Strike action called labor strike, labour strike, or strike, is a work stoppage, caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became common during the Industrial Revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines. In most countries, strike actions were made illegal, as factory owners had far more power than workers. Most Western countries legalized striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries. Strikes are sometimes used to pressure governments to change policies. Strikes destabilize the rule of a particular political party or ruler. Notable examples are the 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard, the 1981 Warning Strike, led by Lech Wałęsa; these strikes were significant in the long campaign of civil resistance for political change in Poland, were an important mobilizing effort that contributed to the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist party rule in eastern Europe. The use of the English word "strike" was first seen in 1768, when sailors, in support of demonstrations in London, "struck" or removed the topgallant sails of merchant ships at port, thus crippling the ships.
Official publications have used the more neutral words "work stoppage" or "industrial dispute". The first certain account of strike action was towards the end of the 20th dynasty, under Pharaoh Ramses III in ancient Egypt on 14 November 1152 BC; the artisans of the Royal Necropolis at Deir el-Medina walked off their jobs because they had not been paid. The Egyptian authorities raised the wages. An early predecessor of the general strike may have been the secessio plebis in ancient Rome. In The Outline of History, H. G. Wells characterized this event as "the general strike of the plebeians, their first strike occurred because they "saw with indignation their friends, who had served the state bravely in the legions, thrown into chains and reduced to slavery at the demand of patrician creditors." The strike action only became a feature of the political landscape with the onset of the Industrial Revolution. For the first time in history, large numbers of people were members of the industrial working class.
By the 1830s, when the Chartist movement was at its peak in Britain, a true and widespread'workers consciousness' was awakening. In 1842 the demands for fairer wages and conditions across many different industries exploded into the first modern general strike. After the second Chartist Petition was presented to Parliament in April 1842 and rejected, the strike began in the coal mines of Staffordshire and soon spread through Britain affecting factories, mills in Lancashire and coal mines from Dundee to South Wales and Cornwall. Instead of being a spontaneous uprising of the mutinous masses, the strike was politically motivated and was driven by an agenda to win concessions; as much as half of the industrial work force were on strike at its peak – over 500,000 men. The local leadership marshalled a growing working class tradition to politically organize their followers to mount an articulate challenge to the capitalist, political establishment. Friedrich Engels, an observer in London at the time, wrote: by its numbers, this class has become the most powerful in England, woe betide the wealthy Englishmen when it becomes conscious of this fact...
The English proletarian is only just becoming aware of his power, the fruits of this awareness were the disturbances of last summer. As the 19th century progressed, strikes became a fixture of industrial relations across the industrialized world, as workers organized themselves to collectively bargain for better wages and standards with their employers. Karl Marx has condemned the theory of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon criminalizing strike action in his work The Poverty of Philosophy. In 1937 there were 4,740 strikes in the United States; this was the greatest strike wave in American labor history. The number of major strikes and lockouts in the U. S. fell by 97% from 381 in 1970 to 187 in 1980 to only 11 in 2010. Companies countered the threat of a strike by threatening to move a plant. International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights adopted in 1967 ensure the right to strike in Article 8 and European Social Charter adopted in 1961 ensure the right to strike in Article 6; the Farah Strike, 1972–1974, labeled the "strike of the century," and it was organized and led by Mexican American women predominantly in El Paso, Texas.
Most strikes are undertaken by labor unions during collective bargaining as a last resort. The object of collective bargaining is for the employer and the union to come to an agreement over wages and working conditions. A collective bargaining agreement may include a clause which prohibits the union from striking during the term of the agreement, known as a "no-strike clause." No-strike clauses arose in the United States following World War II. Some in the labor movement consider no-strike clauses to be an unnecessary detriment to unions in the collective bargaining process. Strikes are rare: according to the News Media Guild, 98% of union contracts in the United States are settled each of the 67 years without a strike. Workers decide to strike without the sanction of a labor union, either because the union refuses to endorse such a tactic, or because the workers concerned are non-unionized; such strikes are described as unofficial. Strikes without formal union authorization are known as wildcat strikes
Albert Speer was the Minister of Armaments and War Production in Nazi Germany during most of World War II. A close ally of Adolf Hitler, he was convicted at the Nuremberg trials and sentenced to 20 years in prison. An architect by training, Speer joined the Nazi Party in 1931, launching himself on a political and governmental career which lasted fourteen years, his architectural skills made him prominent within the Party and he became a member of Hitler's inner circle. Hitler instructed him to design and construct structures including the Reich Chancellery and the Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg. In 1937, Hitler appointed Speer as General Building Inspector for Berlin, in which capacity Speer was responsible for the Central Department for Resettlement that evicted Jewish tenants from their homes in Berlin. In February 1942, Speer was appointed as Reich Minister of War Production. Using doctored statistics, Speer promoted himself as having performed an "armaments miracle", credited with keeping Germany in the war.
In 1944, Speer established a task force to increase production of fighter aircraft that became instrumental in the exploitation of slave labour for the benefit of the German war effort. After the war, Speer was arrested and charged with the crimes of the Nazi regime among the 24 "major war criminals" at the Nuremberg trials, he was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity, principally for the use of slave labor, narrowly avoiding a death sentence. Having served his full term, Speer was released in 1966, he used his writings from the time of imprisonment as the basis for two autobiographical books, Inside the Third Reich and Spandau: The Secret Diaries. Speer's books were a success, the general public was fascinated by an inside view of the Third Reich. Speer died of a stroke in 1981. Little remains of Speer's personal architectural work. Through his autobiographies and interviews, Speer constructed an image of himself as a man who regretted having failed to discover the monstrous crimes of the Third Reich.
However, he continued to deny explicit knowledge of, responsibility for, the Holocaust. This image dominated his historiography in the decades following the war, giving rise to the "Speer Myth"; the first theme of the myth posits that after his appointment as Minister of Armaments he revolutionized the German war machine. The second theme is. Beginning in the 1980s, the myth began to fall apart; the armaments miracle was attributed to Nazi propaganda. Adam Tooze wrote in The Wages of Destruction that the idea that Speer was an apolitical technocrat was "absurd". Martin Kitchen, writing in Speer: Hitler's Architect, stated that Speer was intimately involved in the "Final Solution". Speer was born into an upper-middle-class family, he was the second of three sons of Albert Friedrich Speer. In 1918, the family moved to a home they had in Heidelberg. According to Henry T. King, deputy prosecutor at Nuremberg who wrote a book about Speer, "Love and warmth were lacking in the household of Speer's youth."
His two brothers Ernst and Hermann bullied him throughout his childhood. Speer was active in sports, mountaineering. Speer studied architecture. Speer began his architectural studies at the University of Karlsruhe instead of a more acclaimed institution because the hyperinflation crisis of 1923 limited his parents' income. In 1924 when the crisis had abated, he transferred to the "much more reputable" Technical University of Munich. In 1925 he transferred again, this time to the Technical University of Berlin where he studied under Heinrich Tessenow, whom Speer admired. After passing his exams in 1927, Speer became Tessenow's assistant, a high honor for a man of 22; as such, Speer taught some of Tessenow's classes while continuing his own postgraduate studies. In Munich, continuing in Berlin, Speer began a close friendship spanning over 50 years, with Rudolf Wolters, who studied under Tessenow. In mid-1922, Speer began courting Margarete Weber, the daughter of a successful craftsman who employed 50 workers.
The relationship was frowned upon by Speer's class-conscious mother, who felt that the Webers were inferior. Despite this opposition, the two married in Berlin on August 28, 1928; the couple would have six children together, but Albert Speer grew apart from his family after 1933, he remained distant after his release from imprisonment in 1966, despite efforts to forge closer bonds. In January 1931, Speer applied for Nazi Party membership, on March 1, 1931 became member number 474,481. In 1931, with stipends shrinking amid the Depression, Speer surrendered his position as Tessenow's assistant and moved to Mannheim, hoping to make a living as an architect. Unsuccessful, his father gave him a part-time job as manager of the elder Speer's properties. In July 1932, the Speers visited Berlin to help out the Party prior to the Reichstag elections. While they were there, his friend, Nazi Party official Karl Hanke, recommended the young architect to Joseph Goebbels to help renovate the Party's Berlin headquarters.
When the commission was completed, Speer returned to Mannheim and remained there as Hitler took office in January 1933. The organizers of the 1933 Nuremberg Rally asked Speer to submit designs for the rally, bringing him into contact with Hitler for the first time. Neither the organizers nor Rudolf Hess were willing to decide whether to approve the p
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, violence, compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families. Unfree labour includes all forms of slavery, related institutions. Many of these forms of work may be covered by the term forced labour, defined by the International Labour Organization as all involuntary work or service exacted under the menace of a penalty. However, under the ILO Forced Labour Convention of 1930, the term forced or compulsory labour shall not include: any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character. If payment occurs, it may be in one or more of the following forms: The payment does not exceed subsistence or exceeds it. Unfree labour is more instituted and enforced on migrant workers, who have traveled far from their homelands and who are identified because of their physical, linguistic, or cultural differences from the general population, since they are unable or unlikely to report their conditions to the authorities.
According to the Marxian economics, under capitalism, workers never keep all of the wealth they create, as some of it goes to the profit of capitalists. By contrast with modern subjective theory of value, the wages offered represent the marginal utility of the labour, any profit is due to other inputs provided, such as capital, time value of money, or risk. Unfree labor re-emerged as an issue in the debate about rural development during the years following the end of the Second World War, when a political concern of Keynesian theory was not just economic reconstruction but planning. A crucial aspect of the ensuing discussion concerned the extent to which different relational forms constituted obstacles to capitalist development, why. During the 1960s and 1970s unfree labor was regarded as incompatible with capitalist accumulation, thus an obstacle to economic growth, an interpretation advanced by exponents of the then-dominant semi-feudal thesis. From the 1980s onwards, however and different Marxist view emerged, arguing that evidence from Latin America and India suggested agribusiness enterprises, commercial farmers and rich peasants reproduced, introduced or reintroduced unfree relations.
However, recent contributions to this debate have attempted to exclude Marxism from the discussion. These contributions maintain that, because Marxist theory failed to understand the centrality of unfreedom to modern capitalism, a new explanation of this link is needed; this claim has been questioned by Tom Brass, ‘Debating Capitalist Dynamics and Unfree Labour: A Missing Link?’, The Journal of Development Studies, 50:4, 570–82. He argues that many of these new characteristics are in fact no different from those identified earlier by Marxist theory and that the exclusion of the latter approach from the debate is thus unwarranted; the International Labour Organization estimates that at least 12.3 million people are victims of forced labour worldwide. Other 2.5 million are forced to work by rebel military groups. From an international law perspective, countries that allow forced labor are violating international labour standards as set forth in the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, one of the fundamental conventions of the ILO.
According to the ILO Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, global profits from forced trafficked labour exploited by private agents are estimated at US$44,3 billion per year. About 70% of this value come from trafficked victims. At least the half of this sum comes from industrialized countries. Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harbouring and transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation
Hirohito was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989. He was succeeded by Akihito. In Japan, reigning emperors are known as "the Emperor" and he is now referred to by his posthumous name, Emperor Shōwa; the word Shōwa is the name of the era coinciding with the Emperor's reign, after which he is known according to a tradition dating to 1912. The name Hirohito means "abundant benevolence". At the start of his reign, Japan was one of the great powers—the ninth-largest economy in the world, the third-largest naval power, one of the four permanent members of the council of the League of Nations, he was the head of state under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan during Japan's imperial expansion and involvement in World War II. After Japan's surrender, he was not prosecuted for war crimes as many other leading government figures were, his degree of involvement in wartime decisions remains controversial.
During the post-war period, he became the symbol of the new state under the post-war constitution and Japan's recovery, by the end of his reign, Japan had emerged as the world's second largest economy. Born in Tokyo's Aoyama Palace on 29 April 1901, Hirohito was the first son of 21-year old Crown Prince Yoshihito and 17-year old Crown Princess Sadako, he was the grandson of Yanagihara Naruko. His childhood title was Prince Michi. On the 70th day after his birth, Hirohito was removed from the court and placed in the care of the family of Count Kawamura Sumiyoshi, a former vice-admiral, to rear him as if he were his own grandchild. At the age of 3, Hirohito and his brother Chichibu were returned to court when Kawamura died – first to the imperial mansion in Numazu, Shizuoka back to the Aoyama Palace. In 1908, he began elementary studies at the Gakushūin; when his grandfather, Emperor Meiji, died on 30 July 1912, Hirohito's father, assumed the throne and Hirohito became the heir apparent. At the same time, he was formally commissioned in both the army and navy as a second lieutenant and ensign and was decorated with the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum.
In 1914, he was promoted to the ranks of lieutenant in the army and sub-lieutenant in the navy to captain and lieutenant in 1916. He was formally proclaimed Crown Prince and heir apparent on 2 November 1916. Hirohito attended Gakushūin Peers' School from 1908 to 1914 and a special institute for the crown prince from 1914 to 1921. In 1920, Hirohito was promoted to the rank of Major in the army and Lieutenant Commander in the navy. In 1921, Hirohito took a six-month tour of Western Europe, including the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium. After his return to Japan, Hirohito became Regent of Japan on 29 November 1921, in place of his ailing father, affected by a mental illness. In 1923, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the army and Commander in the navy, to army Colonel and Navy Captain in 1925. During Hirohito's regency, a number of important events occurred: In the Four-Power Treaty on Insular Possessions signed on 13 December 1921, the United States and France agreed to recognize the status quo in the Pacific, Japan and Britain agreed to terminate formally the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
The Washington Naval Treaty was signed on 6 February 1922. Japan withdrew troops from the Siberian Intervention on 28 August 1922; the Great Kantō earthquake devastated Tokyo on 1 September 1923. On 27 December 1923, Daisuke Namba attempted to assassinate Hirohito in the Toranomon Incident but his attempt failed. During interrogation, he claimed to be a communist and was executed but some have suggested that he was in contact with the Nagacho faction in the Army. Prince Hirohito married his distant cousin Princess Nagako Kuni, the eldest daughter of Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni, on 26 January 1924, they had five daughters. The daughters who lived to adulthood left the imperial family as a result of the American reforms of the Japanese imperial household in October 1947 or under the terms of the Imperial Household Law at the moment of their subsequent marriages. On 25 December 1926, Hirohito assumed the throne upon Yoshihito's, death; the Crown Prince was said to have received the succession. The Taishō era's end and the Shōwa era's beginning were proclaimed.
The deceased Emperor was posthumously renamed Emperor Taishō within days. Following Japanese custom, the new Emperor was never referred to by his given name, but rather was referred to as "His Majesty the Emperor", which may be shortened to "His Majesty". In writing, the Emperor was referred to formally as "The Reigning Emperor". In November 1928, the Emperor's ascension was confirmed in ceremonies which are conventionally identified as "enthronement" and "coronation"; the first part of Hirohito's reign took plac
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. Infrastructure is composed of public and private physical improvements such as roads, tunnels, water supply, electrical grids, telecommunications. In general, it has been defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions". There are two general types of ways to view infrastructure, soft. Hard infrastructure refers to the physical networks necessary for the functioning of a modern industry; this includes roads, railways, etc. Soft infrastructure refers to all the institutions that maintain the economic, health and cultural standards of a country; this includes educational programs, official statistics and recreational facilities, law enforcement agencies, emergency services. The word infrastructure has been used in English since 1887 and in French since 1875 meaning "The installations that form the basis for any operation or system".
The word was imported from French, where it means subgrade, the native material underneath a constructed pavement or railway. The word is a combination of the Latin prefix "infra", meaning "below" and many of these constructions are underground, for example, tunnels and gas systems, railways; the army use of the term achieved currency in the United States after the formation of NATO in the 1940s, by 1970 was adopted by urban planners in its modern civilian sense. A 1987 US National Research Council panel adopted the term "public works infrastructure", referring to: "... both specific functional modes – highways, streets and bridges. A comprehension of infrastructure spans not only these public works facilities, but the operating procedures, management practices, development policies that interact together with societal demand and the physical world to facilitate the transport of people and goods, provision of water for drinking and a variety of other uses, safe disposal of society's waste products, provision of energy where it is needed, transmission of information within and between communities."
The American Society of Civil Engineers publish a "Infrastructure Report Card" which represents the organizations opinion on the condition of various infrastructure every 2–4 years. As of 2017 they grade 16 categories, namely Aviation, Dams, Drinking Water, Hazardous Waste, Inland Waterways, Parks & Recreation, Rail, Schools, Solid Waste and Wastewater. A way to embody personal infrastructure is to think of it in term of human capital. Human capital is defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica as “intangible collective resources possessed by individuals and groups within a given population"; the goal of personal infrastructure is to determine the quality of the economic agents’ values. This results in three major tasks: the task of economic proxies’ in the economic process. Institutional infrastructure branches from the term "economic constitution". According to Gianpiero Torrisi, Institutional infrastructure is the object of economic and legal policy, it compromises the grown and sets norms. It refers to the degree of actual equal treatment of equal economic data and determines the framework within which economic agents may formulate their own economic plans and carry them out in co-operation with others.
Material infrastructure is defined as “those immobile, non-circulating capital goods that contribute to the production of infrastructure goods and services needed to satisfy basic physical and social requirements of economic agents". There are two distinct qualities of material infrastructures: 1) Fulfillment of social needs and 2) Mass production; the first characteristic deals with the basic needs of human life. The second characteristic is the non-availability of infrastructure services. According to the business dictionary, economic infrastructure can be defined as "internal facilities of a country that make business activity possible, such as communication and distribution networks, financial institutions and markets, energy supply systems". Economic infrastructure support productive events; this includes roads, bridges, water distribution networks, sewer systems, irrigation plants, etc. Social infrastructure can be broadly defined as the construction and maintenance of facilities that support social services.
Social infrastructures are created to increase social act on economic activity. These being schools and playgrounds, structures for public safety, waste disposal plants, sports area, etc. Core assets have monopolistic characteristics. Investors seeking core infrastructure look for five different characteristics: Income, Low volatility of returns, Inflation Protection, Long-term liability matching. Core Infrastructure incorporates all the main types of infrastructure. For instance. Basic infrastructure refers to main railways, canals, harbors and