National Assembly (France)
The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate. The National Assembly's members are known as députés. There are 577 députés, each elected by a single-member constituency through a two-round voting system. Thus, 289 seats are required for a majority; the assembly is presided over by a president from the largest party represented, assisted by vice-presidents from across the represented political spectrum. The term of the National Assembly is five years; this measure is becoming rarer since the 2000 referendum reduced the presidential term from seven to five years: a President has a majority elected in the Assembly two months after the presidential election, it would be useless for him/her to dissolve it for those reasons. Following a tradition started by the first National Assembly during the French Revolution, the "left-wing" parties sit to the left as seen from the president's seat, the "right-wing" parties sit to the right, the seating arrangement thus directly indicates the political spectrum as represented in the Assembly.
The official seat of the National Assembly is the Palais Bourbon on the banks of the river Seine. It is guarded by Republican Guards; the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic increased the power of the executive at the expense of Parliament, compared to previous constitutions. The President of the Republic can decide to dissolve the National Assembly and call for new legislative elections; this is meant as a way to resolve stalemates where the Assembly cannot decide on a clear political direction. This possibility is exercised; the last dissolution was by Jacques Chirac in 1997, following from the lack of popularity of prime minister Alain Juppé. The National Assembly can overthrow the executive government by a motion of no confidence. For this reason, the prime minister and his cabinet are from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly. In the case of a president and assembly from opposing parties, this leads to the situation known as cohabitation. While motions de censure are periodically proposed by the opposition following government actions that it deems inappropriate, they are purely rhetorical.
Since the beginning of the Fifth Republic, there has only been one single successful motion de censure, in 1962 in hostility to the referendum on the method of election of the President, President Charles de Gaulle dissolved the Assembly within a few days. The government used to set the priorities of the agenda for the assembly's sessions, except for a single day each month. In practice, given the number of priority items, it meant that the schedule of the assembly was entirely set by the executive. This, was amended on 23 July 2008. Under the amended constitution, the government sets the priorities for two weeks in a month. Another week is designated for the assembly's "control" prerogatives, and the fourth one is set by the assembly. One day per month is set by a "minority" or "opposition" group. Members of the assembly can ask oral questions to ministers; the Wednesday afternoon 3 p.m. session of "questions to the Government" is broadcast live on television. Like Prime Minister's Questions in Britain, it is a show for the viewers, with members of the majority asking flattering questions, while the opposition tries to embarrass the government.
The history of national representation for two centuries is linked to history of the democratic principle and the uneven road that it had to go before finding in the French institutions the consecration, its own today. Although the French have periodically elected representatives since 1789, the mode of appointment and the powers of these representatives have varied according to the times, the periods of erasure of the parliamentary institution coinciding with a decline in public liberties. In this respect, the names are not innocent; the name of National Assembly, chosen in the fervor of 1789, just reappears - if we except the short parenthesis of 1848 - in 1946. In the meantime, more or less reductive appellations "Instituted by the Constitution of the year III in August 1795," Chamber of deputies of the departments "," House of Representatives "," Legislative body "," Chambers of deputies ", etc.) which show, to varying degrees, the reluctance or the declared hostility of some governments or governments to the principle
Court of Cassation (France)
The Court of Cassation is one of the four courts of last resort in France. It has jurisdiction over all civil and criminal matters triable in the judicial system, is the supreme court of appeal in these cases, it has jurisdiction to review the law, to certify questions of law, to determine miscarriages of justice. The Court is located in the Palace of Justice in Paris; the Court does not have jurisdiction over cases involving claims against administrators or public bodies, which fall within the jurisdiction of administrative courts, for which the Council of State acts as the supreme court of appeal. Collectively, these four courts form the topmost tier of the French court system; the Court was established in 1790 under the name Tribunal de cassation during the French Revolution, its original purpose was to act as a court of error with revisory jurisdiction over lower provincial prerogative courts. However, much about the Court continues the earlier Paris Parlement; the Court is the seat of the Network of the Presidents of the Supreme Judicial Courts of the European Union.
The Court is made up of justices, the Office of the Prosecutor, an Administrative Office of Courts. In addition, a separate bar of specially certified barristers exists for trying cases at the French Court. Overall, the Court consists of nearly 85 trial judges and about 40 deputy judges, each divided among six different divisions: First Civil Division deals with family law, child custody, professional discipline, individual rights, contractual liability Second Civil Division handles divorce and electoral matters Third Civil Division for immovable property, city planning, foreclosures Commercial Division handles companies, business and intellectual property Labor Division handles labor disputes, worker compensation, welfare Criminal Division deals with criminal casesEach division is headed by a presiding justice referred to in French as a président, or President of Division; the Chief Justice bears the title of the premier président, or President of the Court, who supervises the presiding justices of the various divisions.
The Chief Justice is the highest-ranking judicial officer in the country and is responsible for administration of the Court and the discipline of justices. The current Chief Justice is Bertrand Louvel; the Court includes 12 masters, the lowest rank of justice, who are concerned with administration. There is, in addition to the abovementioned six divisions, a separate organization known as the Divisional Court; the Divisional Court adjudicates where the subject matter of an appeal falls within the purview of multiple divisions. The Bench of the Divisional Court seats the Chief Justice and a number of other judges from at least three other divisions relevant to a given case. Any participating division is represented by two puisne judges. A Full Court is called, presided over by the Chief Justice or, if he is absent, by the most senior presiding justice, it seat by all divisional presiding justices and senior justices assisted by a puisne judge from each division. The Full Court is the highest level of the Court.
The prosecution, or parquet général, is headed by the Chief Prosecutor. The Chief Prosecutor is a judicial officer, but does not prosecute cases. Duties include filing originating motions to bring cases before the Court "in the name of the law" and bringing cases before the French Court of Justice, which tries government officials for crimes committed while in office; the Chief Prosecutor is assisted by two Chief Deputy Prosecutors and a staff of about 22 deputy prosecutors, 2 assistant prosecutors. Barristers, though not technically officers of the Court, play an integral role in the due dispensing of justice. Except for a few types of actions, advocate counsel in the form of a barrister is mandatory for any case heard at the Court or Council of State. Barristers with exclusive rights of audience and admitted to practice law in either senior court carry the title of avocat au Conseil d'État et à la Cour de Cassation, or avocats aux Conseils for short. Admission to the Supreme Court bar is difficult, requiring special training and passing a notoriously stringent examination.
Once admitted, bar members can advise litigants on whether their actions are justiciable, that is, issuable and exceeding de minimis requirements—an important service since the Court only hears appeals on points of law and not issues of fact. Membership is considered a public office; the Court's main purpose is to review lower court rulings on the grounds of legal or procedural error. As the highest court of law in France, it has other duties; the Court has inherent appellate jurisdiction for appeals from courts of appeal or, for
Foreign relations of France
In the 19th century France built a new colonial empire second only to the British Empire. It was humiliated in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which marked the rise of Germany to dominance in Europe. France fared poorly in the Second World War, it fought losing wars in Algeria. The Fourth Republic collapsed and the Fifth Republic began in 1958 to the present. Under Charles De Gaulle it tried to block British influence on the European community. Since 1945 France has been a founding member of the United Nations, of NATO, of the European Coal and Steel Community; as a charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. France is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the La Francophonie and plays a key role, both in regional and in international affairs. François Mitterrand, a Socialist, emphasized European unity and the preservation of France's special relationships with its former colonies in the face of "Anglo-Saxon influence."
A part of the enacted policies was formulated in the Socialist Party's 110 Propositions for France, the electoral program for the 1981 presidential election. He had a effective relationship with the conservative German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, they promoted French-German bilateralism in Europe and strengthened military cooperation between the two countries. Shortly after taking office, President Sarkozy began negotiations with Colombian president Álvaro Uribe and the left-wing guerrilla FARC, regarding the release of hostages held by the rebel group Franco-Colombian politician Ingrid Betancourt. According to some sources, Sarkozy himself asked for Uribe to release FARC's "chancellor" Rodrigo Granda.. Furthermore, he announced on 24 July 2007, that French and European representatives had obtained the extradition of the Bulgarian nurses detained in Libya to their country. In exchange, he signed with Gaddafi security, health care and immigration pacts – and a $230 million MILAN antitank missile sale.
The contract was the first made by Libya since 2004, was negotiated with MBDA, a subsidiary of EADS. Another 128 million euros contract would have been signed, according to Tripoli, with EADS for a TETRA radio system; the Socialist Party and the Communist Party criticized a "state affair" and a "barter" with a "Rogue state". The leader of the PS, François Hollande, requested the opening of a parliamentary investigation. On 8 June 2007, during the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Sarkozy set a goal of reducing French CO2 emissions by 50% by 2050 in order to prevent global warming, he pushed forward the important Socialist figure of Dominique Strauss-Kahn as European nominee to the International Monetary Fund. Critics alleged that Sarkozy proposed to nominate Strauss-Kahn as managing director of the IMF to deprive the Socialist Party of one of its more popular figures. Sarkozy normalised what had been strained relations with NATO. In 2009, France again was a integrated NATO member. François Hollande has continued the same policy.
Socialist François Hollande won election in 2012 as president. He adopted a hawkish foreign-policy, in close collaboration with Germany in regard to opposing Russian moves against Ukraine, in sending the military to fight radical Islamists in Africa, he takes a hard line with regard to the Greek debt crisis. François Hollande launched two military operations in Africa: Operation Serval in Mali. France was the first European nation to join the United States in bombing the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Under President Hollande, France's stances on the civil war in Syria and Iran's nuclear program has been described as "hawkish". Sophie Meunier in 2017 ponders whether France is still relevant in world affairs: France does not have as much relative global clout as it used to. Decolonization... diminished France’s territorial holdings and therefore its influence. Other countries built up their armies; the message of “universal” values carried by French foreign policy has encountered much resistance, as other countries have developed following a different political trajectory than the one preached by France.
By the 1990s, the country had become, in the words of Stanley Hoffmann, an “ordinary power, neither a basket case nor a challenger.” Public opinion in the United States, no longer sees France as an essential power. The last time that its foreign policy put France back in the world spotlight was at the outset of the Iraq intervention... France’s refusal to join the US-led coalition.... In reality, France is still a relevant power in world affairs.... France is a country of major military importance nowadays.... France showed it mattered in world environmental affairs with....the Paris Agreement, a global accord to reduce carbon emissions. The election of Trump in 2016 may reinforce demands for France to step in and lead global environmental governance if the US disengages, as the new president has promised, from a variety of policies. Polls indicate that American president Barack Obama was popular in France, but Donald Trump has been unpopular. Natalie Nougayrède argues: Yet behind this widespread revulsion lies a diplomatic opportunity.
With the United States looking inward and Trump having torn up the traditional foreign policy rule book... Macron, is se
Foreign alliances of France
The foreign alliances of France have a long and complex history spanning more than a millennium. One traditional characteristic of the French diplomacy of alliances has been the "Alliance de revers", aiming at allying with countries situated on the opposite side or "in the back" of an adversary, in order to open a second front encircling the adversary and thus re-establish a balance of power. Another has been the alliance with local populations, against other European colonial powers. Over the centuries, France has been looking for Eastern allies, as a counterbalance to Continental enemies. Throughout French history, this was the case against Austria-Hungary, Spain or Prussia: the Abbasid–Carolingian alliance, the Franco-Hungarian alliance and Franco-Ottoman alliance, the Franco-American alliance, the Franco-Russian Alliance. In particular, the desire to counter German power has been a major motivating force leading France to create Eastern alliances. Soon after the Second World War, good relations between France and the Soviet Union were again seen by Charles de Gaulle as an "Alliance de revers" to counter Germany.
France has a strong tradition of alliance with autochthonous populations in order to resist a powerful opponent. In the American continent, France was the first to identify that cooperation with local tribes would be strategically significant, before England started to adopt this strategy. An important Franco-Indian alliance centered on the Great Lakes and the Illinois country took place during the French and Indian War; the alliance involved French settlers on the one side, the Abenaki, Menominee, Mississauga, Sioux, Huron-Petun, Potawatomi etc... on the other. The French mixed and inter-married with the Indians, which facilitated exchanges and the development of such alliances. Through these alliances with the Indians, the French were able to maintain for over 150 years a strong position in the New World at the expense of the British, who had much more difficulties in making Indian allies. In India, the French General Dupleix was allied to Murzapha Jung in the Deccan, Chanda Sahib in the Carnatic Wars, in the conflict against Robert Clive.
The French succeeded in the 1746 Battle of Madras, the French and Indians fought together and vanquished Anwaruddin in 1749, but failed in the Battle of Arcot in 1751 and surrendered in 1752. The French again had a success at the capture of Fort St. David in 1758 under Lally, but were defeated at Masulipatam and Wandewash. In 1782, Louis XVI sealed an alliance with the Peshwa Madhu Rao Narayan; as a consequence Bussy moved his troops to Isle de France and contributed to the French effort in India in 1783. Suffren became the ally of Hyder Ali in the Second Anglo-Mysore War against British rules in India, in 1782–1783, fighting the British fleet on the coasts of India and Ceylon. Between February 1782 until June 1783, Suffren fought the English admiral Sir Edward Hughes, collaborated with the rulers of Mysore. Suffren fought in the Battle of Sadras on February 17, 1782, the Battle of Providien on April 12 near Trincomalee, the Battle of Negapatam on July 6 off Cuddalore, after which Suffren seized upon the anchorage of Trincomalee compelling the small British garrison to surrender.
An army of 3,000 French soldiers collaborated with Hyder Ali to capture Cuddalore. The Battle of Trincomalee took place near that port on September 3; these battles can be seen as the last battles of the Franco-British conflict that encompassed the American War of Independence, would cease with the signature of the Treaty of Versailles establishing peace and recognizing America independence. Some French alliances were purely tactical and short term during the period of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon Bonaparte had launched the French Invasion of Egypt in 1798 and fought against the Ottomans to establish a French presence in the Middle East, with the ultimate dream of linking with a Muslim enemy of the British in India, Tippu Sahib, in order to oust the British from the Indian subcontinent. After having failed a first time, Napoleon entered into a Franco-Ottoman alliance and a Franco-Persian alliance in order to create an overland access for his troops to India. Following the visit of the Persian Envoy Mirza Mohammed Reza-Qazvini to Napoleon, the Treaty of Finkenstein formalized the alliance on 4 May 1807, in which France supported Persia's claim to Georgia, promising to act so that Russia would surrender the territory.
In exchange, Persia was to fight Great Britain, to allow France to cross the Persian territory to reach India. Hamel, Catherine. La commémoration de l’alliance franco-russe: La création d’une culture matérielle populaire, 1890-1914.
Jean-Michel Blanquer is a French jurist and government official serving as Minister of National Education since 17 May 2017 under Prime Minister Édouard Philippe. Born in Paris, he obtained a doctor in law from Panthéon-Assas University and a master's degree in politics from Sciences Po. From 1996 to 1998, he was a professor in civil law at Sciences Po Lille. From 1998 to 2004, he was director of the Institute of Latin American Studies at the New Sorbonne University. From 2009 to 2012, Blanquer served as the director general of secondary and junior school education under Minister of National Education Luc Chatel. In 2013 he became president of ESSEC Business School. On 15 May 2017, Blanquer was appointed by President Emmanuel Macron to be Minister of National Education in the first Philippe government, he retained the position on 17 June 2017 when the second Philippe government was formed, following the legislative election of 2017. Soon after assuming the office, Blanquer announced plans to get rid of homework, preferring instead that time be set aside during the school day to do homework in school.
In June 2017, the ministry published a readjustment of elementary school programs in French and mathematics. In December 2017, Blanquer announced that France’s education system would ban mobile devices during lunch or recess; the announcement was met with mixed responses
Gérard Philippe René André Larcher is a French politician serving as President of the Senate since 2014 holding the position from 2008 to 2011. A member of The Republicans, he was a Senator for the Yvelines department from 1986 to 2004 and has been again since 2007, he served as Minister of Labour from 2004 to 2007 under President Jacques Chirac. Gérard Larcher was born in Orne to a Roman Catholic family, he is the son of Philippe Larcher, director of a textile factory and former mayor of Saint-Michel-des-Andaines, a small town in the Orne. Upon his second marriage with Christine Weiss, a dentist, he converted to Protestantism. From this union were born three children: Aymeric, Dorothée and Charlotte. Graduated from the National Veterinary School of Lyon, Larcher worked from 1974 to 1979 in the France team of equestrian sports. In 1976, he joined, as a high school student, the movement of young Gaullists, because he admired Charles de Gaulle and supported the policy of the founder of the Fifth Republic.
In 1983, he was elected Mayor of Rambouillet, in Yvelines. Two years he was elected regional councilor of Ile-de-France. On 28 September 1986, for the first time, Gérard Larcher was elected to be Senator for Yvelines, under the banner of the Rally for the Republic. Aged 37, he was one of the youngest French Senators. Appointed Secretary of the Senate in 1989, he was re-elected as a Senator in 1995 and elected as Vice President of the Senate in 1997. In 2001, he was appointed as President of the Senate's Economic Affairs Commission. In March 2004, after the defeat of the right in regional elections, Gérard Larcher was appointed Delegate Minister to the Minister of Social Affairs in the cabinet of Jean-Pierre Raffarin, he retained his place in the government in June 2005, after the appointment of Dominique de Villepin as Prime Minister. In May 2007, the new President, Nicolas Sarkozy, suggested he enter the government of François Fillon as Minister of Agriculture, but Gérard Larcher declined and preferred to sit in the Senate.
In the following months, he prepared his candidacy for President of the Senate, to succeed Christian Poncelet. On 31 July 2008, he was declared a candidate for the UMP primary to elect the President of the Senate, against former Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin. On 24 September, he was elected as the UMP's candidate for the Presidency of the Senate with 78 votes, against 56 votes for Raffarin and 17 votes for Senator Philippe Marini. Gérard Larcher was elected as President of the Senate on 1 October 2008 receiving 173 votes against 134 votes for Socialist candidate Jean-Pierre Bel; the left won a Senate majority in the September 2011 Senate election, Jean-Pierre Bel was elected as President of the Senate on 1 October 2011. He received 179 votes against 134 votes for Larcher, the right's candidate. After the victory of the right in September 2014 Senate elections, Larcher was again nominated for the post of President of the Senate by members of the UMP group, he was elected as President of the Senate on 1 October 2014.
Governmental function Delegate Minister for Labor Relations: 2004-2005 Delegate Minister for Employment and for Employability of young: 2005-2007Senate mandates Senate of France Senator of Yvelines: 1986-2004 Vice President of the Senate: 1997-2001 Président of the Economic Affairs Commission in the Senate: 2001-2004 Senator of Yvelines: 2004 Senator of Yvelines: Since 2007 President of the Senate of France: 2008-2011 President of the Senate of France: Since 2014Regional Council Regional councillor of Île-de-France: 1985-1992Municipal Council Municipal councillor of Rambouillet: Since 1983 Mayor of Rambouillet: 1983-2004 Deputy Mayor of Rambouillet: 2004-2007 Mayor of Rambouillet: 2007-2014 Gérard Larcher’s official site Presidency of the Senate Gérard Larcher’s official Senate page
France–Americas relations started in the 16th century, soon after the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus, have developed over a period of several centuries. In order to counterbalance the power of the Habsburg Empire under Charles V, its control of large parts of the New World through the Crown of Spain, Francis I endeavoured to develop contacts with the New World and Asia. In 1524, Francis I assisted the citizens of Lyon in financing the expedition of Giovanni da Verrazzano to North America. Verrazzano was an Italian in the service of the French crown; the objective was to find a passage to Cathay. Verrazzano was the first European since the Norse colonization of the Americas around AD 1000 to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between South and North Carolina and Newfoundland, including New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay in 1524: in between, John Cabot had explored Labrador to the North, the Spanish had settled parts of Florida. On this expedition, Verrazzano claimed Newfoundland for the French crown.
In 1531, Bertrand d'Ornesan, Baron de Saint-Blancard tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco, Brazil. In 1534, Francis sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec to find "certain islands and lands where it is said he should find great quantities of gold and other rich things". In 1541, Francis sent Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval to settle Canada and to provide for the spread of "the Holy Catholic faith." Soon, the Huguenots, whose Reformist religions was in conflict with the French crown, attempted to colonize the New World to find a new ground for their religion and to contest the Catholic presence there. Huguenot pirates such as François le Clerc attacked Catholic shipping raiding New World harbours; the Huguenots raided Hispaniola in 1553, fighting against the Spanish Catholic presence there, followed by raid on Cuba. La Havana was seized by Jacques de Sores in 1555; the first attempts at colonization were made under Jean de Léry. After the short-lived establishment of France Antarctique in Brazil from 1555 to 1567, they had to abandon, resolved to make a stand back in France, centering on the city of La Rochelle for the organization of resistance.
The first French expedition to Florida occurred in 1562, composed of Protestants, was led by Jean Ribault and permitted the short-lived establishment of Fort Caroline, named after the French king Charles IX. These first attempts at Huguenot colonization would be taken over by Catholics, following the Huguenot repression in the French wars of religion. Towards the end of his reign Henry IV of France started to look at the possibility of ventures abroad, with both America and the Levant being among the possibilities. In 1604, the French explorer Samuel Champlain initiated the first important French involvement in Northern America, founding Port Royal as the first permanent European settlement in North America north of Florida in 1605, founding the first permanent French establishment at Quebec in 1608. In 1632, Isaac de Razilly became involved, at the request of Cardinal Richelieu, in the colonization of Acadia, by taking possession of the Habitation at Port-Royal and developing it into a French colony.
The King gave Razilly the official title of lieutenant-general for New France. He took on military tasks such as ordering the taking of control of Fort Pentagouet at Majabigwaduce on the Penobscot Bay, given to France in an earlier Treaty, to inform the English they were to vacate all lands North of Pemaquid; this resulted in all the French interests in Acadia being restored. Robert de La Salle departed from La Rochelle, France, on July 24, 1684, with the objective of setting up a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi establishing Fort Saint Louis in Texas; the French colonial drive increased in the 17th century, the "conquest of the souls" being an integral part of the constitution of Nouvelle-France, leading to the development of the Jesuit missions in North America. The efforts of the Jesuits in North America were paralleled by the Jesuit China missions on the other side of the world. In France, the Huguenots were defeated by Royal forces in the Siege of La Rochelle: Cardinal Richelieu blockaded the city for 14 months, until the city surrendered and lost its mayor and its privileges.
The growing persecution of the Huguenots culminated with the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV in 1685. Many Huguenots emigrated, founding such cities as New Rochelle in the vicinity of today's New York in 1689. A colonizing party of 500 and a mission of four Franciscans were sent under a 1611 patent letter from the Regent Marie de Médicis; the colonial enterprise to found "France Équinoxiale" was led by Daniel de la Tousche, Sieur de la Ravardière, François de Razilly. The outpost would become the city of São Luís do Maranhão; the French arrived in the island in August 1612. One of the objectives of the mission was to establish trade in tobacco; when France and Spain became allied through the marriage of Louis XIII with Anne of Austria in 1615, support for the colony was discontinued and the colonists abandoned. The Portuguese soon managed to expel the French from the colony. In 1624, settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began; the French started to establish smaller but more profitable colonies in the West Indies.
A colony was founded on Saint Kitts in 1625, in sharing with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, when it was occupied in its entirety. The Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique founded colonies in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, a colony wa