Sioux Falls, South Dakota
Sioux Falls is the most populous city in the U. S. state of South Dakota and the 143rd-most populous city in the United States. It is the county seat of Minnehaha County and extends into Lincoln County to the south, proximate with the Minnesota state line, it is the 47th-fastest-growing city in the United States and the fastest-growing metro area in South Dakota, with a population increase of 22% between 2000 and 2010. As of 2019, Sioux Falls had an estimated population of 187,200; the metropolitan population of 259,094 accounts for 29% of South Dakota's population. It is the primary city of the Sioux Falls-Sioux City Designated Market Area, a larger media market region that covers parts of four states and has a population of 1,043,450. Chartered in 1856 on the banks of the Big Sioux River, the city is situated in the rolling hills at the junction of Interstate 90 and Interstate 29; the history of Sioux Falls revolves around the cascades of the Big Sioux River. The falls were created about 14,000 years ago during the last ice age.
The lure of the falls has been a powerful influence. Ho-Chunk, Otoe, Omaha, Kansa, Arikira and Cheyenne people inhabited and settled the region previous to Europeans and European descendants. Numerous burial mounds still exist on the high bluffs near the river and are spread throughout the general vicinity. Indigenous people maintained an agricultural society with fortified villages, the arrivals rebuilt on many of the same sites that were settled. Lakota populate urban and reservation communities in the contemporary state and many Lakota and numerous other Indigenous Americans reside in Sioux Falls today. French voyagers/explorers visited the area in the early 18th century; the first documented visit by an American was by Philander Prescott, who camped overnight at the falls in December 1832. Captain James Allen led a military expedition out of Fort Des Moines in 1844. Jacob Ferris described the Falls in his 1856 book "The States and Territories of the Great West". Two separate groups, the Dakota Land Company of St. Paul and the Western Town Company of Dubuque, Iowa organized in 1856 to claim the land around the falls, considered a promising townsite for its beauty and water power.
Each worked together for mutual protection. They built a temporary barricade of turf which they dubbed "Fort Sod", in response to hostilities threatened by native tribes. Seventeen men spent "the first winter" in Sioux Falls; the following year the population grew to near 40. Although conflicts in Minnehaha County between Native Americans and white settlers were few, the Dakota War of 1862 engulfed nearby southwestern Minnesota; the town was evacuated in August of that year when two local settlers were killed as a result of the conflict. The settlers and soldiers stationed here traveled to Yankton in late August 1862; the abandoned townsite was burned. Fort Dakota, a military reservation established in present-day downtown, was established in May 1865. Many former settlers returned and a new wave of settlers arrived in the following years; the population grew to 593 by 1873, a building boom was underway in that year. The Village of Sioux Falls, consisting of 1,200 acres, was incorporated in 1876 and was granted a city charter by the Dakota Territorial legislature on March 3, 1883.
The arrival of the railroads ushered in the great Dakota Boom decade of the 1880s. The population of Sioux Falls mushroomed from 2,164 in 1880 to 10,167 at the close of the decade; the growth transformed the city. A severe plague of grasshoppers and a national depression halted the boom by the early 1890s; the city grew by only 89 people from 1890 to 1900. But prosperity returned with the opening of the John Morrell meat packing plant in 1909, the establishment of an airbase and a military radio and communications training school in 1942, the completion of the interstate highways in the early 1960s. Much of the growth in the first part of the 20th century was fueled by agriculturally based industry, such as the Morrell plant and the nearby stockyards. In 1955 the city decided to consolidate the neighboring incorporated city of South Sioux Falls. At the time South Sioux Falls had a population of nearly 1,600 inhabitants, according to the 1950 census, it was third largest city in the county after Sioux Dell Rapids.
By October 18, 1955 South Sioux Falls residents voted 704 in favor and 227 against to consolidate with Sioux Falls. On the same issue, Sioux Falls residents voted on November 15 by the vote 2,714 in favor and 450 against. In 1981, to take advantage of relaxed state usury laws, Citibank relocated its primary credit card center from New York City to Sioux Falls; some claim that this event was the primary impetus for the increased population and job growth rates that Sioux Falls has experienced over the past quarter century. Others point out that Citibank's relocation was only part of a more general transformation of the city's economy from an industrially based one to an economy centered on health care and retail trade. Sioux Falls has grown at a rapid pace since the late 1970s, with the city's population increasing from 81,000 in 1980 to 183,200 in 2018. Sioux Falls is located at 43°32'11" North, 96°43'54" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.47 square miles, of which 72.96 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water.
The city is in extreme eastern South Dakota, about 15 miles west of the Minnesota border. Sioux Falls has been assigned
South Dakota Highway 19
South Dakota Highway 19 is a 86.974-mile-long state highway in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of South Dakota. It connects the Nebraska state line, south of Vermillion, with the southeastern part of the Madison area, via Viborg, Hurley and Humboldt. SD 19 entered Centerville, but was shifted to the south, its former path was redesignated as SD 19A. Its former southern terminus was at Vermillion, but was extended when a new bridge from Nebraska opened. SD 19 begins at the Nebraska state line south of Vermillion, in the south-central part of Clay County. Here, the roadway continues to the south-southwest as Nebraska Highway 15 over the Missouri River; this crossing is part of the Missouri National Recreational River. It winds its way through rural areas of the county to the north-northwest, it passes just west of the airport for Vermillion. Just south of an intersection with the eastern terminus of Timber Road, the highway curves to the northeast, it begins a concurrency with SD 50 Business.
The two highways curve to the east-southeast. They cross over the Vermillion River. Just east of an intersection with the western terminus of West Main Street, they begin the curve to the northeast. During this curve, they cross over some railroad tracks of BNSF Railway on a road bridge, they enter the city limits of Vermillion and curve to the east. At an intersection with West Cherry Street and Stanford Street, the highways split, SD 50 Bus. continues to the east on West Cherry Street, while SD 19 turns left onto Stanford Street and heads to the north. SD 19 leaves the city limits of Vermillion and intersects SD 50, it has a second crossing of the Vermillion River. Between 312th and 311th streets, it skirts along the eastern edge of Spirit Mound Historic Prairie. Just south of 308th Street, it curves to the north-northwest. Just south of 462nd Avenue, it begins to curve back to the north. Between 304th and 303rd streets, it curves to the north-northeast and crosses over the Vermillion River for a third time.
Just north of 302nd Street, the highway curves to the north-northwest. Just north of 301st Street is a fourth crossing of the Vermillion River. Just north of 299th Street is a fifth crossing of this river. Just south of 297th Street is a sixth crossing, it reaches the Turner County line. On the county line, SD 19 intersects SD 46 and the southern terminus of SD 19A. SD 19 and SD 46 begin a concurrency to the west. Between an intersection with both the northern terminus of Frog Creek Road and the southern terminus of 459th Avenue and an intersection with 458th Avenue, the highways cross over Klepke Ditch and Frog Creek. At an intersection with 456th Avenue, SD 19 splits off to the north-northeast and enters Turner County proper. Between 296th and 295th streets, SD 19 crosses over Frog Creek again and curves to the north-northwest. At 295th Street, it intersects the western terminus of SD 19A. Just south of 294th Street, it curves to the north. North of 292nd Street, it enters the city limits of Viborg.
An intersection with Pioneer Avenue leads to Pioneer Memorial Health Services. The highway leaves the city limits of Viborg. Just south of 288th Street, it crosses over Turkey Ridge Creek. At 286th Street, SD 19 begins a concurrency with U. S. Route 18 for just over 1.5 miles. Between 284th and 283rd streets, it travels through the far eastern part of Hurley. At 277th Street, it begins a concurrency with SD 44; this intersection is the eastern terminus of County Road 24. The two highways curve to the northwest, they cross over some railroad tracks of BNSF Railway and curve to the north-northwest and enter the city limits of Parker. At Fourth Street, SD 44 splits off to the west-northwest and heads towards the business district of Parker. SD 19 leaves Parker, it curves back to the north. Just south of 274th Street, it crosses over the West Fork Vermillion River. Just south of 271st Street, it crosses over the East Fork Vermillion River. At an intersection with 268th Street, the highway enters the extreme southwestern part of Minnehaha County.
Just south of 267th Street, SD 19 crosses over Elce Creek. At 265th Street, it begins a concurrency with SD 42 to the east; the roadway continues to the north as 455th Avenue. SD 19 and SD 42 travel to the east for about 1 mile. SD 19 splits off to the north. Between 263rd and 262nd streets, it passes just to the west of Lost Lake. Just to the west of Humboldt, it has an interchange with Interstate 90. Is an intersection with SD 38. At this intersection, both highways travel concurrently to the east-southeast, while the roadway continues to the north as 456th Avenue; the two highways wind through the northern part of Humboldt. When they split, SD 19 resumes its northward direction. Between 256th and 255th streets, it passes just west of Lost Lake. At an intersection with 244th Street, northwest of Buffalo Lake, the highway enters the south-central part of Lake County. SD 19 travels through rural areas of the county. Just west of Lake Madison, just north of 236th Street, the highway curves to the north-northwest.
Just to the west of Bourne Slough, just south of 235th Street, it begins a curve to the north-northeast. It meets its northern terminus, an intersection with SD 34 just southeast of Madison. SD 19 was established in 1926, it used to travel through Centerville. Around 1950, it was shifted southward, onto a concurrency with SD 46, its former path was redesignated as SD 19A. In November 2001, SD 19's southern terminus was exten
Lake County, South Dakota
Lake County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 11,200, its county seat is Madison. The county was formed in 1873; the terrain of Lake County consists of rolling hills. The area is devoted to agriculture. A tributary of the East Fork Vermillion River flows south-southeastward through the lower western part of the county, Buffalo Creek flows southeastward from the central part of the county, leaving the county near its SE corner; the terrain slopes to the south, although high points are found on the north and south boundary lines and points between. Lake County has a total area of 575 square miles, of which 563 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. Lake Herman State Park Walker's Point State Recreation Area U. S. Highway 81 South Dakota Highway 19 South Dakota Highway 34 As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 11,276 people, 4,372 households, 2,828 families in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile.
There were 5,282 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.76% White, 0.20% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,372 households out of which 29.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.90% were married couples living together, 5.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.30% were non-families. 29.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 23.70% under the age of 18, 15.00% from 18 to 24, 23.40% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 16.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.50 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $34,087, the median income for a family was $43,750. Males had a median income of $28,994 versus $21,084 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,446. About 5.40% of families and 9.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.60% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 11,200 people, 4,483 households, 2,814 families in the county; the population density was 19.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,559 housing units at an average density of 9.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.2% white, 0.7% Asian, 0.7% American Indian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.8% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 50.7% were German, 20.6% were Norwegian, 12.4% were Irish, 6.6% were English, 6.2% were Dutch, 5.0% were Danish, 5.0% were American.
Of the 4,483 households, 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families, 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 39.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,606 and the median income for a family was $57,753. Males had a median income of $36,370 versus $25,898 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,447. About 6.5% of families and 12.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.8% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. Madison Nunda Ramona Wentworth Brant Lake Chester Lake Madison Winfred Franklin Junius Rutland Saranac Lake County voters have voted for Republican Party candidates in 62 percent of national elections since 1964. National Register of Historic Places listings in Lake County, South Dakota Official County Website
South Dakota Highway 11
South Dakota Highway 11 is a 77.724-mile-long state highway in the eastern part of the U. S. state of South Dakota. It connects the northern part of the Sioux City metropolitan area with the Sioux Falls metropolitan area; the highway traveled on the current path of SD 115 in Sioux Falls and Dell Rapids, ended north of Elkton. In the 1930s, SD 11 was shifted to its current alignment; the southern segment was added between 1962 and 1971. Part of the highway in Sioux Falls was changed in early 1990s; the segment between SD 46 and US 18 was added in the 1990s. SD 11 is defined by South Dakota Codified Law §31-4-131. According to this statute, the segment of the road between SD 50 and SD 48 is not a portion of the highway; the segment of the highway in Sioux Falls from 85th Street through the concurrency with SD 42, as well as the segment from the Madison Street intersection to the interchange with I-90, are included in the National Highway System, a system of highways important to the nation's defense and mobility.
SD 11's southern segment begins in the south-central part of Union County, at an intersection with the northern terminus of South Franklin Street in the northwestern part of Elk Point. Here, the roadway continues to the southeast as East Rose Street. Both South Franklin Street and East Rose Street are signed as part of a "city truck route". SD 11 heads to the northwest and immediately curves to the north. Just south of 321st Street, it crosses over the Big Ditch. North of 320th Street, it intersects SD 50 west-northwest of Richland; this intersection is the northern terminus of the southern segment of SD 11 and the eastern terminus of County Road 25. SD 11's northern segment begins in the east-central part of Union County, at an intersection with SD 48 west of Spink. Here, the roadway continues to the south as 479th Avenue, it crosses over West Union Creek between 310th and 309th streets. The highway enters Alcester, it continues to the north. Starting at a point just south of 298th Street, it parallels part of East Brule Creek.
It intersects SD 46, where it enters the southeastern part of Lincoln County. SD 11 continues to the north, it travels through rural areas of the county and crosses over Little Beaver Creek between 285th and 284th streets. It continues northward and intersects U. S. Route 18; the two highways begin a concurrency to the west. Here, the roadway continues to the north as 479th Avenue. 0.465 miles SD 11 splits off to the north, with the roadway continuing to the south as 478th Avenue. Between US 18 and 281st Street, it crosses over some railroad tracks of BNSF Railway. Between 280th and 279th streets, it has a crossing over Beaver Creek. Just south of 277th Street, it crosses over some railroad tracks of BNSF Railway. Between 275th and 274th streets, it crosses over Ninemile Creek. Just north of 273rd Street, the highway passes the Lake Alvin State Recreation Area. Just north of 271st Street, it crosses over Spring Creek, it curves to the north-northwest. At an intersection with 57th Street, the highway enters the southeastern part of Minnehaha County and becomes a divided highway.
SD 11 skirts along the eastern part of Harmodon Park. It intersects 41st Street; the highway enters the city limits of Sioux Falls. North of Split Rock Road, the divided highway portion ends, it intersects SD 42. Here, SD 11 and SD 42 begin a concurrency to the east, they pass the Willow Run Golf Course and Arrowhead Park. After curving to the east-southeast, they cross over the Big Sioux River. Less than 2,000 feet they intersect the northern terminus of CR 142. Here, SD 11 splits off to the north, it curves to the north-northeast. It crosses over Split Rock Creek and enters Brandon, it travels just to the east of Aspen Park and crosses over some railroad tracks of Union Pacific Railroad. On the northwestern edge of McHardy Park, SD 11 curves to the north, it passes the Brandon Valley High School between Holly Boulevard. Just north of the city limits of Brandon is an interchange with Interstate 90; the highway crosses over some railroad tracks of BNSF Railway. It has a second crossing of Split Rock Creek.
Just north of 258th Street is a third crossing of this creek and a crossing of West Pipestone Creek. Just south of 255th Street is a second crossing of this creek; the highway crosses this creek for a third time, just west of 483rd Avenue. It crosses over Split Rock Creek for a third time, just before entering the southwestern part of Garretson, it curves to the north and passes some sewage disposal ponds before crossing the Split Rock Creek again. The highway leaves Garretson. Just south of 246th Street, the highway begins curving to the north-northeast, it crosses over Pipestone Creek and curves to the east. At 244th Street, it begins to travel on the Minnehaha–Moody county line for the rest of its length. Just to the east of 486th Avenue, the highway curves to the east-northeast. 0.7 miles east of 487th Avenue, the highway reaches the Minnesota state line. Here, SD 11 ends, the roadway continues as Minnesota State Highway 269; the 1926 routing of the highway traveled on the current path of SD 115 in Sioux Falls and Dell Rapids, ended at U.
S. Route 14 north of Elkton. In the 1930s, SD 11 was shifted to its current alignment between Sioux Falls and th
South Dakota Highway 115
South Dakota Highway 115 was created from the routing of US 77, "Old 77", when its alignment was moved west to become Interstate 29 around 1980 and SD 15's route from US 18 to Sioux Falls. SD 115 routes from its intersection with US 18 about 13 miles south of Sioux Falls to Interstate 29 three miles west of Dell Rapids, it is about 40.5 miles in length. SD 115 was designated a POW/MIA Memorial Highway in 2000; the segment south of Sioux Falls to US 18 was designated part of the Custer Battlefield Highway when it was designated SD 15. South Dakota Highway 115 begins at an intersection with US 18 west of Canton and heads due north through rural Lincoln County; the highway runs about a mile west of Harrisburg, South Dakota. Three miles north of the Harrisburg intersection, SD 115 intersects 85th Street and enters Sioux Falls from the south, it runs along Minnesota Avenue in the southern portion of Sioux Falls and enters Minnehaha County upon crossing 57th Street. Just south of 41st Street, SD 115 meets Interstate 229.
SD 115 travels farther north through the downtown section of Sioux Falls, meeting SD 42 eastbound at 11th Street and westbound at 10th Street. North of downtown Sioux Falls, the route turns east on Benson Road north again on Cliff Avenue, it meets Interstate 90 just before exiting Sioux Falls. North of Sioux Falls, SD 115 travels through rural, sparsely populated areas of Minnehaha County, it passes through east of Baltic before entering Dell Rapids. In Dell Rapids, the highway turns west at 4th Street and travels about three miles west to its terminus at Interstate 29. Unofficial SD Highway Website
Pipestone County, Minnesota
Pipestone County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,596, its county seat is Pipestone. The county was founded in 1857 and organized in 1879; the county was named for deposits of red pipestone used by Native Americans to make pipes. Pipestone National Monument is located in the county, just north of the town of Pipestone. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 466 square miles, of which 465 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. Despite Pipestone County not containing any natural lakes, it does have one man-made reservoir created by a dam. Split Rock Lake: Eden Township, in Split Rock Creek State Park U. S. Highway 75 Minnesota State Highway 23 Minnesota State Highway 30 Minnesota State Highway 269 Lincoln County Lyon County Murray County Rock County Minnehaha County, South Dakota Moody County, South Dakota Brookings County, South Dakota Pipestone National Monument As of the 2000 census, there were 9,895 people, 4,069 households, 2,726 families residing in the county.
The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 4,434 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.68% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 1.48% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. 0.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 35.7% were of German, 24.8% Dutch and 14.3% Norwegian ancestry. There were 4,069 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.00% were non-families. 30.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 24.60% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 21.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 92.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,909, the median income for a family was $40,133. Males had a median income of $27,642 versus $20,759 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,450. About 7.80% of families and 9.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.20% of those under age 18 and 11.10% of those age 65 or over. Airlie Cazenovia Cresson Diamond Corner National Register of Historic Places listings in Pipestone County, Minnesota Pipestone County government’s website
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol