amendments in succeeding years. Employees and employers pay for National Insurance contributions on certain benefits provided to employees. Self-employed persons contribute through a fixed weekly or monthly payment, on a percentage of net profits above a certain threshold.
Individuals may make voluntary contributions to fill a gap in their contributions record and thus protect their entitlement to benefits. Contributions from employees are collected by HM Revenue and Customs through the PAYE system, along with Income Tax, repayments of Student Loans and any Apprenticeship Levy which the employer is liable to pay. Employers include PAYE in their payroll, it refers to the "HM Revenue and Customs’ system for the collection of Income Tax and National Insurance from employment."The benefit component includes several contributory benefits of availability and amount determined by the claimant's contribution record and circumstances. Weekly income and some lump-sum benefits are provided for participants upon death, unemployment and disability. National Insurance contributes a significant part of the government's revenue; the structure of National Insurance was modified to remove the fixed upper contribution limits, with a much lower rate paid by employees on income above a certain level.
The Government Actuary estimated the 2012-13 results for the National Insurance Fund to be as follows: The current system of National Insurance has its roots in the National Insurance Act 1911, which introduced the concept of benefits based on contributions paid by employed persons and their employer. The chosen means of recording the contributions required the employer to buy special stamps from a Post Office and affix them to contribution cards; the cards formed proof of entitlement to benefits and were given to the employee when the employment ended, leading to the loss of a job being referred to as being given your cards, a phrase which endures to this day although the card itself no longer exists. There were two schemes running alongside each other, one for health and pension insurance benefits and the other for unemployment benefit, administered directly by Government; the Beveridge Report in 1942 proposed expansion and unification of the welfare state under a scheme of what was called social insurance.
In March 1943 Winston Churchill in a broadcast entitled "After the War" committed the government to a system of "national compulsory insurance for all classes for all purposes from the cradle to the grave."After the Second World War, the Attlee government pressed ahead with the introduction of the Welfare State, of which an expanded National Insurance scheme was a major component. As part of this process, responsibility passed in 1948 to the new Ministry of National Insurance. At that point, a single stamp was introduced which covered all the benefits of the new Welfare State. Stamp cards for class 1 contributions persisted until 1975 when these contributions ceased to be flat-rate and became earnings related, collected along with Income Tax under the PAYE procedures. Making NI contributions is described by people as paying their stamp; as the system developed, the link between individual contributions and benefits was weakened. The National Insurance Funds are used to pay for certain types of welfare expenditure and National Insurance payments cannot be used directly to fund general government spending.
However, any surplus in the funds is invested in government securities, so is lent to the government at low rates of interest. National Insurance contributions are paid into the various National Insurance Funds after deduction of monies allocated to the National Health Services; however a small percentage is transferred from the funds to the NHS from certain of the smaller sub-classes. Thus the four NHS organisations are funded from NI contributions but not from the NI Fund. Less than half of benefit expenditure now goes on contributory benefits, compared with over 65% in 1978–79 because of the growth of means-tested benefits since the late 1970s. National insurance contributions fall into a number of classes. Class 1, 2 and 3 NICs paid are credited to an individual's NI account, which determines eligibility for certain benefits - including the state pension. Class 1A, 1B and 4 NIC must still be paid if due. Class 1 contributions are paid by their employees. In law, the employee contribution is referred to as the'primary' contribution and the employer contribution as the'secondary', but they are referred to as employee and employer contributions.
The employee contribution is deducted from gross wages by the employer, with no action required by the employee. The employer adds in their own contribution and remits the total to HMRC along wi
Board of Trade
The Board of Trade is a British government department concerned with commerce and industry within the Department for International Trade. Its full title is The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations, but is known as the Board of Trade, known as the Lords of Trade and Plantations or Lords of Trade, it has been a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom; the Board has gone through several evolutions, beginning with extensive involvement in colonial matters in the 17th Century, to powerful regulatory functions in the Victorian Era, to being dormant in the last third of 20th century. In 2017, it was revitalized as an advisory board headed by the International Trade Secretary who has nominally held the title of President of the Board of Trade, who at present is the only privy counsellor of the Board, the other members of the present Board filling roles as advisers; the board was first established as a temporary committee of England's Privy Council to advise on colonial questions in the early 17th century, when these settlements were forming.
The Board would evolve into a government department with considerable power and a diverse range of functions, including regulation of domestic and foreign commerce, the development and interpretation of the Acts of Trade and Navigation, the review and acceptance of legislation passed in the colonies. Between 1696 and 1782 the Board of Trade, in partnership with the various secretaries of state over that time, held responsibility for colonial affairs in British America; the newly created office of Home Secretary held colonial responsibility until 1801, when the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was established. Between 1768 and 1782 while with the Secretary of State for the Colonies, whose secretaryship was held jointly with the presidency of the Board of Trade, the latter position remained vacant. Following the loss of the American War of Independence, both the board and the short-lived secretaryship were dismissed by the king on 2 May 1782 and the board was abolished by the Civil List and Secret Service Money Act 1782.
Following the Treaty of Paris 1783, with the continuing need to regulate trade between its remaining colonies, the independent United States and all other countries, a new Committee of Council on Trade and Plantations was established by William Pitt the Younger. Mandated by an order in Council on 5 March 1784, the committee was reconstructed and strengthened by a second order, on 23 August 1786, under which it operated for the rest of its existence; the committee has been known as the Board of Trade since 1786, but this name was only adopted by an act of 1861. The new Board's first functions were consultative like earlier iterations, its concern with plantations, in matters such as the approval of colonial laws, more accomplished; as the industrial revolution expanded, the board's work became executive and domestic and from the 1840s a succession of acts of parliament gave it regulatory duties, notably concerning railways, merchant shipping, joint stock companies. This department was merged with the Ministry of Technology in 1970, to form the Department of Trade and Industry.
The Secretary of State for Trade and Industry was President of the Board of Trade. The full Board has met only once since the mid-20th century, during commemorations of the bicentenary of the Board in 1986. In 2016, the role of President of the Board of Trade was transferred to the Secretary of State for International Trade; the Board was reconstituted in October 2017. In 1622, at the end of the Dutch Twelve Years' Truce, King James I directed the Privy Council of England to establish a temporary committee to investigate the causes of various economic and supply problems, the decline in trade and consequent financial difficulties; this would be followed by a number of temporary committees and councils to regulate the colonies and their commerce. The Board's formal title remains "The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations". In 1634, Charles I appointed a new commission for regulating plantations, it was headed by the Archbishop of Canterbury with its primary goals to increase royal authority and the influence of the Church of England in the colonies with the great influx of Puritans to the New World.
Soon after however, the English Civil Wars erupted and initiated a long period of political instability in England and the resultant loss of productivity for these committees. Between 1643 and 1648 the Long Parliament would establish a parliamentary Commission for Plantations to take the lead in colonial and commercial affairs; this period saw the first regulation of Royal tonnage and poundage and begin the modernization of customs and excise as growing sources of government revenue. During the Interregnum and Commonwealth three acts of the Rump Parliament in 1650 and 1651 are notable in the historical development of England's commercial and colonial programs; these include the first Commission of Trade to be established by an Act of Parliament on 1 August 1650. The instructions to the named commissioners, headed by Henry Vane the Younger, included consideration of both domestic a