Baron Kantarō Suzuki was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and final leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April to 17 August 1945. Suzuki was born in Izumi Province to a samurai magistrate of the Sekiyado Domain, he grew up in the city of Kazusa Province. Suzuki entered the 14th class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1884, graduating 13th of 45 cadets in 1888. Suzuki served on the corvettes Tenryū and cruiser Takachiho as a midshipman. On being commissioned as ensign, he served on the corvette Amagi, corvette Takao, corvette Jingei, ironclad Kongō, gunboat Maya. After his promotion to lieutenant on 21 December 1892, he served as chief navigator on the corvettes Kaimon and Kongō. Suzuki served in the First Sino-Japanese War, commanding a torpedo boat and participated in a night torpedo assault in the Battle of Weihaiwei in 1895. Afterwards, he was promoted to lieutenant commander on 28 June 1898 after graduation from the Naval Staff College and assigned to a number of staff positions including that of naval attaché to Germany from 1901 to 1903.
On his return, he was promoted to commander on 26 September 1903. He came to be known as the leading torpedo warfare expert in the Imperial Japanese Navy. During the Russo-Japanese War, Suzuki commanded Destroyer Division 2 in 1904, which picked up survivors of the Port Arthur Blockade Squadron during the Battle of Port Arthur, he was appointed executive officer of the cruiser Kasuga on 26 February 1904, aboard which he participated in the Battle of the Yellow Sea. During the pivotal Battle of Tsushima, Suzuki was commander of Destroyer Division 4 under the IJN 2nd Fleet, which assisted in sinking the Russian battleship Navarin. After the war, Suzuki was promoted to captain on 28 September 1907 and commanded the destroyer Akashi, followed by the cruiser Soya, battleship Shikishima and cruiser Tsukuba. Promoted to rear admiral on 23 May 1913 and assigned to command the Maizuru Naval District. Suzuki became Vice Minister of the Navy from 1914 to 1917, during World War I. Promoted to vice admiral on 1 June 1917, he brought the cruisers Asama and Iwate to San Francisco in early 1918 with 1,000 cadets, was received by U.
S. Navy Rear Admiral William Fullam; the Japanese cruisers proceeded to South America. After stints as Commandant of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, Commander of the IJN 2nd Fleet the IJN 3rd Fleet Kure Naval District, he became a full admiral on 3 August 1923. Suzuki became Commander in Chief of Combined Fleet in 1924. After serving as Chief of Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff from 15 April 1925 to 22 January 1929, he retired and accepted the position as Privy Councillor and Grand Chamberlain from 1929 to 1936. Suzuki narrowly escaped assassination in the February 26 Incident in 1936. Suzuki was opposed to Japan's war with the United States and throughout World War II. On 7 April 1945, following the Battle of Okinawa, Prime Minister Kuniaki Koiso resigned and Suzuki was appointed to take his place at the age of seventy-seven, he held the portfolios for Minister for Foreign Affairs and for Greater East Asia. Prime Minister Suzuki contributed to the final peace negotiations with the Allied Powers in World War II.
He was involved in calling two unprecedented imperial conferences which helped resolve the split within the Japanese Imperial Cabinet over the Potsdam Declaration. He outlined the terms to Emperor Hirohito who had agreed to accept unconditional surrender; this went against the military faction of the cabinet, who desired to continue the war in hopes of negotiating a more favorable peace agreement. Part of this faction attempted to assassinate Suzuki twice in the Kyūjō Incident on the morning of 15 August 1945. After the surrender of Japan became public, Suzuki resigned and Prince Higashikuni became next prime minister. Suzuki was the Chairman of the Privy Council from 7 August 1944 to 7 June 1945 and again after the surrender of Japan from 15 December 1945 to 13 June 1946. Suzuki died of natural causes, his grave is in his home town of Chiba. One of his two sons became director of Japan's immigration service, while the other was a successful lawyer. From the corresponding Japanese Wikipedia article Baron Order of the Sacred Treasure, 4th Class Order of the Golden Kite, 3rd Class Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers Junior First Rank Frank, Richard.
Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-100146-1. Gilbert, Martin; the Second World War: A Complete History. Holt. ISBN 0-8050-7623-9. Keegan, John; the Second World War. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-303573-8. Kowner, Rotem. Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War; the Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4927-5. Annotated bibliography for Suzuki Kantarō from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues Nishida, Hiroshi. "Imperial Japanese Navy". Retrieved 2007-08-25. Suzuki Kantarō and Pacific War at 1945
Ammunition is the material fired, dropped or detonated from any weapon. Ammunition is both expendable weapons and the component parts of other weapons that create the effect on a target. Nearly all mechanical weapons require some form of ammunition to operate; the term ammunition can be traced back to the mid-17th century. The word comes for the material used for war. Ammunition and munitions are used interchangeably, although munition now refers to the actual weapons system with the ammunition required to operate it. In some languages other than English ammunition is still referred to as munition, such as French, German or Italian; the purpose of ammunition is to project a force against a selected target to have an effect. The most iconic example of ammunition is the firearm cartridge, which includes all components required to deliver the weapon effect in a single package. Ammunition comes in a great range of sizes and types and is designed to work only in specific weapons systems. However, there are internationally recognized standards for certain ammunition types that enable their use across different weapons and by different users.
There are specific types of ammunition that are designed to have a specialized effect on a target, such as armor-piercing shells and tracer ammunition, used only in certain circumstances. Ammunition is colored in a specific manner to assist in the identification and to prevent the wrong ammunition types from being used accidentally. A round is a single cartridge containing a projectile, propellant and casing. A shell is a form of ammunition, fired by a large caliber cannon or artillery piece. Before the mid-19th century, these shells were made of solid materials and relied on kinetic energy to have an effect. However, since that time, they are more filled with high-explosives. A shot refers to a single release of a weapons system; this may involve firing just one round or piece of ammunition, but can refer to ammunition types that release a large number of projectiles at the same time. A dud refers to loaded ammunition that fails to function as intended failing to detonate on landing. However, it can refer to ammunition that fails to fire inside the weapon, known as a misfire, or when the ammunition only functions, known as a hang fire.
Dud ammunition, classified as an unexploded ordnance, is regarded as dangerous. In former conflict zones, it is not uncommon for dud ammunition to remain buried in the ground for many years. Large quantities of ammunition from World War I continue to be found in fields throughout France and Belgium and still claim lives. Although classified as an unexploded ordnance, landmines that have been left behind after conflict are not considered duds as they have not failed to work and may still be functioning and forgotten. A bomb, or more a guided or unguided bomb, is an airdropped, unpowered explosive weapon. Mines and the warheads used in guided missiles and rockets are referred to as bomb-type ammunition. Ammunition design has evolved throughout history as different weapons have been developed and different effects required. Ammunition was of simple design and build, but as weapon designs developed and became more refined, the requirement for more specialized ammunition increased. Modern ammunition can vary in quality but is manufactured to high standards.
For example, ammunition for hunting can be designed to expand inside the target, maximizing the damage inflicted by a single round. Anti-personnel shells can affect a large area. Armor-piercing rounds are specially hardened to penetrate armor, while smoke ammunition covers an area with a fog that screens people from view. More generic ammunition can be altered to give it a more specific effect, whilst larger explosive rounds can be altered by using different fuzes; the components of ammunition intended for rifles and munitions may be divided into these categories: Fuze or primer explosive materials and propellants projectiles of all kinds cartridge casing The term "fuze" refers to the detonator of an explosive round or shell. The spelling is different in British English and American English and they are unrelated from a fuse. A fuse was earlier used to ignite the propellant until the advent of more reliable systems such as the primer or igniter, used in most modern ammunitions; the fuze of a weapon can be used to alter.
For example, a common artillery shell fuze can be set to'point detonation', time-delay and proximity. These allow a single ammunition type to be altered to suit the situation. There are many designs of a fuze, ranging from simple mechanical to complex radar and barometric systems. Fuzes are armed by the acceleration force of firing the projectile, arm several meters after clearing the bore of the weapon
Air raids on Japan
Allied forces conducted many air raids on Japan during World War II, causing extensive destruction to the country's cities and killing between 241,000 and 900,000 people. During the first years of the Pacific War these attacks were limited to the Doolittle Raid in April 1942 and small-scale raids on military positions in the Kuril Islands from mid-1943. Strategic bombing raids began in June 1944 and continued until the end of the war in August 1945. Allied naval and land-based tactical air units attacked Japan during 1945; the United States military air campaign waged against Japan began in earnest in mid-1944 and intensified during the war's last months. While plans for attacks on Japan had been prepared prior to the Pacific War, these could not begin until the long-range B-29 Superfortress bomber was ready for combat. From June 1944 until January 1945, B-29s stationed in India staged through bases in China to make a series of nine raids on targets in western Japan, but this effort proved ineffective.
The strategic bombing campaign was expanded from November 1944 when bases in the Mariana Islands became available as a result of the Mariana Islands Campaign. These attacks attempted to target industrial facilities using high-altitude daylight "precision" bombing, largely ineffective. From February 1945, the bombers switched to low-altitude night firebombing against urban areas as much of the manufacturing process was carried out in small workshops and private homes: this approach resulted in large-scale urban damage. Aircraft flying from Allied aircraft carriers and the Ryukyu Islands frequently struck targets in Japan during 1945 in preparation for the planned invasion of Japan scheduled for October 1945. During early August 1945, the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were struck and destroyed by atomic bombs. Japan's military and civil defenses were unable to stop the Allied attacks; the number of fighter aircraft and anti-aircraft guns assigned to defensive duties in the home islands was inadequate, most of these aircraft and guns had difficulty reaching the high altitudes at which B-29s operated.
Fuel shortages, inadequate pilot training, a lack of coordination between units constrained the effectiveness of the fighter force. Despite the vulnerability of Japanese cities to firebombing attacks, the firefighting services lacked training and equipment, few air raid shelters were constructed for civilians; as a result, the B-29s were able to inflict severe damage on urban areas while suffering few losses. The Allied bombing campaign was one of the main factors which influenced the Japanese government's decision to surrender in mid-August 1945. However, there has been a long-running debate over the morality of the attacks on Japanese cities, the use of atomic weapons is controversial; the most cited estimate of Japanese casualties from the raids is 333,000 killed and 473,000 wounded. There are a number of other estimates of total fatalities, which range from 241,000 to 900,000. In addition to the loss of civilian life, the raids contributed to a large decline in industrial production; the United States Army Air Corps began developing contingency plans for an air campaign against Japan during 1940.
During that year the naval attaché to the Embassy of the United States in Tokyo reported that Japan's civil defenses were weak, proposals were made for American aircrew to volunteer for service with Chinese forces in the Second Sino-Japanese War. The first American Volunteer Group began operations as part of the Republic of China Air Force in late 1941 using P-40 Warhawk fighter aircraft. A second American Volunteer Group was formed in late 1941 to attack Japan from bases in China using Hudson and A-20 Havoc medium bombers; the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 led to open hostilities between the US and Japan and ended the need for covert operations and this unit did not become active. The small number of Second Air Volunteer Group personnel who were dispatched from the United States in November 1941 were diverted to Australia upon the outbreak of war. Japanese successes during the opening months of the Pacific War nullified pre-war US plans for attacks against the Japanese homeland and a series of attempts to start a small-scale campaign from bases in China were unsuccessful.
Before the outbreak of war, the USAAF had planned to bomb Japan from Wake Island, the Philippines and coastal areas in China. However, these areas were captured by Japanese forces, the USAAF heavy bomber force in the Philippines was destroyed when Clark Air Base was attacked on 8 December 1941; the USAAF subsequently attempted to send thirteen heavy bombers to China in March and April 1942 to attack the Japanese home islands. These aircraft reached India, but remained there as the Japanese conquest of Burma caused logistics problems and Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek was reluctant to allow them to operate from territory under his control. A further 13 B-24 Liberator heavy bombers were dispatched from the United States to operate from China in May 1942 as the HALPRO force, but were re-tasked to support Allied operations in the Mediterranean. In July 1942, the commander of the American Volunteer Group, Colonel Claire Lee Chennault, sought a force of 100 P-47 Thunderbolt fighters and 30 B-25 Mitchell medium bombers, which he believed would be sufficient to "destroy" the Japanese aircraft industry.
Three months Chennault told United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt that a force of 105 modern fighters and 40 bombers would be able to "accomplish the downfall of Japan" within six to twelve months. Th
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Allied occupation of Japan following World War II. It issued SCAP Directive to the Japanese government, aiming to transform it into a non-terrorist nation. In Japan, the position was referred to as GHQ, as SCAP referred to the offices of the occupation, including a staff of several hundred U. S. civil servants as well as military personnel. Some of these personnel wrote a first draft of the Japanese Constitution, which the National Diet ratified after a few amendments. Australian, British and New Zealand forces under SCAP were organized into a sub-command known as British Commonwealth Occupation Force; these actions led MacArthur to be viewed as the new Imperial force in Japan by many Japanese political and civilian figures being considered to be the rebirth of the shōgun-style government which Japan was ruled under until the start of the Meiji Restoration. Biographer William Manchester argues that without MacArthur's leadership, Japan would not have been able to make the move from an imperial, totalitarian state, to a democracy.
At his appointment, MacArthur announced that he sought to "restore security and self-respect" to the Japanese people. One of the largest of the SCAP programs was Public Health and Welfare, headed by U. S. Army Colonel Crawford F. Sams. Working with the SCAP staff of 150, Sams directed the welfare work of the American doctors, organized new Japanese medical welfare systems along American lines; the Japanese population was physically badly worn down and medicines were scarce, sanitary systems had been bombed out in larger cities. His earliest priorities were in distributing food supplies from the U. S. Millions of refugees from the defunct overseas Empire were pouring in in bad physical shape, with a high risk of introducing smallpox and cholera; the outbreaks that did occur were localized, as emergency immunization, quarantine and delousing prevented massive epidemics. Sams, promoted to Brigadier General in 1948, worked with Japanese officials to establish vaccine laboratories, reorganize hospitals along American lines, upgrade medical and nursing schools, bring together Japanese, U.
S. teams that dealt with disasters, child care, health insurance. He set up an Institute of Public Health for educating public health workers and a National Institute of Health for research, set up statistical divisions and data collection systems. SCAP arrested 28 suspected war criminals on account of crimes against peace, but it did not conduct the Tokyo trials. President Harry Truman had negotiated Japanese surrender on the condition the Emperor would not be executed or put on trial. SCAP carried out that policy; as soon as November 26, 1945, MacArthur confirmed to admiral Mitsumasa Yonai that the emperor's abdication would not be necessary. Before the war crimes trials convened, SCAP, the IPS and Shōwa officials worked behind the scenes not only to prevent the imperial family being indicted, but to slant the testimony of the defendants to ensure that no one implicated the Emperor. High officials in court circles and the Shōwa government collaborated with Allied GHQ in compiling lists of prospective war criminals, while the individuals arrested as Class A suspects and incarcerated in Sugamo Prison solemnly vowed to protect their sovereign against any possible taint of war responsibility.
As Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, MacArthur decided not to prosecute Shiro Ishii and all members of the bacteriological research units in exchange for germ warfare data based on human experimentation. On May 6, 1947, he wrote to Washington that "additional data some statements from Ishii can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as "War Crimes" evidence." The deal was concluded in 1948. According to historian Herbert Bix in Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, "MacArthur's extraordinary measures to save the Emperor from trial as a war criminal had a lasting and profoundly distorting impact on Japanese understanding of the lost war." Above the political and economic control SCAP had for the seven years following Japan's surrender, SCAP had strict control over all of the Japanese media, under the formation of the Civil Censorship Detachment of SCAP. The CCD banned a total of 31 topics from all forms of media.
These topics included: Criticism of SCAP. All Allied countries. Criticism of Allied policy pre- and post-war. Any form of imperial propaganda. Defense of war criminals. Praise of "undemocratic" forms of government, though praise of SCAP itself was permitted; the atomic bomb. Black market activities. Open discussion of allied diplomatic relations. Although some of the CCD censorship laws relaxed towards the end of SCAP, some topics, like the atomic bomb, were taboo until 1952 at the end of the occupation. MacArthur was succeeded as SCAP by General Matthew Ridgway when MacArthur was relieved by President Harry S. Truman during the Korean War in April 1951; when the Treaty of San Francisco came into effect on April 28, 1952, the post of SCAP lapsed. Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019314-0. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04686-1.
A spare part, service part, repair part, or replacement part, is an interchangeable part, kept in an inventory and used for the repair or replacement of failed units. Spare parts are an important feature of logistics engineering and supply chain management comprising dedicated spare parts management systems. Capital spares are spare parts which, although acknowledged to have a long life or a small chance of failure, would cause a long shutdown of equipment because it would take a long time to get a replacement for them. Spare parts are an outgrowth of the industrial development of interchangeable parts and mass production. In logistics, spare parts can be broadly classified into two groups and consumables. Economically, there is a tradeoff between the cost of ordering a replacement part and the cost of repairing a failed part; when the cost of repair becomes a significant percentage of the cost of replacement, it becomes economically favorable to order a replacement part. In such cases, the part is said to be "beyond economic repair", the percentage associated with this threshold is known as the BER rate.
Analysis of economic tradeoffs is formally evaluated using Level of Repair Analysis. Repairable parts are parts that are deemed worthy of repair by virtue of economic consideration of their repair cost. Rather than bear the cost of replacing a finished product, repairables are designed to enable more affordable maintenance by being more modular; this allows components to be more removed and replaced, enabling cheaper replacement. Spare parts that are needed to support condemnation of repairable parts are known as replenishment spares. A rotable pool is a pool of repairable spare parts inventory set aside to allow for multiple repairs to be accomplished simultaneously; this can be used to minimize stockout conditions for repairable items. Parts that are not repairable, are considered consumable parts. Consumable parts are scrapped, or "condemned", when they are found to have failed. Since no attempt at repair is made, for a fixed mean time between failures, replacement rates for consumption of consumables are higher than an equivalent item treated as a repairable part.
Because of this, consumables tend to be lower cost items. Because consumables are lower cost and higher volume, economies of scale can be found by ordering in large lot sizes, a so-called Economic order quantity. There is no UK or EU legislation which states that spare parts have to be available for any set period of time, but some trade associations require their members to ensure products are not rendered useless because spare parts are not available. The'six year rule' in the UK Sale of Goods Act 1979 relates to the time period for enforcing claims that goods where defective when sold, not to whether spare parts are available to repair them, section 23 of the Consumer Rights Act 2015 states that a consumer cannot require a trader to repair or replace goods if "the repair or replacement is impossible", implying that if spare parts are no longer available the consumer's Right to Repair would be lost. From the perspective of logistics, a model of the life cycle of parts in a supply chain can be developed.
This model, called the repair cycle, consists of functioning parts in use by equipment operators, the entire sequence of suppliers or repair providers that replenish functional part inventories, either by production or repair, when they have failed. This sequence ends with the manufacturer; this type of model allows demands on a supply system to be traced to their operational reliability, allowing for analysis of the dynamics of the supply system, in particular, spare parts. When stockout conditions occur, cannibalization can result; this is the practice of removing parts or subsystems necessary for repair from another similar device, rather than from inventory. The source system is crippled as a result, if only temporarily, in order to allow the recipient device to function properly again; as a result, operational availability is impaired. Industrialization has seen the widespread growth of commercial manufacturing enterprises, such as the automotive industry, the computer industry; the resulting complex systems have evolved modular support infrastructures, with the reliance on auto parts in the automotive industry, replaceable computer modules known as field-replaceable units.
Military operations are affected by logistics operations. The system availability known as mission capable rate, of weapon systems and the ability to effect the repair of damaged equipment are significant contributors to the success of military operations. Systems that are in a mission-incapable status due lack of spare parts are said to be "awaiting parts" known as not mission capable due to supply; because of this sensitivity to logistics, militaries have sought to make their logistics operations as effective as possible, focusing effort on operations research and optimal maintenance. Maintenance has been simplified by the introduction of interchangeable modules known as line-replaceable units. LRUs make it possible to replace an unserviceable part with a serviceable replacement; this makes it straightforward to repair complex military hardware, at the expense of having a ready supply of spare parts. The cost of having serviceable parts available in inventory can be tremendous, as items that are prone to failure may be demanded from inventory, requiring significant inventory levels to avoid depletion.
For military programs, the cost of spare inventory can be a significant portion of acquisition cost. In recent years, the Uni
Agriculture in the Empire of Japan
Agriculture in the Empire of Japan was an important component of the pre-war Japanese economy. Although Japan had only 16% of its land area under cultivation before the Pacific War, over 45% of households made a living from farming. Japanese cultivated land was dedicated to rice, which accounted for 15% of world rice production in 1937. After the end of the Tokugawa shogunate with the Meiji Restoration of 1868, Japanese agriculture was dominated by a tenant farming system; the Meiji government based its industrialization program on tax revenues from private land ownership, the Land Tax Reform of 1873 increased the process of landlordism, with many farmers having their land confiscated due to inability to pay the new taxes. This situation was worsened by the deflationary Matsukata Fiscal Policy of 1881-1885, which depressed rice prices, leading to further bankruptcies, to large scale rural uprisings against the government. By the end of the Meiji period, over 67% of all peasant families were driven into tenancy, farm productivity stagnated.
As tenants were forced to pay over half their crop as rent, they were forced to send wives and daughters to textile mills or to sell daughters into prostitution to pay for taxes. In the early Meiji period, landowners collected a high rate of rent in kind, rather than cash and played a major role in the development of agriculture, since the tenant farmers found it difficult to obtain capital. With the development of cash crops to supplement the mainstay of rice, the growth of capitalism in general from the turn of the twentieth century onwards, agricultural cooperatives and the government took over the role by providing farm subsidies and education in new agricultural techniques; the first agricultural cooperatives were established in 1900, after their creation was debated in the Diet of Japan by Shinagawa Yajirō and Hirata Tosuke as a means of modernizing Japanese agriculture and adapting it to a cash economy. These cooperatives served in rural areas as credit unions, purchasing cooperatives and assisted in the marketing and sales of farm products.
The Imperial Agricultural Association was a central organization for agricultural cooperatives in the Empire of Japan. It was established in 1910, provided assistance to individual cooperatives through transmission of agricultural research and facilitating the sales of farm products; the Imperial Agricultural Association was at the peak of a three tier structure of national-prefectural-local system of agricultural cooperatives. This organization was of vital importance after nationwide markets were consolidated under government control in the aftermath of the Rice Riots of 1918 and increasing economic crisis from the late 1920s. Increasing tenant farmer disputes and issues with landlordism led to increasing government regulation. After the Rice Riots of 1918, many peasants came under the influence of the urban labor movement with socialist, communist and/or agrarian ideas, which created a serious political issues. Not only were the Imperial Family of Japan and the zaibatsu major landowners, but until 1928, an income tax requirement limited the right to vote, limiting seats in the Diet of Japan only to people of wealth.
In 1922, the Nihon Nomin Kumiai was formed for collective bargaining for cultivator rights and reduced rents. By the 1930s, the growth of the urban economy and flight of farmers to the cities weakened the hold of the landlords; the interwar years saw the rapid introduction of mechanized agriculture, the supplementation of natural animal fertilizers with chemical fertilizers and imported phosphates. With the growth of the wartime economy, the government recognized that landlordism was an impediment to increased agricultural productivity, took steps to increase control over the rural sector through the formation of the Central Agricultural Association in 1943, a compulsory organization under the wartime command economy to force the implementation of government farming policies. Another duty of the organization was to secure food supply to the military, it was dissolved after World War II. Farmed land in 1937 was 14,940,000 acres, which represented 15.8% of the total Japanese surface area, compared with 10,615,000 acres or 40% in Ohio, or 12,881,000 acres or 21% in England.
The proportion of farmed land rose from 11.8% in 1887 to 13.7% in 1902, 14.4% in 1912 to 15.7% in 1919. This fell to 15.4% in 1929. There were 5,374,897 farmers at an average 2.67 acres per family, in comparison with any American farmer family with 155 acres. These were larger in Karafuto and reduced by 2 acres in southwest area; the intense culture and scientific development, raised the yield to 43 bushels per acre in 1936. In some parts of southern Japan, the subtropical climate favored a double harvest. Other important cereals were wheat, rye, millet barley; the sparsely populated Chishima Islands had an inclement climate for anything other than small-scale agriculture. Karafuto had a severe climate made cultivation difficult, along with unsuitable podzolic soils. Small scale farming was developed in the south, were land was suitable for potatoes, rye and vegetables. Only 7% of Karafuto was arable; the livestock raising was quite important. Farming experiments with rice were successful. Through government policies, capable farmers from Hokkaidō and northern Honshū received 12.5 acres to 25 acres of land and
Ginjirō Fujiwara, was an industrialist and politician in the Empire of Japan, serving as a member of the Upper House of the Diet of Japan, advisor to Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō, twice as a cabinet minister. Prior to his political career, he was a central figure in the pre-war Mitsui zaibatsu and president of Oji Paper. Fujiwara was born in Kamiminochi District, Nagano part of Nagano city, where his father, a farmer, was a trader in indigo and thus the wealthiest man in the village. Fujiwara intended to become a medical doctor, travelled to Tokyo at the age of 16. However, on graduation from a school affiliated with Keio University, he found employment at the Matsui Shimpo newspaper instead, rising to the position of editor-in-chief; when the newspaper was in severe financial difficulties, he assumed the post of president, but was unable to prevent it from falling into bankruptcy. In 1895, through the introduction of one of his former classmates, Fujiwara was hired by the Mitsui Bank. One of his close colleagues was Shigeaki Ikeda.
He rose through the ranks, working at the branch office at Otsu and was assistant manager of a branch in Fukagawa, Tokyo. He was appointed manager of the Tomioka silk mill, under Mitsui ownership. Under his management, he resolved labor dispute issues by a combination of wage increases and improved working conditions through negotiations. Due to his success at the Tomioka Silk Mill, he was called in to assume management of Oji Paper, when its workers went on strike in 1898. In 1899, he was transferred to Mitsui & Co. where he was made vice-manager of the company branch in Shanghai. He remained in Shanghai over ten years, becoming branch manager, director of procurement for wood, he returned to Oji Paper as vice-president in 1911, at a time when Oji Paper was in severe financial difficulties. Fujiwara turned the company around by replacing managers suspected of embezzlement, purchasing the latest production equipment from Europe, suing major debtors who were delinquent on payments. In 1929, Fujiwara was appointed to a seat in the Upper House of the Diet of Japan.
In 1933, he merged Oji Paper with Fuji Paper and Karafuto Industries, a paper company based in Karafuto to form New Oji Paper, with a market share of over 80%. He resigned his position as president of the new company in 1938 to become chairman of the board; the same year, he established a private university in Yokohama, of the Fujiwara Institute of Technology, to train engineers and managerial talent. The university is now the Faculty of Engineering of Keio University. In 1940, he was asked to join the cabinet of Mitsumasa Yonai as Minister of Industry. In 1942, he was nominated a special advisor to the cabinet of Prime Minister Tōjō, with oversight over naval procurement, in 1943 joined the Tōjō cabinet as a minister without portfolio. In 1944, under Tōjō’s successor, Kuniaki Koiso, he became Minister of Munitions. With the war situation becoming critical, Fujiwara devoted his efforts to increasing the production of aircraft to defend Japan against the increasing Allied bombing attacks, he was astonished to find that aircraft built at Mitsubishi’s Nagoya works were being transported to the nearest airfields by ox cart.
Following the end of World War II, along with all other members of the former Japanese government were arrested by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers and was held in Sugamo Prison on war crime charges, but his case was dropped soon after. In 1959, he turned over much of his private fortune to a charitable foundation, the Fujiwara Foundation of Science; the Foundation awards the Fujiwara Prize to scientists who have made important contributions to the advancement of science and technology. Fujiwara died of a stroke in 1960, he was posthumously awarded the Order of the Rising Sun, 1st class. His grave is at the Tsukiji Hongan-ji in Tokyo. Fujiwara lived in Tokyo. In Keio University Yagami Campus there is his statue. Rengō Puresu Sha, The Japan biographical encyclopedia & who's who, Issue 3 Japan Biographical Research Dept. Rengo Press, Ltd. 1964. Page 162 Picken, Stuart D B; the A to Z of Japanese Business. Roawman and Littlefield ISBN 0810868725