Conscription in Greece
Since 1914, Greece has mandatory military service of 9 months in the Army and of 12 months in the Navy and the Air Force for men between the ages of 19 and 45. Citizens discharged from active service are placed in the Reserve and are subject to periodic recall of 1–10 days at irregular intervals. Universal conscription was introduced in Greece during the military reforms of 1909, although various forms of selective draft had been in place earlier. In more recent years, conscription was associated with the state of general mobilisation declared on July 20, 1974 due to the crisis in Cyprus; the length of a tour has varied between 12–36 months depending on various factors particular to the conscript, the political situation. Although women are accepted into the Greek army on a voluntary basis, they are not required to enlist, as men are. Soldiers receive no health insurance, but they are provided medical support during their army service, including hospitalization costs. Since 2009, Greece has mandatory military service of 9 months for the Army and 12 months for the Navy and the Airforce.
This applies to citizens between the ages of 19 and 45. However, as the Armed forces had been gearing towards a complete professional army system, the government had promised that the mandatory military service would be cut to 6 months by 2008 or abolished completely. However, this timetable is under reconsideration as of April 2006, due to severe manpower shortages; these were caused by a combination of financial difficulties, which meant that professional soldiers could not be hired at the projected rate, widespread abuse of the deferment process, which meant that 66% of the draftees deferred service in 2005. In August 2009, the mandatory service was reduced to 9 months for the Land Army, while has remained to 12 months for the Navy and the Air Force; the number of conscripts affected to the latter two has been reduced, with an aim towards full professionalisation. Greek males between the age of 18 and 60 who live in strategically sensitive areas may be required to serve part-time in the National Guard.
Service in the Guard is paid. In 1998, the Greek Parliament voted law 2641 which mandated enrollment of Greek men and women between 18 and 60 years of age into a Civil Defence Organisation, it was envisaged that the Civil Defence Organisation would respond to enemy action, natural disasters and all sorts of emergencies, but the law was never enforced. Reserve Officers are selected among draftees with sufficient educational and physical qualifications. Educational qualifications include possessing a secondary education Lykeion diploma, while physical qualifications are determined in a series of standardized athletic tests. In practice all draftees in possession of a Lykeion diploma will have an YEA indication on their conscription invitation, although serving as a reserve officer is not mandatory. Draftees without a university diploma can decline the offer, while university graduates, who are obliged to undergo physical as well as psychological tests, may lawfully try not to pass those tests.
Those who choose and pass all the physical and psycho-attitudinal tests necessary to be accepted as Reserve Officer cadets, are first sent for a longer training period in one of the Reserve Officer cadet schools for 16 weeks, after which they are nominated ΔΕΑ. Service as a PRO is different from a simple conscript's in many ways: PROs are subject to a harder training at first as cadets, but are offered many privileges such as better dwellings and education. After their graduation from cadet academies, PROs are not required to live in barracks but can reside outside the camp and follow the same work schedule of commissioned officers, receive a salary equal to 60% of a commissioned sublieutenant plus certain bonuses depending on social and service criteria. However, after the reduction of the tour's duration from 18 to 12 months in 2003, from 12 to 9 in 2009, there is less incentive to become a PRO, as PROs were always required to serve 5 extra months compared to soldiers and NCO conscripts.
In times where the tour duration was longer, the perceived difference in serving time was not as great as with shorter tours, while with shorter tours many conscripts just choose to get over with it as soon as possible. The length of a tour is 9 months, but conscripts may serve a reduced tour for various social or other reasons; some common categories of conscripts serving reduced tours are: Citizens who have been living abroad since their eleventh birthday and whose parents are not employed by the Greek state are required to serve three months. Citizens who moved to Greece before their eleventh birthday from Albania, Turkey or countries of the former Soviet Union; these conscripts are required to serve three months. Scientists involved in outstanding research may serve three to six months, but are required to buy off the remaining duration of the normal tour at 293,47 euros per month not served; these conscripts may fulfill their military obligations in disjointed tours of two months. Members of large families serve for six months.
In most cases this applies only to the oldest brothers. Citizens whose income is required to support family members serv
Hellenic Naval Academy
The Hellenic Naval Academy is a military university and has the responsibility to educate and suitably train competent Naval Officers for the Hellenic Navy. Its full name is Hellenic Naval Cadets Academy and was founded in 1845; the academy is one of the oldest educational institutions in Greece. The academy educates Engineering Naval cadets, it may educate Supply Officer cadets as well as Coast Guard Officer cadets. Foreign nationals are accepted to study as naval cadets in the academy; the academy has a long history in naval education. Its presence is associated with the foundation and evolution of the Hellenic Navy, covering a period of 150 years of educational work; the Academy was founded in 1845 as a naval training school on board the HN corvette Loudovikos. For 50 years, it operated unofficially on board various combat ships, stabilizing its position and improving its work. In 1884, the academy was reorganized by the Greek State and new facilities were built to house its operations. At the time, the academy's quarters were on board the HN corvette Hellas.
In 1905 it was transferred to Piraeus, where it has remained since. The academy's base was transferred to a new and permanent installation beside the harbour of Piraeus, by the entrance of the main port; the operating conditions were improved by the new quarters and this better facilitated its operation. New cadets were accepted and new Navy ships were appointed to help in the educational process. Since during its 150 years of operation, the Hellenic Naval Cadets Academy has evolved into one of the most prestigious institutions in Greece. More than 5,000 Naval Officers have graduated and led the Hellenic Navy, while many others have distinguished themselves in science and politics; the organization and structure of the academy has made great reforms, always according to the needs of the Hellenic Navy. The Academy's organization is divided into two main branches; the first branch deals with education and training and includes four Directorates: The Naval Cadet Administration, the Nautical and Military training, the Athletics and the Academic Studies direcrorate.
The second branch is responsible of base support and everything that needs to be done for the academy's proper function. The academy is commanded by an officer of the higher naval ranks. Issues involving academic studies are examined by the Superior Educational Council, a body formed of academy professors and naval officers under the chairmanship of the Academy Superintendent; the screening procedure for the selection of new cadets is based on the established system of national examinations, undertaken by all university candidates in Greece. The Hellenic Naval Academy runs additional health and athletic tests on its candidates. About 400 cadets study in the Academy each year. All lessons are taught in basic training lasts for 4 years. Greek nationals are admitted to the Hellenic Naval Academy following both: successful participation to the preliminary examination that includes gymnastics and psychological tests and, successful participation to the annual national examinations, operated by the Ministry of Education.
The number of admissions is decided by the Ministry of Defence, which issues an annual call for applications and always according to the Navy needs. Foreign nationals are selected by their governments, following bilateral agreements with the Greek state. Candidates must provide confirmation, issued by their government, that they have been selected for the particular military academy and must hold a birth certificate, a health certificate and a certificate of education equivalent to the Greek Secondary Education Certificate, required for admission to any Highest Educational Institution in Greece. Upon arrival, the foreign students attend one-year preparatory courses; the beginners level teaching is conducted in Arabic and French. During that year, students take Greek language courses, mathematics and chemistry fundamental courses and undergo military training. After the preparatory year, the foreign cadets join the full academic and military 4-year course, following the same program and obligations as their Greek colleagues.
The costs of education are covered by scholarships and include accommodation, tuition and clothing expenses, but not travel costs, to and from Greece. The Hellenic Naval Cadets Academy offers a 4-year course. Aim of the education offered is to provide graduates with adequate skills and knowledge to perform their duties as Navy Officers and keep up with evolving developments in naval science and technology of naval warfare; the day at the academy begins at 6.00 am. For five days every week the cadets attend an intense training program while the afternoon is available for the rest of the academy activities as well as various cultural and social events; the academic year is divided in two semesters. During the winter term, cadets attend academic courses, professional military courses and naval training courses. In addition, they receive practical courses by participating in short training voyages on various naval ships. During the Summer term, cadets of the first three classes embark for a two months training cruise, until on board the training ship HN Aris and for the past few years on board a Frigate and a General Support Ship.
The trip includes approaching at ports of various countries. Conditions for cadets to familiarize themselves with the profession and duties of an officer, are provided through instractions on professional matters, on board training and application of the theory taught, toget
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
The Hellenic Army, formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece. Along with the Hellenic Air Force and the Hellenic Navy, it makes up the Hellenic Armed Forces, it is the largest branch of the three. The army is headed by the chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff, which in turn is under the command of Hellenic National Defence General Staff; the motto of the Hellenic Army is Ἐλεύθερον τὸ Εὔψυχον, "Freedom Stems from Valour", from Thucydides's History of the Peloponnesian War, a remembrance of the ancient warriors that defended Greek lands in old times. The Hellenic Army Emblem is the two-headed eagle with a Greek Cross escutcheon in the centre, representing the links between modern Greece, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Byzantine Empire; the Hellenic Army is the main contributor to, "lead nation" of, the Balkan Battle Group, a combined-arms rapid-response force under the EU Battlegroup structure. The main missions of the Hellenic Army are the defence of the state’s independence and integrity, the safeguarding of national territory, the decisive contribution to the achievement of the country’s policy objectives.
During peacetime, the Army has the following main objectives: The maintenance of high operational readiness for the prevention and effective confrontation of dangers and threats, as well as the ensuring of rapid response capability. The contribution to international security and peace; the contribution to activities of social aid and the support of state services for the confrontation of emergency situations. The Hellenic Army traces its origin to the regular units established by the Greek provisional government during the Greek War of Independence; the first of these, an infantry regiment and a small artillery battery, were established in April 1822, were commanded by European Philhellenes. Lack of funds however forced its disbandment soon after, it was not until July 1824 that regular units were reformed, under the Greek Colonel Panagiotis Rodios. In May 1825, the first law on conscription was passed, the command of the entire regular forces entrusted to the French Colonel Charles Fabvier.
Under Fabvier, the regular corps expanded, for the first time came to include cavalry, military music detachments, with Lord Byron's aid, military hospitals. The governorship of Ioannis Kapodistrias saw a drastic reorganization of the national military: a Secretariat on Army and Naval Affairs and the Hellenic Army Academy were created, the Army engineering corps was founded, a concerted effort was made to reform the various irregular forces into regular light infantry battalions. Throughout these early years, French influence pervaded the Greek regular army, in tactics as well as appearance, as most of the instructors were French–at first Philhellenes, serving officers of General Maison's Expeditionary Corps. After Kapodistrias' assassination in 1831 and in the subsequent internal turmoil over the next two years, the regular army all but ceased to exist; the first king of the newly independent Greek kingdom, the Bavarian prince Otto relied on a 4,000-strong German contingent. The royal government re-established the regular army and dissolved the irregular forces that had fought the War of Independence.
Following the ousting of Otto in 1862, the Army continued relying on the Army Organization Statute of 1833. The first major reforms were undertaken in 1877, in response to the Balkan Crisis that led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. Among other measures, for the first time the Hellenic Army was subdivided into divisions and brigades. Universal conscription was introduced in 1879, under the premiership of Charilaos Trikoupis, in 1882–1885 major steps were undertaken to improve the training and education of the officer corps: a French military mission was called to Greece, new schools were founded and Greek officers were sent abroad for studies, efforts were made to make officers on active service refrain from participating in politics and focus on their professional duties; the Army underwent its first mobilizations, in July 1880 – April 1882 due to the Greek annexation of Thessaly, again in September 1885 – May 1886, when Bulgaria annexed Eastern Rumelia. The great financial burden of these long periods of mobilization, exhausted the public treasury, stalled the reform process.
The result was that the Hellenic Army was wholly unprepared for war on the outbreak of the Greco-Turkish War of 1897: plans and weapons were non-existent, the mass of the officer corps was unsuited to its tasks, training was inadequate. As a result, the numerically superior, better organized and led Ottoman forces pushed the Greek forces south out of Thessaly; the dismal performance of the Hellenic Army in the war of 1897 led to a major reform programme under the administration of Georgios Theotokis. A new Army Organization Statute was issued in 1904, purchases of new artillery material and of the Mannlicher–Schönauer rifle were made, a new, khaki field uniform was introduced in 1908. Reform was accelerated after the Goudi coup of 1909; the new government under Eleftherios Venizelos brought a French military mission to train the Hellenic Army. Under its supervision, the Greeks had adopted the triangular infantry division as their main formation, but more the overhaul of the mobilization system allowed the country to field and equip a far greater number of troops than it had in 1897: while foreign observers estimated a
The Balkan Battlegroup is a EU Battlegroup led by Greece. Referred to as HELBROC, it consists of military units from Greece, Bulgaria and Cyprus. During its third and fourth standby period in the second half of 2011 and 2014, the Balkan Battlegroup was joined by Ukraine; the Balkan Battlegroup has been on standby in the following semesters: 1 July – 31 December 2007. 1 January – 30 June 2009. 1 July – 31 December 2011. 1 July – 31 December 2014. It is expected to serve again in 2016, 2018 and 2020. On 1 July 2011, Ukraine was part of the Balkan Battlegroup for the first time, it contributed 10 staff officers, a company of Ukrainian armoured vehicles manned with marines, an Ilyushin Il-76 strategic lift aircraft. With the War in Donbass going on since April 2014, Ukraine took part in the Battlegroup's standby period in the second half of 2014; the Riga Declaration of 22 May 2015 stated that the Eastern Partnership Summit's participants'appreciate Ukraine's contribution to an EU Battlegroup in 2014 and its interest in continuing such contributions in the future'.
Anders Åslund, Senior Fellow of the Atlantic Council, was critical of the "embarrassing" EU declaration, that did not explicitly condemn Russia's actions in Ukraine, only summarily praised Ukraine's contribution to the EU Battlegroup, commenting that: "Ukraine offers the EU admittedly minor military support, while the EU does nothing for Ukraine."On 8 November 2016, Serbia, an EU candidate state, signed an agreement to become part of the Battlegroup, bringing the number of member countries to six. The emblem shows a white pigeon which carries an olive branch to the burning globe, on a canvas of the EU flag; the participating nations’ flags are seated on the top of the emblem, in the same order as they appear in HELBROC BG initials. The olive branch and the pigeon are the ancient symbols of peace and in combination with the burning globe reflect the urgent intervention of the HELBRROC BG, whenever may be required. To complement HELBROC's operational training, two exercises were conducted in May 2007.
The first was Command Post Exercise EVROPI – I and the second was LIVe Exercise EVROPI – II. Czech–Slovak Battlegroup Visegrád Battlegroup South-Eastern Europe Brigade NATO Official Greek Defense Staff PR Cyprus signs Balkan battle group for EU
Hellenic Air Force
The Hellenic Air Force is the air force of Greece with ‘Hellenic’ being a synonym for ‘Greek’ in the Greek language. During the period of monarchy between 1935–1973 the force was known as the Royal Hellenic Air Force; the mission of the Hellenic Air Force is to guard and protect Greek airspace, provide air assistance and support to the Hellenic Army and the Hellenic Navy, as well as the provision of humanitarian aid in Greece and around the world. The Hellenic Air Force includes 33,000 active troops, of whom 11,750 are career officers, 14,000 are professional conscripts, 7,250 are volunteer conscripts and 1,100 are women; the motto of the Hellenic Air Force is the ancient Greek phrase Αἰὲν Ὑψικρατεῖν, the HAF ensign represents a flying eagle in front of the Hellenic Air Force roundel. The Hellenic Air Force is one of the three branches of the Hellenic Armed Forces. In 1911, the Greek Government appointed French specialists to form the Hellenic Aviation Service. Six Greek officers were sent to France for training, while the first four Farman type aircraft were ordered.
All six graduated from the Farman school in Étampes near Paris, but only four subsequently served in aviation. The first Greek civilian aviator, given military rank was Emmanuel Argyropoulos, who flew in a Nieuport IV. G. "Alkyon" aircraft, on February 8, 1912. The first military flight was made on 13 May 1912 by Lieutenant Dimitrios Kamberos. In June, Kamberos flew with the "Daedalus", a Farman Aviation Works aircraft, converted into a seaplane, setting a new average speed world record at 110 km/h. In September of the same year the Greek Army fielded its first squadron, the "Aviators Company". On October 5 1912, Kamberos flew a reconnaissance flight over Thessaly; this was on the first day of the Balkan wars. On the same day a similar mission was flown by German mercenaries in Ottoman service, over the Thrace front against the Bulgarian Army; the Greek and the Ottoman missions, coincidentally flown on the same day, were the first military aviation missions in the history of conventional war. As a matter of fact, all Balkan countries used military aircraft and foreign mercenaries during the Balkan Wars.
January 24, 1913 saw the first naval co-operation mission in history, which took place over the Dardanelles. Aided by the Royal Hellenic Navy destroyer RHNS Velos, 1st Lieutenant Michael Moutoussis and Ensign Aristeidis Moraitinis flew the Farman hydroplane and drew up a diagram of the positions of the Turkish fleet, against which they dropped four bombs; this was not the first air-to-ground attack in military history, as there was a precedent in the Turkish-Italian war of 1911, but the first recorded attack against ships from the air. The Hellenic Army and the Royal Hellenic Navy operated separate Army Aviation and Naval Aviation units. During the Balkan Wars, various French Henry and Maurice Farman aircraft types were used; the Hellenic Naval Air Service was founded in 1914 by the Commander in Chief of the Royal Hellenic Navy, British Admiral Mark Kerr. Greek aviation units participated in World War I and the Asia Minor Campaign, equipped by the Allies with a variety of French and British designs.
In 1930 the Aviation Ministry was founded, establishing the Air Force as the third branch of the Hellenic Armed Forces. The Hellenic Army Air Service and Hellenic Naval Air Service were merged into a single service, the Royal Hellenic Air Force. In 1931 the Hellenic Air Force Academy, the Icarus School, was founded. In 1939, an order for 24 Marcel Bloch MB.151 fighter aircraft was placed, but only 9 of the aircraft reached Greece, since the outbreak of World War II prevented the French from completing the order. The aircraft entered service in the 24th Pursuit Squadron of the Air Force. During the Italian invasion of Greece in the Second World War, although being outnumbered and counting only 79 aircraft against 380 fighters and bombers of the Italian Regia Aeronautica, RHAF managed to resist the assault. On 30 October, two days after the start of the war, there was the first air battle; some Henschel Hs126s of 3/2 Flight of 3 Observation Mira took off to locate Italian Army columns. But they were attacked by Fiat CR.42 s of 393a Squadriglia.
A first Henschel was hit and crashed, killing its observer, Pilot Officer Evanghelos Giannaris, the first Greek aviator to die in the war. A second Hs 126 was downed over Mount Smolikas, killing Pilot Officer Lazaros Papamichail and Sergeant Constantine Yemenetzis.. On 2nd November 1940, a Breguet 19 intercepted the 3 Alpine Division Julia while it was penetrating the Pindos mountain range in an attempt to occupy Metsovo. On the same day, 2nd Lieutenant Marinos Mitralexis having run out of ammunition, aimed the nose of his PZL P.24 right into the tail of an enemy Cant Z1007bis bomber, smashing the rudder and sending the aircraft out of control. However, after 65 days of war the RHAF had lost 31 officers, 7 wounded, plus 4 NCOs killed and 5 wounded. Meanwhile, the number of combat aircraft had dropped to 7 battleworthy bombers. Still by March 1941, the Italian invasion had been repelled, aided by the vital contribution of the RHAF to the Greek victory. During the Greco-Italian War the Hellenic Air Force shot down 68 enemy aircraft and claimed another 24.
However, the Italian Air Force lost just 65 aircraft during the entire campaign agai
Defence Science and Technology Laboratory
The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory is an executive agency of the Ministry of Defence of the United Kingdom. Its stated purpose is "to maximise the impact of science and technology for the defence and security of the UK." The agency is headed by Gary Aitkenhead as its Chief Executive, with the board being chaired by Sir David Pepper.. Ministerial responsibility lies with the Minister for Defence Procurement. Dstl was formed from the July 2001 split of the Defence Research Agency. Dstl was established to carry out and retain the science and technology work, best done within government, while the majority of DERA's activities and that suitable for industry was transferred to Qinetiq, a wholly owned government company before being floated on the stock exchange. Dstl absorbed the Home Office's Centre for Applied Science and Technology in April 2018, taking on CAST's role to apply science and technology to support the Home Office's operations and frontline delivery, provision of evidence to support policy, provide certain regulatory functions.
Dstl existed as a Trading Fund of the MOD from its formation in 2001 until 2016, when it became an Executive Agency of the MOD. Dstl is an executive agency sponsored by the Ministry of Defence. Most funding comes from the MOD, while a small portion comes from other government departments and commercial sources. According to 2016/17 figures, 91% of Dstl's £587m income came from the MOD. In 2015 Dstl completed a major reorganisation, merging twelve operating departments into five divisions on 1 April 2015; the motivation behind this change was to enable more coherent and productive delivery to customers and simplify access routes for suppliers. Dstl has had four permanent Chief Executives: Martin Earwicker: was Chief Executive from its creation in 2001, until he left in 2006 for the Science Museum. Dr Frances Saunders: took over as acting Chief Executive in May 2006 and was appointed as Chief Executive in August 2007. On 29 June 2011, Saunders announced to staff that her post had been advertised and that she would not be applying.
Jonathan Lyle: Director of the Programme Office at Dstl, placed into an acting role and was appointed in March 2012. Gary Aitkenhead: in September 2017, David Marsh – Capability & Delivery Director – was appointed acting Chief Executive. On 30 November, 2017, Gary Aitkenhead was appointed and took up the role in January 2018. Dstl carries out a broad range of work from high-level analysis to support Ministry of Defence policy and procurement decisions, to technical research in defence areas such as biomedical science and electronics, alongside operational work such as forensic analysis of explosives and providing paid volunteer scientists to Iraq and Afghanistan to provide rapid scientific advice to British forces, it has done work for around 40 government departments and agencies including the Home Office and Department for Transport. It undertakes research with both academia to achieve its role. Following a review and consultation process initiated by MOD's Chief Scientific Advisor, it become responsible for the formulation and commission of MOD's non-nuclear research programme from 1 Apr 2010, under the responsibility of the Dstl Programme Office.
Within the Programme Office were 16 domains with some established as Science and Technology Centres, including Armour and Protection and Influence, Counter Terrorism, CBR. These centres funded research via the Centre for Defence Enterprise part of the Programme Office. A subsequent MOD CSA-led review in 2015 into MOD's science and technology capability recommended that the commissioning of science and technology should be independent of the delivery. Following this, the commissioning role was moved to Defence Science and Technology within MOD Head Office, with Dstl focusing on delivery. Within the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015 was a proposal to create "a government-backed service designed to help small and medium-sized businesses bring new ideas to market more quickly". In 2016, it was announced by Defence Secretary Michael Fallon that this'Defence and Security Accelerator' would have access to an £800m innovation fund and build on the'Centre for Defence Enterprise' model, operating within Dstl.
In 2017, Dstl began a five-year programme of innovation in space science. Current sites include: The functions of the two former CAST sites – Sandridge and Langhurst – will be transferred to Dstl's core sites of Porton Down and Portsdown West by 2020. Sections of 150-millimetre-thick pre-atomic steel plate uncontaminated with radionuclides, recovered from HMS Vanguard, were used for the shielding of the whole body monitor at the Radiobiological Research Laboratory at Alverstoke, Hampshire. In April 2005 the technology transfer company Ploughshare Innovations Ltd was formed to manage and exploit intellectual property within Dstl. Dstl and Ploughshare Innovations have spun-out several new companies including Alaska Food Diagnostics and P2i Ltd; the Technical Cooperation Program – an international defence science and technology collaboration between Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. DARPA – US Defence Agency responsible for the development of new technology for the US military.
Defence Science and Technology Organisation – a branch of the Australian Department of Defence that researches and develops technologies for the Australian defence industry. Qinetiq – the part of Defence Evaluation and Research Agency privatised in June 2001, with the remainder of DERA renamed Dstl. Official website Ploughshare Innovations