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Doordarshan Kendra, Mumbai

Doordarshan Kendra, Mumbai referred as Mumbai Doordarshan is an Indian television station in Mumbai and operated by state-owned Doordarshan, the television network of Prasar Bharati. It was established in 1972, now produces and broadcasts the 24-hour Marathi language TV channel, DD Sahyadri, launched in 1994 and covers most of the state of Maharashtra, India. Doordarshan Kendra Mumbai was inaugurated on 2 October 1972; the center has elaborate programme production facilities and large studios. The transmission was limited to few hours in a day. Besides the regional language Marathi, programmes in Hindi, Urdu, English and Punjabi were telecast. With the introduction of Regional Language Satellite Services, all regional centers of Doordarshan started generating programmes in their respective regional languages, and thus, RLSS Marathi came into existence on 15 August 1994 along with many other channels of Doordarshan. The channel was on rechristened as DD Sahyadri. Presently, Doordarshan Kendra, Mumbai telecasts its programmes under the brand name DD Sahyadri.

The channel was launched way back on 1st May 1985. A new studio was inaugurated on 2 June 1999. Telecast time was increased to 17 hours per day on 1 January 2000. On 5 April 2000 RLSS Marathi became 24-hour channel. Considered as the best regional TV channel of Doordarshan, DD Sahyadri Channel is Number One among all Marathi GEC available in Maharashtra as per TAM. Doordarshan Kendra Mumbai produces a wide spectrum of programmes including acclaimed serials, film-based programmes, musical programmes, reality shows, cookery show and current affairs programmes, informative programmes, public debates and utility programmes related to health and civic issues, et cetera. Old and new Marathi films shown on this channel are a favorite among the viewers. DD Sahyadri offers about six to eight events in a year in compliancewith its responsibilities as a Public Dervice Broadcaster. Navaratan an event in which achievers in different fields like literature, fine arts, social service, etc. are honored.

Hirkhani Awards is organized to felicitate the women achievers of Maharashtra. Awards to artists and technicians of Marathi Cinema are given in Sahyadi Cine Awards. Sahyadri Manik Awards Sohla is organized to felicitate artists and technicians for meritorious contribution to sahyadri Channel. Services of the employees of Mumbai Doordarshan are recognized on this occasion through Sewa Awards, Krishi Awards is the event in which farmers and experts are honored for their contribution in the field of Agriculture. All India Robotic Contest Robocon is being organised by this Kendra since 2005. In 2008, Kendra hosted International ABU Robocon at Pune. Celebrations of festivals like Govinda and Ganpati Visarjan and major sports and cultural events are brought live to the viewers by the channel every year. Commissioned and in house serials telecast by Mumbai Doordarshan are the main attraction for the viewers. Serialised TV shows like Music Masti Gappa Gane, Contests based reality shows like Sahyadri Antakshari, Dhina Dhin Dha and Dam Dama Dam, etc. have not only entertained viewers over the years, they have created awareness about richness of the culture and traditions of Maharashtra.

Doordarshan Mumbai has been producing a number of programmes for national and news channels of Doordarshan. All feature films telecast on national channel and Hindi belt network of Doordarshan are capsuled and uplinked by Mumbai Kendra. All in house films based programmes of national channel like Bioscope and Chulbuli Filmen Chatpati Gupshup are produced and linked up by Mumbai Center. Cine Satrangi and Top Ten, now discontinued film based programmes, were contributes to by Mumbai Doordarshan. Phool Khile Hain Gulshan Gulshan, the programme based on interviews of film celebrities anchored by Tabassum was a craze among viewers. On viewers enjoyed talking to their favourite film stars in the live phone-in programme Hello DD. Most of the New Year Eve Special Programmes telecast from national channel are produced by Mumbai center. Since 2005, Mumbai Kendra is organising and producing programmes related to Robocon India, an annual Robotic Contest. Besides regular contributions of important happenings of the state, Daily Business News, telecast daily from 13:30 to 14:00 hours, Metro Scan telecast daily from 18:30 to 19:00 hours and News Preview telecast on every Thursday at 08:00 hours are contributed to DD News Channel by Mumbai Doordarshan.

The Kendra covers important sports events held in Maharashtra state including Robocon India for DD Sports Channel. Many of them are telecast live. Doordarshan Mumbai has a staff strength of more than 500 belonging to programme, administration and canteen categories. Programmes produced by Jalandhar Kendra have won a number of awards in various categories over the years; the Kendra was adjudged the best among all Doordarshan Kendras in 2001 and in 2009-10. Official page

Main Task

Main Task was the economic policy proclaimed in the German Democratic Republic during the Eight SED Congress in June 1971, aimed at increased production of consumer goods for the population and to increase its material well-being in order to provide a higher standard of living for the population. The policy's official goal was "raising the people’s material and cultural standard of living on the basis of a fast developmental pace of socialist production, of higher efficiency, of scientific-technological progress and the growth of the productivity of labour". Or in the official formulation - to achieve "unity of economic and social policy". Between 1971 and 1982 the GDP of the GDR grew at average 5% annually, however the pursued policy only increased state’s debts and by 1982 GDR was nearly insolvent; this change of policy was influenced by the 1970 Polish protests which lead to greater emphasis on consumer goods and welfare policies in the whole of Eastern Bloc. In reaction to Walter Ulbricht’s many policy changes, Erich Honecker imposed a more traditionalist Weimar-era communist ideology which influenced his economic policies as well.

Instead of Ulbricht’s technocrats who dreamt about overtaking capitalist West, he promoted ideologues who ended experiments and pursued more short-term goals of increased welfare. Wages and welfare programs were increased thus providing population with more money to spend on consumer goods; the following few years were some of the most prosperous in the history of the GDR. Emphasis on the welfare programs for women was one of the ways to further increased participation of women in the workforce. In 1970 82% of working age women were employed, in 1980 this rose to 87% and in 1989 to 91%; as the working-age population was almost employed, to increase productivity the "Scientific Organisation of Labour" policy was introduced in 1973. Three-shift system and elements of Taylorism were introduced to maximize the work intensity. Much capital and energy was spent on building new housing districts and restoration of the neglected pre-war housing stock in order to provide all families with decent housing.

While the prefabricated housing districts lacked individuality, they provided the basic living needs at a low cost, as the state was subsidizing much of the rent and utilities costs. Much of Honecker’s policies reflected the ideals of his communist youth. Cheap housing and basic food stuffs to him meant more than cars and modern consumer goods that GDR population desired when it compared its living standards with those of Western Germany; the official GDR statistics claimed that in 1970 for every 100 households there were 15 cars, 53 washing machines, 56 refrigerators and 69 TVs. In 1981 this had risen to 82 washing machines, 99 refrigerators and 90 TVs; as the GDR was unable to increase its welfare and to increase its exports a growing budget deficit created problems by 1972. Despite SED propaganda, there were no increases in the socialistic productivity. By the mid-70s, instead of instituting any new reforms, Honecker decided to fund his policies by increased borrowing from the West, from the Western Germany.

By 1985 GDR’s debt to Western countries had grown to 25.1 billion Valutamarks. The debt servicing rate for the foreign currency debt reached 168%. Hoping to increase its export income, in 1977 GDR returned to the ideas of Ulbricht, began to develop semiconductor and microprocessor industry which, despite large investments, failed to achieve the desired results and GDR export income continued to decrease. GDR was unable to increase its exports to West as it lacked exportable products of sufficient quality, at the same time it relied on the cheap basic material supplies from the Soviet Union, which demanded payment in GDR produced goods, which were of higher quality than those produced in the USSR

Oleksiy Chystyakov

Oleksiy Chystyakov is a retired Ukrainian football player and current coach. Chystyakov is a product of FC Kolos DVUFK Dnipropetrovsk youth sportive school systems, his first trainers were Ihor Blazhevskyi and Volodymyr Kobzarev. In 1992 he started his football career at FC Dynamo Luhansk, where he was invited to Zorya Lugansk in the summer of 1994. In 1995 he went to Russia, where he defended the colors of the clubs of Gekris Anapa and FC Kuban Slavyansk-na-Kubani. In September 1996 he became a player in FC Metalurh Novomoskovsk. In the summer of 1998 he went to FC Metalurh-2 Zaporizhia, but by the verdict of the doctors he was forced to end his football career in the young age. Oleksiy Chystyakov at the Football Federation of Ukraine Oleksiy Chystyakov at


Scan-Optics LLC, founded in 1968, is an enterprise content management services company and optical character recognition and image scanner manufacturer headquartered in Manchester, Connecticut. Scan-Optics' records management, data remanence, data backup and Data recovery services are supplied to government and business customers throughout North America and Europe, while its industrial high-speed Digital imaging and OCR SO-series scanners are being used worldwide. Scan-Optics was founded in 1968 by four Connecticut men with financial backing from The Travelers Companies, its goal of developing the brand-new and functioning optical character recognition technology. Scan-Optics was one of the technology groups enabling the transition from paper to digital. Scan-Optics developed the image dissector tube and made it commercially available, pioneered an alphanumeric Handwriting recognition system, introduced key data entry integrated with Optical Character Recognition via a direct computer-to-computer link to accomplish image reject repair.

In a 1997 study Doculabs classified Scan-Optics' ICR as "a significant improvement over standard ICR technology" - in tests using 3,400 forms completed from a national sample of the general population, only Scan-Optics' ICR technology yielded a field read rate accuracy of 90% In recent years, Scan-Optics' developments included acoustic double page detection, context edit, the integration of MICR and barcode reading into the recognition system and the introduction of grayscale capability in OCR


Notocolossus is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from late Cretaceous strata of Mendoza Province, Argentina. A fossil of a large sauropod was discovered by the Argentine paleontologist Dr. Bernardo Javier González Riga in Mendoza province In 2016, the type species Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi was named and described by Bernardo Javier González Riga, Matthew Carl Lamanna, Leonardo Daniel Ortiz David, Jorge Orlando Calvo and Juan P. Coria; the generic name combines the Greek words νότος, notos, "south wind", κολοσσός, kolossos, "giant statue", in reference to the provenance from the Southern Hemisphere and the gigantic size of the animal. The specific name honours Jorge González Parejas, for having studied the dinosaur fossils of Mendoza province for two decades; the holotype, UNCUYO-LD 301, was found in a layer of the Plottier Formation dating from the Coniacian-Santonian, about eighty-six million years old. It consists of a partial skeleton lacking the skull, it contains an anterior back vertebra, an anterior tail vertebra, a right humerus and the upper part of a left pubic bone.

Although the bones have not been discovered in articulation, they were considered to represent a single individual because they were found in close association on a surface of eight by eight metres. A second partial skeleton lacking the skull was referred to Notocolossus: specimen UNCUYO-LD 302 representing a smaller individual, it contains a series of five anterior tail vertebrae and a complete right foot connected to an astragalus. It was recovered on a distance of 403 metres to the holotype from a surface of five by five metres; the evidence suggests that Notocolossus was among the largest titanosaurs, therefore one of the heaviest land animals, yet discovered. Although the incompleteness of the skeleton of the new sauropod has prevented scientists from making precise estimates of its size, its humerus, or upper arm bone, is 1.76 m in length, longer than that of any other titanosaur for which this bone is known, including other giants such as Dreadnoughtus and Paralititan. If, as is the body proportions of Notocolossus were comparable to those of better preserved titanosaurs, the new dinosaur may have weighed in the range of 44.9–75.9 tonnes, most 60.4 tonnes.

In 2019 Gregory S. Paul estimated the mass of Notocolossus in the 45-55 tonne range. In 2016, several distinguishing traits of Notocolossus were determined. Nine of these were autapomorphies, unique derived qualities. At the anterior back vertebra, the depression between the front edge of the side process and the lower edge of the side process is divided by two accessory ridges, one of which runs vertically while the other crosses the first horizontally. On the front side of the neural spines of the front tail vertebrae, run vertical ridges fusing at their lower ends, above the level of the front joint processes, creating a V-shaped structure; the upper inner corner of the humerus is expanded, extending far beyond the inner side of the shaft. The humerus has in general a expanded upper edge, 2.9 wider than the shaft diameter. On the humerus shaft, below the scar for the musculus coracobrachialis, runs a diagonal ridge, from the upper and outer side to the inner and lower side; the first metatarsal has an upper width exceeding its length.

The third metatarsal is short with 1.2 times the length of the first metatarsal. The upper toe phalanges are 50 % wider at their tops; the toe claws are reduced and truncated. The foot or pes of Notocolossus, a skeleton part, not preserved in sauropods, shows a unique build, it contains a compact, homogeneous metatarsus, thought to be adapted for bearing extraordinary weight. It presents truncated unguals, characteristics otherwise unknown in the Sauropoda; this parallels the vertical position of the metacarpals and the finger reduction in the hand of other titanosaurs. Notocolossus belongs to the clade Titanosauria, a diverse group of sauropods. In 2016, a cladistic analysis recovered Notocolossus as a basal member of Lithostrotia and a sister species of Dreadnoughtus. A 2017 study by Carballido and colleagues recovered it as the sister taxon of Lognkosauria and found it to be outside of Lithostrotia. In 2018, González Riga and colleagues found it to belong to Lognkosauria, in a polytomy with Patagotitan and Puertasaurus.

This analysis found Longkosauria to belong to Lithostrotia. The following cladogram shows the position of Notocolossus in Lognkosauria according to Gonzalez Riga and colleagues, 2018. Notocolossus was discvoered in the Plottier Formation of the Neuquén Group; this formation is about 25 metres thick and composed of light red claystones and thin bands of pink sandstone. The Plottier Formation can be differentiated from the overlying Portezuelo Formation by the former's higher content of argillite. Tetrapods of the Plottier formation are poorly known, they are represented by mammals, a large coelurosaur, several titanosaurs. These titanosaurs, in addition to Notocolossus, include Petrobrasaurus, "Antarctosaurus" giganteus, two additional specimens, one of which appears to be an aeolosaurine. Additionally Muyelensaurus is sometimes stated to come from this formation, although it may be from the aforementioned Portezuelo Formation instead. 2016 in paleontology