A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev was an Azerbaijani politician who served as the third President of Azerbaijan from October 1993 to October 2003. As national president he held constitutional powers, but his influence on Azerbaijani politics had begun years earlier; as a young man he had joined the Azerbaijan SSR People's Commissariat for State Security and rose to the rank of Major-General. The regime established by Heydar Aliyev in Azerbaijan has been described as dictatorial or authoritarian and repressive. Political commentators highlight that Aliyev ran a heavy-handed police state, that he rigged elections and muzzled the media whereas others emphasize that his balanced policy brought stability to Azerbaijan. Aliyev was born in Nakhchivan City. After graduating from Nakhchivan Pedagogical School, from 1939 to 1941 Aliyev attended the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute, where he studied architecture. In 1949 and 1950, he studied at the USSR MGB Officer Corps Qualifications-Raising School. Aliyev's official biography stated that he studied at Baku State University, graduating with a degree in history in 1957.
According to American journalist Pete Earley, Aliyev first attended the Ministry of State Security Academy in Leningrad, graduating in 1944. He attended senior staff professional development courses at the Dzerzhinsky Higher School of the KGB in Moscow in 1966. In 1948, he married Zarifa Aliyeva. On 12 October 1955, their daughter Sevil was born. On 24 December 1961, their son Ilham was born. Zarifa Aliyeva died of cancer in 1985. Heydar Aliyev served at the Archive Department of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from 1941 to 1944, before his appointment to the head of General Department of the Council of People's Commissars of the Nakhchivan ASSR. H. Aliyev joined the Azerbaijan SSR People's Commissariat for State Security in 1944, he proceeded to became the department head of State Security Committee of Azerbaijan SSR in 1950, after he graduated from Senior Staff Training School of the USSR State Security Committee. In 1954, as part of a government reform, NKGB became known as Committee for State Security, or the KGB.
Aliyev rose through the KGB ranks, becoming a deputy chairman of the Azerbaijani KGB in 1964, its chairman in 1967, reaching the rank of major general. Aliyev was elected First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party at its Plenary Session held on 12 July 1969, amidst a Soviet anti-corruption campaign. Aliyev made some progress in the fight against corruption: a number of people were sentenced to prison terms. In the early 1980s, Aliyev barred the offspring of certain legal personnel from attending the Republic's law school, in a purported effort to curb a self-perpetuating elite based on corruption. In 1977, he visited Iran: Kerbala once. During the period of his leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan, Aliyev's efforts led to increased economic and cultural growth rates in Azerbaijan SSR. Aliyev became the most successful republican leader, raising the profile of the underprivileged republic and promoting Azerbaijanis to senior posts. On 22 November 1982, Yuri Andropov promoted Aliyev from candidate to full member of Soviet Politburo and appointed him to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, responsible for transportation and social services.
Aliyev thus attained the highest position reached by an Azerbaijani in the Soviet Union. Aliyev was forced to resign from this position in 1987 amidst allegations of corruption made against him by Mikhail Gorbachev. Despite that, CIA report states that, Heydar Aliyev became First Deputy Chairman of USSR Council of Ministers and a full Politburo Member who publicly pledged to fight against corruption, free key state personnel and the economy of the Soviet Union from bribery, it is noted in the report that his colleagues understood his intention to deal harshly with corruption was serious and his commitment to the anti-corruption became his trademark within the Soviet Union. As head of the KGB's branch in Azerbaijan, Aliyev ran an anti-corruption campaign. Following the campaign, he became the undisputed leader of Azerbaijan. Aliyev became a candidate member of the Soviet Politburo in 1976, he ran this position until December 1982, when Yuri Andropov promoted him to the office of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
Heydar Aliyev served at the USSR Council of Ministers as the first deputy chairman in 1974-1979. His star waned following his appointment in 1985 under Mikhail Gorbachev, his political views became something of a liability to him in the era of perestroika, but he still exerted tremendous power in Azerbaijan. After his forced retirement in 1987, Aliyev remained in Moscow until 1990, he suffered a heart attack during this time. Aliyev appeared in the Permanent Mission of Azerbaijan SSR in Moscow, demanded that the organizers and executors of the crime committed against the people of Azerbaijan be punished for a military action which resulted in violent Black January events amidst the brewing Nagorno-Karabakh War. After this public appearance in Moscow, Aliyev resigned his membership in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and left Moscow for his native Nakhchivan. Here, Aliyev reinvented himself as a moderate nationalist and was subsequently elected deputy to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbai
Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Azerbaijan
The Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Azerbaijan is the Azerbaijani government ministry, associated with the Azerbaijani military. The ministry is responsible for keeping Azerbaijan defended against external threats, preserving its territorial integrity, waging war on behalf of Azerbaijan, the surveillance of the Azerbaijani sector of Caspian Sea sea and airspace; the Minister of Defense is appointed and removed from the post by the Commander-in-chief of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces, President of Azerbaijan. The current defense minister is Zakir Hasanov; the first minister of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was General Khosrov bey Sultanov, appointed the Minister of the first Government on 28 May 1918. In accordance with Action Plan approved by Parliament on formation of the army, important structures and divisions were to be established by November 1, 1919. Within the time given, artillery division, two infantry divisions consisting of three regiments, special telegraph and machine gun platoons, railway battalions were to be created.
Another priority of the government of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was to establish Ministry of Defense. No minister of defense portfolio was instituted, but Khosrov bey Sultanov assumed the duties of the minister from May 28 through June 11, 1918. The Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established by a decision made on 23 October 1918; the decision was formalized on November 7 of the current year. After formalization of the decision Fatali-khan Khoyski was appointed the minister of defense. On December 26, 1918 Lieutenant General of the Russian Artillery Samad-bey Mehmandarov, took the office. Lieutenant General Aliagha Shikhlinski appointed his deputy and Lieutenant General Suleyman Shulkevitch as the Chief of the General Staff; as the Ministry of Defense was dissolved in the wake of Azerbaijan's Sovietization in 1920, their functions were delegated to the People's Military Commissariat, the Bolsheviks executed 15 of the 21 Army Generals of Azerbaijan. In the midst of dissolution of Soviet Union and political turmoil in Azerbaijan in late 1980s, Azerbaijani military played an important role in the struggle for and retaining power.
The Ministry of Defense was established on September 5, 1991, following a resolution by the High Council of Azerbaijan SSR. One month on October 9th of the same year, the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan was established. General Khosrov bey Sultanov Fatali Khan Khoyski Samad bey Mehmandarov Lieutenant General Valeh Barshadly Major General Tajaddin Mehdiyev Shahin Musayev Tahir Aliyev Rahim Gaziyev Major General Dadash Rzayev Colonel General Safar Abiyev Major General Vahid Musayev Lieutenant General Mammadrafi Mammadov Colonel General Safar Abiyev Colonel General Zakir Hasanov The main directions of international military cooperation: Bilateral and multilateral cooperation with the countries in the region and outside the region; the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Azerbaijan supports the Office of the Personal Representative of the OSCE Chairperson-in-Office to conduct a ceasefire monitoring exercises on the Line of Confrontation of the armed forces of Armenia and Azerbaijan as well as on the state border.
The Republic of Azerbaijan joined the NATO-led "Partnership for Peace" programme on May 4, 1994, the NATO Planning and Review Process in 1996. Azerbaijan joined the NATO military training and education program aimed at improving the school of sergeants in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan, training programs for junior officers and the inclusion of the subject "Strategy and Defense Planning" in the educational program of the Academy of Armed Forces as a new module. Azerbaijan has become a good partner at NATO-led operations in Kosova and Afghani
Eldar Mahmudov Ahmad oglu is an Azerbaijani politician serving as the Minister of National Security of Azerbaijan Republic. Mahmudov was born in Baku in 1956 to the family of a scientist, he graduated from the Bunyadzadeh Institute of Economy in 1978 and Baku State University in 1993. He holds the military rank of Lieutenant General as of March 16, 2005. In 1980-2004 Mahmudov worked in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan Republic, his duties included preventing criminal investigation. In 1993, Mahmudov was appointed the Branch Chief of the Drugs Enforcement Department of the Ministry of Interior, afterwards promoted to the position of the deputy chief of the same department. In 1993-2003, Mahmudov was Chief of the Economic Crimes Department and the Operative Economic Coordination Bureau. In the beginning of 2004, he was appointed Chief of the Anti-Drugs Department. Mahmudov represented Azerbaijan at different conferences and seminars dedicated to the issues of war on terrorism, human trafficking, illegal drugs trade held in different countries within the framework of the influential international organizations.
He participated in production of numerous international law documents, including the United Nations Convention against Corruption. On July 24, 2004 he was appointed the Minister of National Security by President Ilham Aliyev. On October 17, 2015 he was stripped of Ministry by decree of President Ilham Aliyev. Mahmudov has been awarded with Azerbaijani Flag Order for preservation of social order, keeping stability intact and fight against criminal activity. Mahmudov is married, with three children, their daughter Khuraman Mahmudova earned undergraduate and graduate degrees in finance in Switzerland. In September 2015, the younger daughter, Nargiz Makhmudova, married the grandson of late President Heydar Aliyev's brother, Rasim Aliyev, their son Anar Mahmudov runs businesses in Turkey, Azerbaijan and Luxembourg, is married to Leyla Hajiyeva, daughter of Jahangir Hajiyev and Zamira Hajiyeva
Baku is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. Baku is located 28 metres below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and the largest city in the world located below sea level. Baku lies alongside the Bay of Baku. At the beginning of 2009, Baku's urban population was estimated at just over 2,000,000 people. About 25 percent of all inhabitants of the country live in Baku's metropolitan area. Baku is the sole metropolis in Azerbaijan. Baku is divided into 48 townships. Among these are the townships on the islands of the Baku Archipelago, the town of Oil Rocks built on stilts in the Caspian Sea, 60 kilometres away from Baku; the Inner City of Baku, along with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower, were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. According to the Lonely Planet's ranking, Baku is among the world's top ten destinations for urban nightlife; the city is the scientific and industrial center of Azerbaijan.
Many sizeable Azerbaijani institutions have their headquarters there. The Baku International Sea Trade Port is capable of handling two million tons of general and dry bulk cargoes per year. In recent years, Baku has become an important venue for international events, it hosted the 57th Eurovision Song Contest in 2012, the 2015 European Games, 4th Islamic Solidarity Games, the F1 Azerbaijan Grand Prix since 2016, will host the final of the 2018-19 UEFA Europa League and, will be one of the host cities for UEFA Euro 2020. The city is renowned for its harsh winds, reflected in its nickname, the "City of Winds". Baku is derived from the Persian name of the city باد-کوبه Bād-kube, meaning "Wind-pounded city", in which bād means "wind" and kube is rooted in the verb کوبیدن kubidan, "to pound", thus referring to a place where wind is strong and pounding. Indeed, the city is renowned for harsh winds; this is reflected in the city's nickname as the "City of Winds". A less probable folk etymology explains the name as deriving from Baghkuy, meaning "God's town".
Baga and kuy are the Old Persian words for "god" and "town" respectively. Arabic sources refer to the city as Baku, Bakukh and Bakuye, all of which seem to come from a Persian name. During Soviet rule, the city was spelled in Cyrillic as "Баку" in Russian and "Бакы" in Azerbaijani. Nowadays, when Azerbaijan is using the Latin alphabet, it is spelled as "Bakı". Around 100,000 years ago, the territory of modern Baku and Absheron was savanna with rich flora and fauna. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone age. From the Bronze age there have been rock carvings discovered near Bayil, a bronze figure of a small fish discovered in the territory of the Old City; these have led some to suggest the existence of a Bronze Age settlement within the city's territory. Near Nardaran, in a place called Umid Gaya, a prehistoric observatory was discovered, where on the rock the images of sun and various constellations are carved together with a primitive astronomic table. Further archeological excavations revealed various prehistoric settlements, native temples and other artifacts within the territory of the modern city and around it.
In the 1st century CE, the Romans reached Baku. Near the city, in Gobustan, Roman inscriptions dating from 84–96 CE were discovered; this is one of the earliest written evidences for Baku. Baku was the realm of the Shirvanshahs during the 8th century CE; the city came under assault of the Khazars and the Rus. Shirvanshah Akhsitan I built a navy in Baku and repelled another Rus assault in 1170. After a devastating earthquake struck Shamakhi, the capital of Shirvan, Shirvanshah's court moved to Baku in 1191; the Shirvan era influenced Baku and the remainder of what is present-day Azerbaijan. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, massive fortifications were undertaken in Baku and the surrounding towns; the Maiden Tower, the Ramana Tower, the Nardaran Fortress, the Shagan Castle, the Mardakan Castle, the Round Castle and the famous Sabayil Castle on the island of the Bay of Baku was built during this period. The city walls of Baku were rebuilt and strengthened. By the early 16th century Baku's wealth and strategic position attracted the focus of its larger neighbors.
The fall of the Ak Koyunlu brought the city into the sphere of the newly formed Iranian Safavid dynasty, led by king Ismail I. Ismail I captured it, his successor, king Tahmasp I removed the Shirvanshahs from power, made Baku a part of the Shirvan province. Baku remained as an integral part of his empire and the successive Iranian dynasties to come for the next centuries, until the irrevocable cession in the first half of the 19th century; the House of Shirvan, who ruled Baku since the 9th century, was extinguished in the course of the Safavid rule. At this time the city was enclosed within the lines of strong walls, which were washed by the sea on one side and protected by a wide trench on land; the Ottomans gained control over Baku as a result of the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1578–1590. In 1604 Baku fortress was destroyed by Shah A
The KGB, translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991. As a direct successor of preceding agencies such as Cheka, NKGB, NKVD and MGB, the committee was attached to the Council of Ministers, it was the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", acting as internal security and secret police. Similar agencies were constituted in each of the republics of the Soviet Union aside from Russia, consisted of many ministries, state committees and state commissions; the agency was a military service governed by army laws and regulations, in the same fashion as the Soviet Army or MVD Internal Troops. While most of the KGB archives remain classified, two online documentary sources are available, its main functions were foreign intelligence, counter-intelligence, operative-investigatory activities, guarding the State Border of the USSR, guarding the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government and ensuring of government communications as well as combating nationalism and anti-Soviet activities.
In 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the KGB was split into the Federal Security Service and the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation. After breaking away from Georgia in the early 1990s with Russian help, the self-proclaimed Republic of South Ossetia established its own KGB. A Time magazine article in 1983 reported that the KGB was the world's most effective information-gathering organization, it operated legal and illegal espionage residencies in target countries where a legal resident gathered intelligence while based at the Soviet embassy or consulate, and, if caught, was protected from prosecution by diplomatic immunity. At best, the compromised spy was either returned to the Soviet Union or was declared persona non grata and expelled by the government of the target country; the illegal resident spied, unprotected by diplomatic immunity, worked independently of Soviet diplomatic and trade missions. In its early history, the KGB valued illegal spies more than legal spies, because illegal spies infiltrated their targets with greater ease.
The KGB residency executed four types of espionage: political, military-strategic, disinformation, effected with "active measures", counter-intelligence and security, scientific–technological intelligence. The KGB classified its spies as controllers; the false-identity or legend assumed by a USSR-born illegal spy was elaborate, using the life of either a "live double" or a "dead double". The agent substantiated his or her legend by living it in a foreign country, before emigrating to the target country, thus the sending of US-bound illegal residents via the Soviet embassy in Ottawa, Canada. Tradecraft included stealing and photographing documents, code-names, contacts and dead letter boxes, working as a "friend of the cause" or as agents provocateurs, who would infiltrate the target group to sow dissension, influence policy, arrange kidnappings and assassinations. Mindful of ambitious spy chiefs—and after deposing Premier Nikita Khrushchev—Secretary Leonid Brezhnev and the CPSU knew to manage the next over-ambitious KGB Chairman, Aleksandr Shelepin, who facilitated Brezhnev's palace coup d'état against Khrushchev in 1964.
With political reassignments, Shelepin protégé Vladimir Semichastny was sacked as KGB Chairman, Shelepin himself was demoted from chairman of the Committee of Party and State Control to Trade Union Council chairman. In the 1980s, the glasnost liberalisation of Soviet society provoked KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov to lead the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt to depose President Mikhail Gorbachev; the thwarted coup d'état ended the KGB on 6 November 1991. The KGB's main successors are the FSB and the SVR; the GRU recruited the ideological agent Julian Wadleigh, who became a State Department diplomat in 1936. The NKVD's first US operation was establishing the legal residency of Boris Bazarov and the illegal residency of Iskhak Akhmerov in 1934. Throughout, the Communist Party USA and its General Secretary Earl Browder, helped NKVD recruit Americans, working in government and industry. Other important, low-level and high-level ideological agents were the diplomats Laurence Duggan and Michael Whitney Straight in the State Department, the statistician Harry Dexter White in the Treasury Department, the economist Lauchlin Currie, the "Silvermaster Group", headed by statistician Greg Silvermaster, in the Farm Security Administration and the Board of Economic Warfare.
Moreover, when Whittaker Chambers Alger Hiss's courier, approached the Roosevelt Government—to identify the Soviet spies Duggan and others—he was ignored. Hence, during the Second World War —at the Tehran and Potsdam conferences—Big Three Ally Joseph Stalin of the USSR, was better informed about the war affairs of his US and UK allies than they were about his. Soviet espionage was at its most successful in collecting scientific and technological intelligence about advan
Azerbaijan State Oil Academy shooting
The Azerbaijan State Oil Academy shooting occurred on 30 April 2009, at the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, a public university in Baku, Azerbaijan. Twelve people were killed by an armed assailant and several others were wounded. A joint statement by the Azerbaijan Interior Ministry and Prosecutor General's Office identified the perpetrator as 28-year-old Farda Gadirov, a Georgian citizen of Azerbaijani descent. Two buses of special forces had arrived at the scene. According to Ehsan Zahidov, a spokesman for Interior Ministry, the special troops conducted an operation while people having been held hostage were released. Three cartridge belts with capacity of forty and seventy one bullets along with two magazines were taken from Gadirov's body. Gadirov attacked the second building of the ASOA. First he killed a security guard and a cleaner as he entered the building, before opening fire on students and lecturers. While climbing from the first floor to the sixth, he shot people indiscriminately in the head along the way.
A witness said one student had tried to stop him but was shot in the head. A witness reported seeing two gunmen. Terrorism was suspected; the gunman barricaded himself in the police cordoned off the building. 12 people were killed and 13 wounded. Gadirov shot himself, when he saw the police were approaching. Police and paramedics soon arrived on the scene; the armed police cordoned off the building. All major routes to the university were blocked. Bodies were found all over the building; the injured were taken to ambulances evacuated to hospital. Most were soon in stable condition. All students were sent home; however doubts over several details were expressed. Azeri military expert Uzeyir Jafarov said it is quite obscure to him the inexperienced assailant could kill and injure so many persons with a Makarov pistol. Jafarov outlined, that Gadirov was not a civilian. According to Azeri Health Ministry, thirteen people were ten wounded. Among wounded were two nationals of Sudan and one of Syria. Three of the wounded were discharged from hospital shortly after the shooting.
A total of thirteen people were killed in the incident: Emin Abdullayev, 20, student Ramiz Abdullayev, 69, Deputy Principal of ASOA and Chairman of the Faculty of Oil and Gas Production Jeyhun Aslanov, 21, student Tamella Azizova, 58, lecturer and researcher Ruslan Babashov, 19, student Ayaz Baghirov, 21, student Yusif Bandaliyev, 20, student Ayna Gurbanova, 52, cafeteria worker Savalan Jabbarov, 22, student Taleh Mammadov, 21, student Shafa Mammadova, 31, laboratory assistant Majnun Vahidov, 63, associate professor and chess composer Farda Gadirov, 28, gunmanThe psychological aid was launched in Clinic Psychiatric Hospital #2, Neuropsychic Hospital and Children's Neuropsychic Hospital. One thousand candles are planned to light in front of the university building in memory of the victims; the blood donation took place in Azerbaijani regions at initiative of the Health Ministry. A donation, held in Saatli, involved 230 people; the criminal case was launched under article 120.2.2, 120.2.4, 120.2.7, article 29, article 228.1 of the Criminal Code of Azerbaijan.
According to the spokesman for the Prosecutor General Eldar Sultanov, Shirhan Nadir oglu Aliyev, a fellow-villager of Gadirov, was detained as a suspect. The criminal case launched against Farda Gadirov was dropped because of his suicide. According to presidential order, direct financial assistances amounting to 30,000 manats were scheduled to be rendered to the families of killed persons, 15,000 to the wounded from the president's reserve fund; the parliament's Standing Human Rights Commission chair Rabiyyat Aslanova said that security must be increased in postsecondary institutions, but there is no need to amend any law to up security in them: "Higher schools have own regulations. The issue must be solved under the regulations". Aslanova said. MP Fazil Mustafa told that it is impossible to check everybody, but serious dangers can be prevented. A mourning ceremony began on Friday; the MPs, professors and students of ASOA, as well as the students of other country's universities, the members of youth organizations attended the ceremony, which started early morning and continued until the night.
The participants lit candles at the entrance and stairs of the Academy. The Irali Public Union joined the event with the slogan "No terror!". 2,000 students marched in Baku that day. A mourning procession was held by Azeri Americans in Washington. A Georgian citizen of Armenian origin, Mardun Gumashyan was subsequently charged as the mastermind of the shooting; as stated in the indictment, Gumashyan was born in Georgian region of Marneuli in 1951. According to the version of the prosecution Gumashyan had founded a criminal group, which embraced Farda Gadirov, Javidan Amirov, Nadir Aliyev and Najaf Suleymanov. The