Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Kingdom of the Netherlands, commonly known as the Netherlands, is a country and constitutional monarchy with territory in western Europe and in the Caribbean. The four parts of the kingdom—the Netherlands, Curaçao, in practice, most of the Kingdom affairs are administered by the Netherlands—which comprises roughly 98% of the Kingdoms land area and population—on behalf of the entire Kingdom. The constituent countries of Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are located in the Caribbean as well, the Kingdom of the Netherlands originated in the aftermath of Napoleon’s defeat in 1815. In that year, the Netherlands regained its independence from France, in March 1815, amidst the turmoil of the Hundred Days, the Sovereign Prince adopted the style of King of the Netherlands. Following Napoleons second defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, the Vienna Congress supplied international recognition of Williams unilateral move. The new King of the Netherlands was made Grand Duke of Luxembourg, a part of the Kingdom that was, at the same time, in 1830, Belgium seceded from the Kingdom, a step that was recognised by the Netherlands only in 1839.
At that point, Luxembourg became an independent country in a personal union with the Netherlands. Luxembourg lost more than half of its territory to Belgium and that status was reversed when the German Confederation ceased to exist in 1867, and, at that point, Limburg reverted to its status as an ordinary Dutch province. The origin of the reform of 1954 was the 1931 Westminster Statute and the 1941 Atlantic Charter. Changes were proposed in the 7 December 1942 radio speech by Queen Wilhelmina, in this speech, the Queen, on behalf of the Dutch government in exile in London, expressed a desire to review the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies after the end of the war. After liberation, the government would call a conference to agree on a settlement in which the territories could participate in the administration of the Kingdom on the basis of equality. After Indonesia became independent, a construction was considered too heavy, as the economies of Suriname. Delegates of Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles could participate in sessions of the First, an overseas member could be added to the Council of State when appropriate.
According to the Charter and the Netherlands Antilles were allowed to alter their Basic Laws, the right of the two autonomous countries to leave the Kingdom, was not recognised, yet it stipulated that the Charter could be dissolved by mutual consultation. Suriname was a constituent country within the Kingdom from 1954 to 1975, Netherlands New Guinea was a dependent territory of the Kingdom until 1962, but was not an autonomous country, and was not mentioned in the Charter. In 1955, Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard visited Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles, the visit was a great success. The royal couple were welcomed enthusiastically by the population. Several other royal visits were to follow, in 1969, an unorganised strike on the Antillean island of Curaçao resulted in serious disturbances and looting, during which a part of the historic city centre of Willemstad was destroyed by fire
Social work is an academic and practice-based professional discipline that seeks to facilitate the welfare of communities, individuals and groups. Social work tries to promote change and grassroots empowerment of people and aids in socioeconomic development, social cohesion. A practicing professional with a degree in social work is called a social worker, the practice and profession of social work has a relatively modern and scientific origin, and is generally considered to have developed out of three strands. The first was individual casework, a strategy pioneered by the Charity Organization Society in the mid-19th century, the second was social administration, which included various forms of poverty relief – relief of paupers. Statewide poverty relief could be said to have its roots in the English Poor Laws of the 17th century and this approach was developed originally by the Settlement House Movement. This was accompanied by an easily defined movement, the development of institutions to deal with the entire range of social problems.
All had their most rapid growth during the century, and laid the foundational basis for modern social work. Because poverty was the focus of early social work, it was intricately linked with the idea of charity work. With the decline of feudalism in 16th century England, the indigent poor came to be seen as a direct threat to the social order. The first complete code of poor relief was made in the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1597 and it created a system administered at parish level, paid for by levying local rates on rate payers. Relief for those too ill or old to work, the impotent poor, was in the form of a payment or items of food or clothing known as outdoor relief. The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 completely overhauled the system in Britain. This included the forming together of small parishes into Poor Law Unions, the 19th century saw a great leap forward in technological and scientific achievement. There was a migration to urban areas throughout the Western world. This galvanised the socially active, prosperous middle and upper classes to search for ways to ameliorate the physical and spiritual conditions of the poor underclasses. A new philosophy of scientific charity emerged, which stated charity should be secular and empirical as opposed to sectarian, sentimental, COS had its main focus on individual casework.
It supported the concept of self-help and limited government intervention to deal with the effects of poverty, the organisation claimed to use scientific principles to root out scroungers and target relief where it was most needed. Octavia Hill is regarded by many as the founder of social work
The Senate is the upper house of the States General, the legislature of the Netherlands. Its 75 members are elected by the members of the twelve States-Provincial every four years, members of the Senate are part-timers who often hold other positions as well. They receive an allowance which is about a quarter of the salary of the members of the House of Representatives, unlike the politically more significant House of Representatives, it meets only once a week. Its members tend to be veteran politicians or part-time politicians at the national level and it has the right to accept or reject legislative proposals but not to amend them or to initiate legislation. Directly after a bill has passed by the House of Representatives. The committee decides whether the bill can be put on the agenda of the full chamber or there should first be preparatory study of the bill. If a bill is immediately put on the agenda of the full chamber, the Senate was instituted by King William I in 1815. When the Netherlands and Belgium were united in 1815, the Belgians in particular pressed for the introduction of a bicameral system, in its early years, the Senate served as a bulwark of the Crown since it was still able to block bills that displeased the king.
Such bills were usually private members bills from the House of Representatives, at that time, the members of the House of Representatives too were elected indirectly. The members of the Senate were not elected, but were confidants of the king and were appointed for life, the Senate remained in existence after the separation from Belgium in 1830. Much changed in the sphere as a result of the introduction of a new constitution in 1848. The position of the Senate and the criteria governing eligibility to stand for election were among the changes, monitoring the quality of legislation gradually came to be the main function of the Senate after 1848. * Reformatory Political Federation and Reformed Political League Historic composition of the Senate of the Netherlands List of Presidents of the Senate Official website Official website
Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands
Willem-Alexander is the King of the Netherlands. Willem-Alexander was born in Utrecht and is the oldest child of Beatrix of the Netherlands and he became Prince of Orange as heir apparent upon his mothers accession on 30 April 1980, and succeeded her following her abdication on 30 April 2013. He went to primary and secondary schools, served in the Royal Netherlands Navy. He married Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti in 2002 and they have three daughters, Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, Princess Alexia, and Princess Ariane, Willem-Alexander is interested in sports and international water management issues. At the age of 49, he is currently the second youngest monarch in Europe after Felipe VI of Spain, Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand was born on 27 April 1967 in the University Hospital Utrecht, Now is University Medical Center Utrecht in Utrecht, Netherlands. He is the first child of Princess Beatrix and Prince Claus, and he was the first male Dutch royal baby since the birth of Prince Alexander in 1851, and the first immediate male heir since Alexanders death in 1884.
From birth, Willem-Alexander has held the titles Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau and he was baptised as a member of the Dutch Reformed Church on 2 September 1967 in Saint Jacobs Church in The Hague. He had two brothers, Prince Friso and Prince Constantijn. He lived with his family at the castle Drakensteyn in the hamlet Lage Vuursche near Baarn from his birth until 1981 and his mother Beatrix became Queen of the Netherlands in 1980, after his grandmother Juliana abdicated. He received the title of Prince of Orange as heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Willem-Alexander attended Nieuwe Baarnse Elementary School in Baarn from 1973 to 1979. After his military service from 1985 to 1987, Willem-Alexander studied History at Leiden University from 1987 onwards and his final thesis was on the Dutch response to Frances decision under President Charles de Gaulle to leave the NATOs integrated command structure. Willem-Alexander speaks English and German in addition to his native Dutch, between secondary school and his university education, Willem-Alexander performed military service in the Royal Netherlands Navy from August 1985 until January 1987.
He received his training at the Royal Netherlands Naval College and the frigates HNLMS Tromp and HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen, in 1988 he received additional training at the ship HNLMS Van Kinsbergen and became a lieutenant. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Navy, Willem-Alexander was promoted to Lieutenant Commander in 1995, Commander in 1997, Captain at Sea in 2001, and Commodore in 2005. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Army, he was made a Major in 1995, and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1997, Colonel in 2001, and Brigadier General in 2005. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Air Force, he was made Squadron Leader in 1995, as a reservist for the Royal Marechaussee, he was made Brigadier General in 2005. Before his investiture as king in 2013, Willem-Alexander was honorably discharged from the armed forces, the government declared that the head of state cannot be a serving member of the armed forces, since the government itself holds supreme command over the armed forces.
As king, Willem-Alexander may choose to wear a uniform with royal insignia
States General of the Netherlands
The States General is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The parliament meets at the Binnenhof in The Hague, the States General originated in the 15th century as an assembly of all the provincial states of the Burgundian Netherlands. The States General were replaced by the National Assembly after the Batavian Revolution of 1795, only to be restored in 1814, the States General was divided into a Senate and a House of Representatives in 1815, with the establishment of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. On exceptional occasions, the two form a joint session known as the United Assembly. The President of the Senate serves as President of the States General during a United Assembly, ankie Broekers-Knol has been President of the Senate since 2013. The archaic Dutch word staten originally related to the classes in which medieval European societies were stratified, the clergy, the nobility. The word eventually came to mean the political body in which the estates were represented.
Each province in the Habsburg Netherlands had its own staten and these representative bodies in turn were represented in the assembly that came to be known as Staten-Generaal, or Algemene Staten. The English word states may have a meaning as the Dutch word staten. The English phrases States General is probably a translation of the Dutch word. Historically, the term was used for the name of other national legislatures as, for example, the Catalan and Valencian Generalitat. Several geographic place names are derived from the States General, in 1609, Henry Hudson established Dutch trade in Staten Island, New York City and named the island Staaten Eylandt after the States General. Isla de los Estados, now an Argentine island, was named after this institution. Abel Tasman originally gave the name Staten Landt to what would become New Zealand, Staaten River is a river in the Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Later, regular sessions were held at Coudenberg in Brussels, the next important event was the convocation of the States General by the ducal Council for 3 February 1477 after the death of Charles the Bold.
In this session the States General forced the grant of the Great Privilege by Mary of Burgundy in which the right of the States General to convene on their own initiative was recognised, in 1576 the States General as a whole, openly rebelled against the Spanish crown. In 1579 the States General split as a number of provinces, united in the Union of Arras returned to obedience, while other provinces. After the Act of Abjuration in 1581 the northern States General replaced Philip II as the authority of the northern Netherlands
Supreme Court of the Netherlands
The Supreme Court of the Netherlands is one of the highest courts of the Netherlands, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Aruba. The Court was established on 1 October 1838 and sits in The Hague, the Court has exclusive final jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters. The Court is a court of cassation, which means that it has the competence to quash or affirm rulings of lower courts and it only considers whether the lower courts applied the law correctly and the rulings have sufficient reasoning. In so doing it establishes case law, according to Article 120 of the Constitution, courts may not rule on the constitutionality of laws passed by the States General and treaties. With the exception of constitutional Court of Sint Maarten courts have no competence for judicial review with respect to the Constitution. The Supreme Court currently consists of 36 judges, a president,6 vice-presidents,25 justices and 4 justices in exceptional service, all judges are appointed for life, until they retire at their own request or mandatorily at the age of 70.
The development of cassation in the Netherlands was heavily influenced by the French during the Batavian Revolution at the end of 18th century, in the Netherlands a case is first heard by one of the ten district courts. Afterwards, either side may appeal to one of the four courts of appeal, either party may file a cassation appeal to the Supreme Court. Justices of the Supreme Court are appointed by decree, chosen from a list of three, advised by the House of Representatives on the advice of the Court itself. The justices are, like every other judge in the Netherlands, appointed for life, upon reaching the age of 60, a justice may change status to exceptional service, with the effect that the justice no longer plays a full role at the Court. The Supreme Court is divided into four chambers, the first or civil chamber, the second or criminal chamber, the third or tax chamber, the members of the fourth chamber are chosen ad hoc, but will include the President of the Court. As of January 2016, the first three chambers are composed as follows, During the German occupation, the Supreme Court kept functioning, in November 1940 the occupiers forced the president, Judge L. E.
Visser, to resign because he was Jewish. The members who remained signed a declaration about Aryans. After the liberation, people reproached the Court for a weak, the Court wished above all to guarantee the continuity of its jurisdiction and not to become involved in politics. However such chances as there were to take a stand on principle against the Germans were largely missed, the Justices either omitted to give a moral example or felt they were not in a position to do so. In this the Supreme Court followed the advice of the barrister-general A. Rombach, the judgment concerned a case in which a man was sentenced by the economic judge for an economic offence. The counsel for the accused, P, when the Supreme Court denied the possibility of contesting rules issued by the German government, the Netherlands followed what was the rule in Germany and Italy too. On the basis of two emergency measures Hitler had the authority to issue incontestable rules, and the legal establishment acknowledged not it was not allowed to challenge political measures, political in this case was what the political authorities considered to be political
C. J. Schouten is a Dutch politician. She is a member of the ChristianUnion and since May 18,2011 a member of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands, as an MP she focuses on the improvement of housing and economic affairs, higher education and the maintenance of the pension scheme. Schouten originates from Giessen in the Land of Heusden and Altena and she studied business administration at Erasmus University Rotterdam and worked at the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment and for the parliamentary group of the ChristianUnion. Carola Schouten is single, has a child and is a member of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands
Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands
The Vice Minister-President of the Netherlands, commonly referred to in English as the Deputy Prime Minister, is the official Deputy of the Head of Government of the Netherlands. Conventionally, all of the partners in the coalition get one deputy. They are ranked according to the size of their respective parties, incumbent Lodewijk Asscher is the sixth Deputy Prime Minister of the Labour Party. Official Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands Government of the Netherlands
Elections in the Netherlands
Apart from elections, referenda are held occasionally, a fairly recent phenomenon in Dutch politics. The most recent national election results and an overview of the resulting seat assignments, at the national level, legislative power is invested in the States General, which is bicameral. The House of Representatives has 150 members, elected for a term by proportional representation. Elections are called after a dissolution of the House of Representatives, all elections are direct, except for the Senate, which has 75 members, elected for a four-year term by provincial councillors on the basis of proportional representation at the provincial elections. Candidates to the elections of the House of Representatives are chosen from party lists according to a system of proportional representation, the threshold is 1/150th of the total number of valid votes. During the municipal elections of 2006, elections were electronic throughout the country, as a result, results were known before the end of the day, a mere two hours after the closing of the poll stations.
For the national elections in November of that year, several polling stations decided to return to paper. Since then, most elections have been held using paper and pencil, the most recent election was the general election on 15 March 2017. The maximum parliamentary term is five years and elections are held about four years after the previous one. Normal elections, i. e. after the House of Representatives has fulfilled its term, if municipal or provincial elections are already taking place in March of that year, the parliamentary elections are postponed to May. The elections are planned for spring to ensure that a new cabinet is formed in time to present its plans on the most important day in the Dutch Parliament, Prinsjesdag. The term of the next House can be shortened or prolonged by almost a year to ensure the next normal elections again happen in March or May, city councils and States-Provincial cannot be dissolved, so no dissolution elections can occur. An exception to the term is made when two or more municipalities merge and new elections take place for the merged municipality.
Senate elections take place four years, in May following the provincial elections. The Senate can be dissolved, and subsequently dissolution elections take place, but since the States-Provincial remain the same, a Senate chosen by dissolution elections sits out the remainder of its predecessors term. Elections usually take place on Wednesdays, but the government can decide to change this to a Tuesday, Thursday or Friday if there are reasons to do so. Elections for the European Parliament always take place on a Thursday, every Dutch citizen who has reached the age of 18 is eligible to vote or to stand for election as a member of the House of Representatives. A notable exception is municipal elections, in persons younger than 18 can be elected